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  • When beginning a complete adult turnkey website design one makes many mistakes and the reason for this article is to ensure that you avoid the major mistakes that put many people right out of business. These are the Five that I feel are incredibly important with regard to long-term business success. http://www.adultwebsiteturnkey.com/
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  • Critical Questions: What items do you want to compare? What characteristics do the items have in common? What are not in common? How are the items similar and different? A Double Cell Diagram is an excellent substitute for a Venn Diagram for comparing likenesses and differences. Good for use with younger children. Use cells and links with younger children to help them create more complex webs and maps in the future. A good tool to launch writing about what is similar and what is not.
  • Critical Questions: What items do you want to compare? What chracteristics do the items have in common (intersecting portions)? How are the items similar and different (nonintersecting portion) based on the characteristics? Use when comparing three items. Can be used with younger and older children. When using more than two items consider using a Comparison Matrix . See Venn Diagram Basic and Double Cell Diagram for comparing two items
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    • 1. Learning Centers ISBN #0-87120-812-1 Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson
    • 2. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 3. Learning Centers
      • How might they best be used to enhance student learning? Share your experiences . . .
      • How are they considered differentiated instruction?
      • What are your recommendations for incorporating this strategy in your classroom?
      • Samples . . .
    • 4. Differentiated Instruction In Action Learning Centers In Mrs. Walker's first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for a period of time each morning. There are two "choice-boards" in the classrooms one called "Teacher Choice" and one called "Student Choice." Each student has at least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred may select from any of 8-12 "pockets" on the student choice board. Those offer a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to model-making. All of the options encourage students to use language in which they find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not the blue row). Often she also "Staggers" center work so that some students work at centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language.
    • 5. Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning
      • Snapshots from Two Primary Classrooms
      • For a part of each day in Mrs. Jasper’s 1 st grade class, students rotate among learning centers. Mrs. Jasper has worked hard for several years to provide a variety of learning centers related to several subject areas. All students go to all learning centers because Mrs. Jasper says they feel it’s unfair if they don’t all do the same thing. Students enjoy the movement and the independence the learning centers provide.
      • Many times, Isabel breezes through the center work. Just as frequently, Jaime is confused about how to do the work. Mrs. Jasper tries to help Jaime as often as she can, but she doesn’t worry so much about Isabel because her skills are well beyond those expected of a 1 st grader.
      • Today, all students in Mrs. Jasper’s class will work in a learning center on compound words. From a list of 10 compound words, they will select and illustrate 5. Later, Mrs. Jasper will ask for volunteers to show their illustrations. She will do this until the students share illustrations for all 10 words.
    • 6. Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning
      • Down the hall, Ms. Cunningham also uses learning centers in her 1 st grade classroom. She, too, has invested considerable time in developing interesting centers on a variety of subjects. Ms. Cunningham’s centers, however, draw upon some of the principles of differentiated classrooms. Sometimes all students work in a particular learning center if it introduces an idea or skill new to everyone. More often, Ms. Cunningham assigns students to a specific learning center, based on her continually developing sense of their individual readiness.
      • Today, her students will also work at a learning center on compound words. Student’s names are listed at the center; one of four colors is beside each name. Each student works with the folder that matches the color beside his or her name. For example, Sam has the color red next to his name. Using the materials in the red folder , Sam must decide the correct order of pairs of words to make familiar compound words. He also will make a poster that illustrates each simple word and the new compound word they form. Using materials in the blue folder , Jenna will look around the classroom
    • 7. Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning
      • and in books to find examples of compound words. She will write them out and illustrate them in a booklet. Using materials in the purple folder , Tjuana will write a poem or a story that uses compound words she generates and that make the story or poem interesting. She then can illustrate the compound words to make the story or poem interesting to look at as well as read. In the green folder , Dillon will find a story the teacher has written. It contains correct and incorrect compound words. Dillon will be a word detective, looking for “villains” and “good-guys” among the compound words. He will create a chart to list the good guys (correct compound words) and the villains (incorrect compound words) in the story. He will illustrate the good guys and list the villains as they are in the story, and then write them correctly.
