Nation And Identity

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  • 1. Cultural Identities ‘ Britishness’
  • 2. National Identity
    • Aims:
      • Understanding the origin of national identity and the role of concepts and theories in doing so
      • Understanding what is meant by culture and exploring how national identities are constructed through culture
      • Applying those understandings to a study of representations of British identity in South East Asian film
  • 3. Nation and Identity
    • Tony Parker 1991
    • Identity and its relation to
      • place (different parts of Belfast)
      • nation (Ireland and Britain)
      • religious tradition (Catholic and Protestant)
      • politics (Nationalist and Unionist)
    • Which identity is primary … and in 1991?
  • 4. Nation and Identity
    • Tony Parker 1991
      • What issues of identity are being signalled by the speakers?
      • What is the connection being drawn between identity and place in West Belfast?
  • 5. Where do you come from?
    • What is specific about the place you come from?
      • Language
      • Sports
      • Landscape
      • Monuments
      • Music
      • Weather
      • Qualities that characterise the place
      • Icons
  • 6. Culture & Identity CULTURES IDENTITIES language beliefs/value s signs/symbols art religion can be markers of them and us, origins of sameness and difference can create narratives and rituals that historically define identities can provide core sense of self and community
  • 7. Nations and Nation-States
    • Which of the following are nations and which are nation-states?
      • Britain
      • England
      • Ireland
      • The Republic of Ireland
      • Scotland
      • Wales
      • The United Kingdom
  • 8. Borders: Europe 1000 AD
  • 9. Borders: Europe 1999 AD
  • 10. Definitions
    • Nation state
      • A state which possesses external fixed, known, demarcated borders, and possesses an internal uniformity of rule.
    • Nation
      • A named people who acknowledge a shared solidarity and identity by virtue of a shared culture, history and territorial homeland.
    • Nationalism
      • An emotive identification with a nation and a political project to secure and independent nation-state for a nation.
  • 11. British National Identity
    • What role has culture played in the formation of British national identity?
    • Articles: Times Higher September 3 2004
      • Bernard Crick: There’s a Scot, an Irishman and a man who is confused.
      • Tariq Modood: Defined by some distinct hyphenated Britishness
      • Keith Ward: We love a drop of sherry, but can’t take the strong stuff
      • Keith Hart: It’s falling apart at the seams
  • 12. Approaches: Gellner
    • Ernest Gellner
      • Nations are a modern invention that fit the functional requirements of modern societies.
      • Nations have come into being through modernisation in general and industrialisation in particular.
      • Modernisation requires the development of a common culture and common language.
      • This requires mass education, centrally determined and homogonous which can impose a single language and single culture.
  • 13. Approaches: Anderson
    • Benedict Anderson
      • Concerned with the informal systems of literacy in the process of modernisation. His starting point is the idea of the nation as an imagined community.
        • It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them. (1983: 15)
      • It is imagined as a limited community in a sea of other such communities.
      • It imagined itself as a community of self-rule, as sovereign.
      • Shared literacy + shared language + shared culture = the conditions for the emergence of shared national identity.
      • It needs to be fought for and defended.
  • 14. Approaches: Smith
    • Anthony D. Smith
      • Starts with the concept of an ethnic community. In Europe these communities began to take shape in the Middle Ages.
      • Before nations we find elements of ethnic communities (the Welsh with a shared language: the Scots with their allegiance to a feudal state distinct from the English) which were the raw materials for the creation of the modern nation.
      • The difference between ethnic community and nation is the possession of:
        • An historic territory, or homeland;
        • Common myths and historical memories;
        • A common mass, public culture;
        • Common legal rights and duties for all members;
        • A common economy with territorial mobility for all members. (1986)
  • 15. Summary How might you represent their interrelationships diagrammatically? Nationalism Smith Nation-state Anderson Nation Gellner State Key Theories Key Concepts
  • 16. NATIONS AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES STATES NATION-STATES NATIONALISM POLITICAL CULTURAL national identities can develop to produce nationalism Political nationalism can lead To the creation of nation-states Summary
  • 17. NATIONS AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES STATES NATION-STATES NATIONALISM POLITICAL CULTURAL national identities can develop to produce nationalism Political nationalism can lead To the creation of nation-states 1. 2. 3. ? ? ? Summary
  • 18. Summary Smith Anderson Gellner Fate of other cultures Key claims Origins of nations Key claims Origins of nation-states Key claims Theorist
  • 19. Summary Must begin from pre-modern ethnic cores or ethnies War and inter-state system Smith Can lead to peripheral nationalism Imagined by elites and new mass literate politics War and inter-state system Anderson Peripheral cultures quashed. Folk cultures eradicated Imposed from above, by nation-building state elites Gellner Fate of other cultures Key claims Origins of nations Key claims Origins of nation-states Key claims Theorist
  • 20. Culture & Identity CULTURES IDENTITIES language beliefs/value s signs/symbols art religion can be markers of them and us, origins of sameness and difference can create narratives and rituals that historically define identities can provide core sense of self and community
  • 21. What is Britain?
    • What changed the map and demanded the invention of Britain and Britishness was the 1707 Act of Union. Passed by Westminster it linked Scotland to England and Wales and announced there would be ‘one United Kingdom by the name of Great Britain’.
    • So, there was an embryonic British nation state but no British nation.
    • It was invented around five key pillars. Look at these pillars and try to unpack their importance.
  • 22. What is Britain?
    • Five pillars on which British national identity was invented.
    • Geography
    • Religion
    • War
    • Empire, land and commerce
    • Monarchy
  • 23. Summary
    • The British nation-state created by the 1707 Act of Union, preceded the creation of the a British nation.
    • Prior to the 19 th century, Britishness was contructed around the pillars of geography, protestantism, war, Empire, and monarchy
    • Britishness was initially an elite identity, dominated by Englishness
    • Britishness became a more secure national identity with the advent of industrialisation and mass literacy
    • Pre-existing ethnic allegiances never completely disappeared.