Identity: gender & ethnicity identity and the unconscious
the unconscious ‘ One’s own self is well hidden from one’s own self.’ (Nietzsche) The unconscious and mind Freudian slips The unconscious and irrational forces How does the unconscious shape personal life?
The Oedipus complex <ul><li>all infants begin with an active masculine-orientated sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>biological sex differences are psychologically unimportant at this stage. Only after the phallic stage does biology have a psychological role to play </li></ul><ul><li>sexual and psychological development after the phallic stage diverges. Anxieties over the acquisition of masculinity and femininity come to the fore </li></ul><ul><li>the resolution of the Oedipus complex is different for boys and girls. For boys it is repressed due to the threat of castration by the father; for girls, castration is already imagined. </li></ul>
Psychoanalytic theory & Identity <ul><li>The identity positions we take up may be the result of unconscious feelings which we may try to rationalise but which we do not know for sure </li></ul><ul><li>Many aspects of identity derive from childhood experiences so that identity is constructed from the past as well as through the present </li></ul><ul><li>Identity is not fixed but is the result of a series of conflicts and of different identifications </li></ul><ul><li>Gender and sexuality important in our understanding of identity </li></ul>
Concepts and Theories: Freud <ul><li>Now complete the notes for Freud using the model. </li></ul>Concepts are used to create Theories are used to create Explanations
Concepts and Theories: Freud <ul><li>Unconscious, identification, sexuality, childhood experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s theory argues that identities are formed unconsciously as well as consciously; early childhood experiences are important in shaping the people we become as adults; identities are fragmented, fraught and changing. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to understand identity formation in individuals we have to explore their childhood experiences and the way in which they may have repressed desires into their unconscious. It is also important to think how individuals’ gender and sexual identities are formed through childhood. </li></ul>Concepts are used to create Theories are used to create Explanations