      • Tomorrow during circle time, all students may share what they did with their compound words. As students listen, they are encouraged to say the thing they like best about each presenter’s work. Ms. Cunningham also will call on a few students who may be reticent to volunteer, asking them if they’d be willing to share what they did at the center (Tomlinson, 1999, pp.3-4) .
    • 8. Cubing Activities
    • 9. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 10. Cubing Activities
    • 11. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 12. Cubing
      • Describe It Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind).
      • Compare It What is it similar to? What is it different from?
      • Associate It What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject.
      • Analyze It Tell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your imagination.
      • Apply It Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used?
      • Argue for It or Against It Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly, anywhere in between.
      Connect It Illustrate It Change It Solve It Rearrange It Question It Cartoon It Satirize It Evaluate It
    • 13. Example question sketch storyboard timeline explain diagram
    • 14.
      • Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or topics?
      • First Step : (use one of the cubes)
        • Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit.
        • Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions.
        • Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit.
        • Keep one question opinion based-no right or wrong.
      • Second Step : (use other cubes)
        • Use the first cube as your “average” cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level.
        • Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level, don’t water down or make too busy!
        • Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing.
        • Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell, adjust slightly.
      • Third Step:
        • Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels.
        • Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions.
        • Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3 cubes?
        • Places to get questions:
        • Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated.
      Creating a Cubing Exercise Compare one of the story characters to yourself. How are you alike and how are you different?
    • 15. Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube
      • Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________
      • Make a body sculpture to show__________________
      • Create a dance to show_______________________
      • Do a mime to help us understand_________________
      • Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement that________________________
      • Build/construct a representation of________________
      • Make a living mobile that shows and balances the elements of __________________
      • Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of ________________
      • Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.
    • 16. Ideas for Cubing in Math…
      • Describe how you would solve_____________
      • Analyze how this problem helps us use
      • mathematical thinking and problem solving.
      • Compare this problem to one on p._____
      • Contrast it too.
      • Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular
      • person) could apply this kind of problem to their work
      • or life.
      • Change one or more numbers (elements, signs) in
      • the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.
      • Create an interesting and challenging word
      • problem from the number problem. (Show us how to
      • solve it too)
      • Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem.
      • Interpret the visual so we understand.
    • 17. Cubing Fractions
      • Each student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1 st dice/cube tells students what to do with a fraction.
      • Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest.
      • Add 2 rolled fractions together.
      • Subtract 2 rolled fractions.
      • Divide 2 rolled fractions.
      • Multiply 2 rolled fractions.
      • Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper.
      • The 2 nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on student number readiness.
      Lynne Beauprey, Illinois
    • 18. The Cube
      • First graders have been studying weather. They visit the Review Center at various times throughout the week as a way to review what they have learned about weather.
      • Draw it Associate it
      • Divide your paper into 4 sections. Choose one type of weather.
      • Label each section with a season and Create a web with this weather in the
      • draw what the playground might look like. Center. Write words in the bubble
      • connecting to the center that describe
      • Compare it how you feel when you see it.
      • Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram
      • to compare them. Describe it
      • Work with a partner.
      • Draw a card from the jar.
      • Explain it Describe the weather type on the card
      • Talk with a partner about your favorite so your partner can guess.
      • type of weather.
      • Analyze it
      • Work with a partner.
      • Read a book about rain.
      • Talk about why we need rain.
