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Bilingualism1

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  • 1. Language and Society
    Bilinguals and Bilingualism
    1
  • 2. Bilingualism
    Why do we study bilingualism?
    A large proportion of the world’s population knows and uses more than one language on a regular basis. Multilingualism is the norm. More than 140 languages are spoken in Manchester. Language planning (social and educational policy) is a political issue often based on academic research.
    The following slides show the increase in population of hispanics/latinos/as in the US since 1970. The increase has had a marked effect on discussions of bilingualism in the US.
    2
  • 3. 3
    Hispanic Population in the United States: 1970 to 2050
    Population in millions
    Projections
    Census
    *Projected Population as of July 1
    Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 Decennial Censuses; PopulationProjections, July 1, 2010 to July 1, 2050
  • 4. 4
    Percent Hispanic of the Total Population in the United States: 1970 to 2050
    Projections
    Census
    *Projected Population as of July 1
    Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 Decennial Censuses; PopulationProjections, July 1, 2010 to July 1, 2050
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Bilingualism
    Topics in bilingualism
    Who is bilingual? What is a native language?
    How does a child acquire two languages?
    How does bilingualism influence a human being’s intellectual and mental growth?
    When and how should we learn a second language?
    Does a bilingual’s brain function differently from a monolingual’s brain?
    How and when do bilinguals switch from one language to the other?
    9
  • 10. Bilingualism
    True or False?
    Learning more than one language confuses a child and lowers his/her IQ?
    A child should learn one language properly before learning a second one.
    A person cannot be a real bilingual if he learns a second language late.
    Bilinguals have to translate from their weaker to their stronger language.
    Learning two languages may cause cultural identity problems for a child.
    10
  • 11. Bilingualism
    Approaches
    Linguistics – studies the structure and development of the two languages
    Psycholinguistics – studies the psychological basis of bilingual’s language competence and performance
    Sociolinguistics – looks at how cultures/social groups affect language performance and language choice
    Neurolinguistics – studies the relationship between language and the brain
    11
  • 12. Definitions
    Individual bilingualism vs Societal bilingualism
    Bilingualism as an individual attribute: a psychological state of an individual who has access to two language codes to serve communication purposes.
    Bilingualism as a societal attribute: two languages are used in a community and that a number of individuals can use two languages.
    Should bilingualism be defined at an individual or a societal level?
    12
  • 13. Definitions
    5 dimensions
    Cognitive organisation of two languages
    Age of acquisition
    Language proficiency
    Sequence of acquisition of two languages
    Societal factors
    13
    Individual characteristics
  • 14. Compound vs. Coordinate Bilinguals
    Compound bilingual:
    Has one semantic system but two linguistic codes. Usually refers to someone whose two languages are learnt at the same time, often in the same context.
    Coordinate bilingual:
    Has two semantic systems and two linguistic codes. Usually refers to someone whose two languages are learnt in distinctively separate contexts
    Subordinate bilingual:
    The weaker language is interpreted through the stronger language
    14
  • 15. The mental lexicon of monolinguals
    15
  • 16. The mental lexicon of bilinguals
    16
    Semantic
    System 1
    Semantic
    System 2
    Semantic system
    English
    Spanish
    English
    Spanish
    Compound bilingual
    Coordinate bilingual
  • 17. The mental lexicon of bilinguals
    17
    Semantic system
    English
    Spanish
    Subordinate bilingual
  • 18. The mental lexicon of bilinguals
    18
    Semantic
    System 2
    Semantic
    System 2
    Semantic
    System 1
    Semantic
    System 1
    English
    Spanish
    English
    Spanish
  • 19. The mental lexicon of bilinguals
    Whether there are two or more systems depends on:
    Age of acquisition
    Learning/teaching method
    Similarities and differences between the two languages
    19
  • 20. Early vs. Late bilinguals
    Early bilingual:
    someone who has acquired two languages early in childhood (usually received systematic training/learning of a second language before age 6).
    Late bilingual:
    someone who has become a bilingual later than childhood (after age 12).
    Discussion: Is there a “critical period” for second language learning?
    20
  • 21. Early vs. Late bilinguals
    21
    How do we determine the age of acquisition?
  • 22. Balanced vs. Dominant bilinguals
    Balanced bilingual:
    someone whose mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent.
    Dominant bilingual:
    someone with greater proficiency in one of his or her languages and uses it significantly more than the other language.
    Semilingual:
    someone with insufficient knowledge of either language.
    22
  • 23. Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals
    Successive bilingualism:
    Learning one language after already knowing another. This is the situation for all those who become bilingual as adults, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life. Sometimes also called consecutive bilingualism.
    Simultaneous bilingualism:
    Learning two languages as "first languages". That is, a person who is a simultaneous bilingual goes from speaking no languages at all directly to speaking two languages. Infants who are exposed to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals.
    Receptive bilingualism:
    Being able to understand two languages but express oneself in only one. This is generally not considered "true" bilingualism but is a fairly common situation.
    23
  • 24. Additive vs. Subtractive bilinguals
    Additive bilingual:
    The learning of a second language does not interfere with the learning of a first language. Both languages are well developed.
    Subtractive bilingual:
    The learning a second language interferes with the learning of a first language. The second language replaces the first language.
    Additive or subtractive bilingualism is related to the different status associated with the two languages in a society.
    24
  • 25. Elite vs. Folk bilinguals
    Elite bilingual:
    Individuals who choose to have a bilingual home, often in order to enhance social status.
    Folk bilingual:
    Individuals who develop second language capacity under circumstances that are not often of their own choosing, and in conditions where the society does not value their native language.
    25
  • 26. Summary: Definitions
    Coordinate vs. Compound bilingualism
    Early vs. Late bilingualism
    Balanced vs. Dominant bilingualism
    Simultaneous vs. Successive bilingualism
    Additive vs. Subtractive bilingualism
    Elite vs. Folk bilingualism
    26

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