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  • 14/11/11 George Herbert Mead – social philosopher of the 30’s Important because he linked individual’s ability to see ourselves and as others might see us. E.g. Going for an interview and deciding what to wear – suit, jeans, etc. To make the decision you have to look at yourself the way others will look at you, i.e. From the outside. To do this we carry images in our heads – images which are symbols. This is unique to human beings. This is best illustrated with language – a symbolic system which acts as representation. But images work in the same way. We wear the suit – it symbolises – stands for- the sort of person we want the others to think we are – confident, serious etc. So we signal our identities through symbols and representation – these are what produce our identities. It is how we identify with and distinguish ourselves from others. So, how did you decide what to wear this morning? Here’s an example:
  • Session 2: 13 th October 04
  • Identities05

    1. 1. Identities: gender and ethnicity Lecture 05 writing workshop
    2. 2. The four rules <ul><li>Write the answer in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the question asked </li></ul><ul><li>Organise your material into a coherent structure </li></ul><ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Constructing arguments <ul><li>Clearly defined general concepts help us to think about particular examples of a phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts can be combined to generate theories which are frameworks for providing explanations to phenomena </li></ul>
    4. 4. Mead <ul><li>Ideas, images and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals use images and symbols in a process of visualising themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Identity emerges from the individual’s ability to think of him/herself in terms of the community into which s/he has been socialised. This is a conscious, creative and reflective ability </li></ul>Concepts are used to create Theories are used to create Explanations
    5. 5. Goffman <ul><li>Roles, actors, performance, giving off information. </li></ul><ul><li>Identities are acted out in everyday interactions with other people. We act out identities rather like we act our roles in a play where scripts are already written but we have some scope for interpretation and improvisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Identities are social, the product of the society in which we live. People can gain information about themselves and others through the way they behave with each other. This is not always conscious. We find out about how this happens through observation. </li></ul>Concepts are used to create Theories are used to create Explanations
    6. 6. Giddens <ul><li>Reflexivity in the post-traditional society </li></ul><ul><li>We make sense of social life and our place in it through the stories we tell. These stories constitute our autobiographies. </li></ul><ul><li>Identities are autobiographical projects which we negotiate with the cultural resources at our disposal. </li></ul>Concepts are used to create Theories are used to create Explanations
    7. 7. Circuit of Knowledge
    8. 8. Circuit of Knowledge generate structure shape Concepts and Theories
    9. 9. Questions <ul><li>Consider three questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are identities formed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much control do we have in shaping our own identities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there particular uncertainties about identity in the UK today? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. *Image by [email_address] via Flickr
    11. 11. Questions <ul><li>Work-based identities are formed by the interaction of individuals with economic structures which generate a repertoire of roles, symbols and conventions that individuals take up and identify with. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual control over work-based identities are structured, patterned and constrained by the pre-existing conditions of work and distribution of economic opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals may have more choice over whether they choose to identify with work-based identities than other identities such as gender or place. </li></ul><ul><li>For men who have worked in traditional industrial sectors, work-based identities have become more uncertain. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Evidence Background: BOOM TO BUST - THE DECLINE OF THE COTTON INDUSTRY
    13. 13. Evidence
    14. 14. Evidence
    15. 15. How are work-based identities formed? How much control do we have over them? Are there uncertainties about them? Are the experiences of textiles in Manchester representative of post-war UK employment trends? what about the experience of women? personal testimony <ul><li>limits of qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>data </li></ul><ul><li>Need for quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>data </li></ul>work-based identities are created by people taking up roles control over these roles is limited there are uncertainties
    16. 16. Writing <ul><li>Read and understand the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify command words ( discuss, evaluate, explore …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify content words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In your own experience how is work linked to identity? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What sort of work do/did you do? Paid/Unpaid? How much control did/do you have over that identity? Do others define you by the work you do? Do you work with others? Is there a sense of community in the workplace? How important is this work-based identity to you? Does it conflict with other identities you have? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the link between place and identity in your own life? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where you lived or where you call ‘home’. A region/community/country. Do you identify with the place? How? Do others identify you with the place? How? How is the identity associated with this place distinctive? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Writing <ul><li>Identify the relevant materials </li></ul><ul><li>Organise the material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brainstorm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link your ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collate and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create logic through your plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work from your plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write a second draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>review with a (critical) friend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write your final draft for submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sentences structure/grammar/paragraphs/spelling – are your arguments clear? </li></ul></ul></ul>