      Jessica Ramsey/2004 Adapted slightly from: http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/Cubing
    • 19. Describe your favorite picture in the Story Family Pictures. Tell why you picked that one. List words that describe your feelings about the Mexican as you look at each picture in the story. Using a Venn Diagram, chart your favorite things and compare them to the favorite things you found in the story. Find common areas that you and the story share. Compare your favorite picture in the story to a similar activity in your life. You may use words and/or pictures. Analyze the favorite things in the story by understanding why these might be traditions in the culture. If you were a researcher asked about the important things in the Mexican culture, what would you say? Justify why it is important to meet people who speak a different language and have a different culture. Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska Red Cube Using Family Pictures by Carmen Lomas Garza
    • 20. Describe the Mexican culture using at least three sentences with three describing words in each sentence. Choreograph a dance or mime to represent the three main ideas that you learned about the Mexican culture. Find and critique another story at the reading center. Compare it to Family Pictures and discuss what elements you liked and did not like of either story. Compare, using the compare and contrast graphic organizer and look at areas of food, shelter, traditions, family life, and recreational activities. Create your own family album by drawing at least five special activities your family shares. Pretend that you are a child from Mexico. Tell me about your day. What would your chores be? What would you eat? How would you spend your free time? Tell me why? Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska Orange Cube
    • 21. Cubing with Charlotte’s Web
      • Basic Cube
      • Draw Charlotte as you think she looks.
      • Use a Venn diagram and compare Charlotte and Fern.
      • Use a comic strip to tell what happened in this chapter.
      • Shut your eyes and describe the barn. Jot down your ideas.
      • Predict what will happen in the next chapter using symbols.
      • In your opinion, why is Charlotte a good friend?
      • Abstract Cube
      • Use a graphics program on the computer and create a character web for Wilbur.
      • Use symbols on a Venn diagram to compare Wilbur and Charlotte.
      • Draw the farm and label the items, people, and buildings.
      • Use a storyboard to show the progress of the plot to this point.
      • What is the message that you think the writer wants people to remember? Draw a symbol that illustrates your ideas.
      • When you think of the title, do you agree or disagree that it is a good choice? Why or why not?
    • 22. Anderson,Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrick, Raths, Wittrock, Eds. (2001). A taxonomy for l learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives . New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
    • 23. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 24.
      • In 1948 an informal meeting held in Boston was attended by a group of college and university examiners who believed that a common framework for classifying intended student learning outcomes could promote the exchange of test items, testing procedures, and ideas about testing. As examiners, these individuals were responsible for preparing, administering, scoring, and reporting results of comprehensive examinations for undergraduate courses taught at their respective universities.
      • Since developing good multiple-choice items is time-consuming, the examiners hoped to create significant labor savings by facilitating the exchange of items. They proposed to establish a standard vocabulary for indicating what an item was intended to measure. Such regularized meanings were to result from a set of carefully defined categories and subcategories into which any educational objective and, therefore, any test item could be classified. Initially the framework could be limited to the mainstays of all instruction, cognitive objectives.
      Bloom's Taxonomy History Anderson, Krathwohl, et al., 2001
    • 25.
      • The original group always considered the framework a work in progress, neither finished nor final. Indeed, only the cognitive domain was developed initially. The affective domain was developed later (Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, 1964), and although both Simpson (1966) and Harrow (1972) provided frameworks for the psychomotor domain, the original group never did.
      • Further, there was a great deal of concern among the members of the original group that the Taxonomy would freeze thought, stifling the development of new frameworks. That this did not occur is evident from the many alternative frameworks that have been advanced since the Handbook was published.
      • In a memorandum circa 1971 Bloom stated: “Ideally each major field should have its own taxonomy of objectives in its own language – more detailed, closer to the special language and thinking of its experts, reflecting its own appropriate sub-divisions and levels of education, with possible new categories, combination of categories and omitting categories as appropriate.”
      Bloom's Taxonomy History Anderson, Krathwohl, et al., 2001, p. xxvii
    • 26. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
      • The Knowledge Dimension
      • Factual Knowledge
        • Knowledge of terminology
        • Knowledge of specific details and elements
      • Conceptual Knowledge
        • Knowledge of classifications and categories
        • Knowledge of principles and generalizations
        • Knowledge of theories, models, and structures
    • 27. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
      • The Knowledge Dimension
      • Procedural Knowledge
        • Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms
        • Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods
        • Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures
      • Metacognitive Knowledge
        • Strategic knowledge
        • Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge
        • Self-knowledge
    • 28. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
      • The Cognitive Dimension
        • REMEMBER
          • 1.1 Recognizing
          • 1.2 Recalling
        • UNDERSTAND
          • 2.1 Interpreting
          • 2.2 Exemplifying
          • 2.3 Classifying
          • 2.4 Summarizing
          • 2.5 Inferring
          • 2.6 Comparing
          • 2.7 Explaining
        • APPLY
          • 3.1 Executing
          • 3.2 Implementing
    • 29. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
      • The Cognitive Dimension
        • ANALYZE
          • 4.1 Differentiate
          • 4.2 Organizing
          • 4.3 Attributing
        • 5. EVALUATE
          • 5.1 Checking
          • 5.2 Critiquing
        • 6. CREATE
          • 6.1 Generating
          • 6.2 Planning
          • 6.3 Producing
    • 30. Revised Taxonomy Review The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong.
      • Which British novelist wrote Charles Dickens ?
      • What would happen if there was a flat income tax rather than a graduated income tax?
      • Was that report written from a pro-environment or pro-business point of view?
      • Write the numbers that are needed to solve this problem: Pencils come in packages that contain 12 each and cost $2.00 each. John has $5.00 and wishes to buy 24 pencils. How many packages does he need to buy?
    • 31. Revised Taxonomy Review The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong.
      • Density = Mass/Volume: What is the density of a material with a mass of 18 pounds and a volume of 9 cubic inches?
      • What are the positive and negatives consequences of the year-round proposal for schools?
      • Locate an inorganic compound and tell why it is inorganic.
      • “ Nation” is to “president” as “state is to ___________.
      • Why does air enter a bicycle tire pump when you pull up on the handle?
    • 32. Revised Taxonomy Review The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong.
      • Solve for x: x 2 + 2x – 3 = 0 using the technique of completing the square.
      • In your review of the chemistry experiment report, do you believe the author’s conclusion follows from the results of the experiment?
      • What is the author’s purpose in writing the essay you read on the Amazon rain forests?
      • What alternative methods could you use to find what whole numbers yield 60 when multiplied together?
      • The student will be able to generate alternative ways of increasing the brightness of the light in a circuit without changing the battery.
    • 33. RAFT Doug Buehl cited in: Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who BillMeyer & Martin, 1998
    • 34. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 35. R A F T Assignments
      • What is it?
      • R ole A udience F ormat T opic
      • How might I use it?
      • Examples . . .
    • 36.
      • An AUDIENCE of fellow writers, students, citizens, characters, etc.
      • The ROLE of writer, speaker, artist, historian, etc.
      • How to produce a written, spoken, drawn, acted, etc. FORMAT
      • A deeper level of content within the TOPIC studied.
      •  
      R A F T ING HELPS A STUDENT UNDERSTAND:
    • 37. RAFT
      • RAFT is an acronym that stands for
      • R ole of the writer. What is the writer’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness?
      • A udience . Who will be reading this writing: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor?
      • F ormat . What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem?
      • T opic . Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?
    • 38. RAFT Activities Role Audience Format Topic Gingerbread Man Our Class Oral Response I never should have listened to the fox Squanto Other Native Americans Pictographs I can help the inept settlers Band Member Other Band Members Demo Tape Here’s how it goes Monet Van Gogh Letter I wish you’d shed more light on the subject Water Vapor Water A Love Letter You make me so hot Battery Loose Wire A Newspaper Article Man has shocking experience Multiplication Fact Division Fact Invitation to a Family Reunion Here’s how we’re related
    • 39. R.A.F.T. Role Audience Format Topic
    • 40. A RAFT is …
      • … an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum
      • … a way to encourage students to…
        • … assume a role
        • … consider their audience , while
        • … examine a topic from their chosen perspective, and
        • … writing in a particular forma t
      • All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice , appealing to their interests and learning profiles , and adapting to student readiness levels.
    • 41. RAFT s can…
      • Be differentiated in a variety of ways: readiness level, learning profile, and/or student interest
      • Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank row for that option
      • Be used as introductory “hooks” into a unit of study
      • Keep one column consistent while varying the other columns in the RAFT grid
    • 42. RAFT: ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC
    • 43. Sample RAFT Strips Language Arts Science History Math Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who? , Billmeyer and Martin, 1998 Role Audience Format Topic Semicolon Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot A Few Things You Should Know Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product Life Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Note Before It’s Too Late Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010 Speech The Dream Revisited Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia Full page newspaper ad If I could Talk to You Now Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family A word problem Students in your class Set of directions How to Get to Know Me
    • 44. Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Gingerbread Man Our Class Oral Response I never should have listened to the fox Squanto Other Native Americans Pictographs I can help the inept settlers Band Member Other Band Members Demo Tape Here’s how it goes Positive Numbers Negative Numbers Dating Ad Opposites Attract Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Song Must you go on forever? Decimals Fractions Poem Don’t you get my point? Perimeter Area Diary Entry How your shape affects me Monet Van Gogh Letter I wish you’d shed more light on the subject! Joan of Arc Self Soliloquy To recant, or not to recant; that is the question Tree Urban Sprawl Editorial My life is worth saving Thoreau Public of his day Letter to the Editor Why I moved to the pond Young Chromosome Experienced Chromosome Children’s Book What becomes of us in mitosis? First Grader Kindergartner Ad What’s best about 1 st grade?
    • 45. RAFT Strips, cont’d Role Audience Format Topic Hal (Henry V, Part 1) Self Diary Entry My friend Falstaff-past, present, future Magnet First Graders Letter Here’s what I’m attracted to… Transparency Slide Show Personal Ad Spruce up your presentation LBJ Viet Nam Vet Apology Letter What was I thinking… Computer Fifth Graders Flow Chart Turning data into a graph with EXCEL P Waves S Waves Dear John Letter Why we have to stop seeing each other Carbon Atom Hydrogen Atom Personal Ad Atom seeking atom A Variable in an Equation Real Numbers Ad for the Circus What is my value in the balancing act? Return Key Middle Schoolers Captain Kirk’s Bulletin to his crew When to beam to another paragraph Conductor The Band Mime How to play this style of music Basic Multiplication Fact Basic Division Fact Invitation to a family reunion Here’s how we’re related
    • 46. Grade 6 Social Studies RAFT
      • Students will
      • Know:
      • Names and roles of groups in the feudal class system.
      • Understand:
      • Roles in the feudal system were interdependent. A person’s role in the feudal system will shape his/her perspective on events.
      • Be Able to Do:
      • Research
      • See events through varied perspectives
      • Share research & perspectives with peers
    • 47. Feudal System Raft cont’d Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman Role Audience Format Topic King The Subjects Proclamation Read My Lips, New Taxes Knight Squire Job Description Chivalry, Is it for You? Lord King Contract Let’s Make a Deal Serf Animals Lament Poem My So Called Life Monk Masses Illuminated Manuscript Do As I Say, Not As I Do Lady Pages Song ABC, 123
    • 48. Self Portrait RAFT High School Art
      • Students will
      • Know:
      • Characteristics of self portrait
      • Appropriate use of artistic materials
      • Principles of Design
      • Definition of artistic expression
      • Understand:
      • Each artist has a personal style
      • Personal style reflects the individual’s culture, time, and personal experiences.
      • Use of materials and style are related
      • Be Able to Do:
      • Analyze an artist’s personal style and use of materials
      • Create a facsimile of an artist’s personal style and use of materials
    • 49. Self Portrait RAFT Role Audience Format Topic Norman Rockwell Masses Illustration What You See is What You Get Van Gogh Self Oil Painting Can I Find Myself In Here? Andy Warhol Someone you want to know the true you Photograph Now you see Me, Now you Don’t Rueben Self Oil Painting Props Make the Person Goya School Charcoal On the Side, but Central
    • 50. RAFT Assignments Grade 10 English
      • Know: Voice, Tone, Style
      • Understand:
      • Every writer has a voice
      • Voice is shaped by life experiences and reflects the writer
      • Voice shapes expression
      • Voice affects communication
      • Voice and style are related
      • Be Able to Do:
      • Describe a writers voice and style
      • Mimic a writer’s voice and style
      • Create a piece of writing that reflects a writer’s voice and style
      Role Audience Format Topic Edgar Allen Poe 10th grade writers Letter Here’s how I found my voice Garrison Keillor 10th grade writers E mail Here’s how I found my voice Emily Dickinson Self Diary entry Looking for my voice 10th grader English teacher Formal request Please help me find my voice Teacher 10th graders Interior monologue Finding a balance between voice and expectations 3 authors The public Visual symbols/logos annotated Here’s what represents my voice 3 authors from different genre One another Conversation What shaped my voice and style
    • 51. RAFT Planning Sheet
      • Know
      • Understand
      • Do
      • How to Differentiate:
      • Tiered? (See Equalizer)
      • Profile? (Differentiate Format)
      • Interest? (Keep options equivalent in learning)
      • Other?
      Role Audience Format Topic
    • 52. Graphic Organizers
    • 53. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 54. Graphic Organizers
      • How do they address the diverse needs of students?
      • Under what conditions might they best be used
      • Examples….
      • Suggestions…
      • Resources [www.graphicorganizers.com]
    • 55. Graphic Organizer: Identifying Similarities and Differences COMPARISON MATRIX Nutrients Items to Be Compared Apples Oranges Pears Grapes Calcium Vitamin C Sugar Content Fiber Juice
    • 56. Double Cell Diagram Two items linked by characteristics or attributes.
    • 57. Venn Diagram Expanded Three items linked by characteristics or attributes
    • 58. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Venn Diagram (a visual display of similarities & differences )
    • 59.  
    • 60. Used to show the interaction of a complex event or complex phenomenon
    • 61.  
    • 62.  
    • 63. defining the components of the problem and attempted solutions
    • 64. Used to describe the stages of something, the steps in a linear procedure, a sequence of events or the goals, actions, and outcomes of a historical figure or character in a novel
    • 65.  
    • 66. Graphic Organizers
      • A graphic organizer forms a powerful visual picture of information and allows the mind to see patterns and relationships.
      http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/torganiz.htm http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2grap.htm
    • 67. Graphic Organizers http://webcenter.netscape.teachervision.com/ http://www2.sandi.net/ocean/go.html Ocean Beach Elementary School Download graphic organizers and keep them in a file for student use. Graphic organizers can be extended to make them more complex. On this graphic organizer have some students justify their selections and provide evidence of how these events have shaped our lives today.
    • 68. Complex Instruction
    • 69. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 70. Complex Instruction As Interpreted by Carol Tomlinson, University of Virginia
      • Materials and instructions must be in multiple languages so that all students have their language represented. Pictorial/visual representations are also helpful.
      • Reading and writing are integrated into the task in ways which make them a means to accomplish a fascinating end.
      • Multiple intelligences should be drawn upon in a real world way.
      • Tasks must require many different talents in order to be completed adequately.
      • Teachers move among groups, asking questions about student work and thought, probing decisions, and facilitating understanding.
      • Teachers methodically engage in “assignment of status” (looking for student strengths, especially nontraditional areas), and pointing them out to the class with explanations of why the skills are important ones in the real world.
      • Teachers delegate authority for learning increasing it over time as they support students in gaining skills needed to manage the authority well.
    • 71. Complex Instruction Elements
      • Students work together in small groups (heterogeneous in nature) at learning centers on a task which calls upon the skills of all students in the group.
      • Groups change often so all students in a class work with all others in variety of contexts.
      • Multilingual groups must include a bilingual student to serve as a bridge. Students are encouraged to speak in their own language in the group.
      • Tasks must be open-ended.
      • Tasks must be intrinsically interesting to the students.
      • The tasks must be uncertain (fuzzy).
      • The tasks must be challenging.
      • Tasks must involve the use of real objects.
    • 72. A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for Tenth Graders in English
      • The task card reads:
      • We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are like metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds—including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The Road Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a metaphor for Frost’s life. To do that, you should:
      • Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s going on with it and what it means.
    • 73. A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for Tenth Graders in English (cont’d.)
      • Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar to the ones you created for your own life earlier this month.
      • Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating human meaning, and details of the people and poem with whom/which you are working.
      • As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor. Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and group conference times. In the end, be ready to share the rubric by which your group’s work should be assessed (including required elements as well as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten minute question exchange with others in the class who view your work.
    • 74. Virginia History and Geography
      • Key Concepts and Understandings:
      • Locations of places can be describe using terms that show relationships.
      • Locations of places can be described using reference systems on maps.
      • Reasons can be identified for locations of places.
      • Relationships within places include how people depend upon the environment.
      • Places may be represented and described in many different ways.
      • Key Skills:
      • Reading maps (d)
      • Using and making symbols (d)
      • Inference/drawing conclusions (r)
      • Use of research to achieve understanding (b)
      • Planning (t)
      • Writing (b)
      • Collaboration (s)
      • Key Facts:
      • Essential vocabulary (legend, latitude, longitude, Mid-Atlantic Region, Atlantic Ocean)
      • Geographic regions of Virginia (e.g., Tidewater, Piedmont, etc.)
      • Key features of each Virginia region
    • 75. Getting Acquainted with Virginia
      • A Complex Instruction Task for 4 th Graders
      • You’ll soon be on your way to learning more about Virginia than most adults know. Here’s a way to start becoming experts. This task is designed to draw on the strengths of everyone in your group. Six task cards will help you know what you need to do.
      • Task Card No. 1
      • Give as many ways as you can to locate Virginia (where is it in relation to bodies of water, continents, other states, in the U.S.). Find an interesting and useful way to show us what you figure out about Virginia’s location.
      • Task Card No. 2
      • Use reference systems (like numbered grids, latitude, longitude, parallels and meridians) to locate Virginia precisely on globes and maps. Create a set of instructions we can use to locate Virginia as you did. Assume we know nothing about using maps an globes.
    • 76. Getting Acquainted with Virginia A Complex Instruction Task for 4 th Graders
      • Task Card No. 3
      • Draw or sketch places in Virginia with large populations. Create symbols for a map that help us figure out why so many people live there and post them on a blank map. Make legend to help us interpret the symbols. Do the same with great Virginia places for recreation (sketches, symbols/legend).
      • Task Card No. 4
      • Find 4 cities or towns in Virginia where important or famous people lived. Have each of the people talk to us about that place, what it was like to be there, how they influenced the place and how the place influenced them.
      • Task Card No. 5
      • Select one of the people in #4 and complete a “Now and Then” chart to show what these things were like in that person’s town when they were there and what they would be like now: transportation, recreation, population size, major ways of making money, important resources, life span, ways of communicating. It’s fine to draw and/or write on the chart.
    • 77. Getting Acquainted with Virginia A Complex Instruction Task for 4 th Graders
      • Task Card No. 6
      • Interview someone that has lived in our town a very long time. Find out what has changed, what has stayed the same, what seems better, what seems worse, interesting things the person has done while they’ve lived here, and other things you think are interesting. Get the person to tell you a story about something that happened here. Find a way to help us get to know this person – and this town through the eyes of this person.
      • This Complex Instruction task draws on the following intellectual skills:
      • Fluency – generating many ideas
      • Spatial interpretation (figuring out codes)
      • Translation of print ideas into oral/visual form (creativity)
      • Reading and research
      • Dramatic ability
      • Questioning/interviewing
      • Planning/evaluating plans
    • 78. A Complex Instruction Task for Middle School U.S. History
      • Background: The class is studying the pre-Civil War era. An emphasis is on change and the courage required for change. They are exploring change in economics, beliefs, views of government, and culture during this time. One book they are reading in common is Get On Board: The Story of the Underground Railroad by Jim Haskins.
      • The Task: For six weeks, students work in groups of six on their Complex Instruction task as they do many other in-class tasks related to their topic and concepts. The teacher often relates class work and discussion to the CI task. Sometimes students will have all or part of a class period to work on the CI task. The CI task is often homework as well.
      • The CI Instructions
      • Your group must develop and write a scenario (probably at least 5 pages in length) that describes a time, place, and set of circumstances in which your CI task will be rooted.
      • One or more slaves will try to flee to freedom.
      • Who are they?
      • What are their circumstances?
      • Be sure to include location, time in history, living circumstances over an extended period, gender, age, family, and stories that help us experience their world and thought.
    • 79. Middle School U.S. History
      • Each person in your group must take on a role. Here are your choices:
        • A slave fleeing
        • An abolitionist
        • A Quaker
        • A slave owner
        • A freed slave
        • A Native American
        • Another role of your choice (clear it with the teacher)
      • Everyone’s role must be rooted in your group scenario.
      • Through research, reading and class, gather data about your role and one other role adopted by someone in your group. In the end, each role should be researched by 2 group members to provide greater insight and maximum data. You have primary responsibility for “your” role, but secondary responsibility to help someone else achieve a rich and accurate understanding of “their” role.
      • Generate as many data sheets as you can about “your” own role and your secondary role. There’ll be times to share written work.
    • 80. Middle School U.S. History
      • Create your own rich, historically defensible framework of your group scenario. Be sure to include detail that reflects:
        • Political and economic events
        • Culture of the person and times
        • Culture of others involved in your scenario
        • The Underground Railroad experience
        • Relevant laws
        • Tensions leading to the Civil War
      • We’ll use a rubric so you’re sure how to do a high quality job.
      • Be sure the underlying theme of your work reflects issues of courage and change. (Include fear, loss, gain, and resolve to act.)
      • You will have several opportunities (with assigned roles) to take part in history circles with your group so you can learn from and help one another. A big point here is to give everyone a chance to see similar events through different eyes.
      • Ultimately, you will need to be a part of either two or three depiction teams which literally “show” us the essence of what it was like to be a part of the unfolding scenario at a key point. You can negotiate with the teacher what your assignments will be. Among forms your depictions can take are:
        • A speech
        • A sermon
        • An oral story
        • A written story
        • Paintings or drawings with narration cards
    • 81. Middle School U.S. History
        • Songs with narration
        • A book chapter
        • An interior monologue
        • A series of letters
        • A trial enactment
        • An annotated and illustrated timeline
        • A series of editorials from a specified newspaper
        • A set of contrasting editorials from contrasting newspapers
        • A format or your choice (clear this with your teacher)
      • Whatever your depictions, they must include at least three perspectives on events – all of them accurate in historical detail and rich in insight.
      • In the end, your group will exhibit for one or more groups who will respond to your work – as will at least one adult.
      • There will be time in class to learn, ask questions, show ideas, get unstuck, and plan.
      • If you have other ideas to make your work more interesting, let me know!
    • 82.   ThinkDots    An Instructional Strategy for Differentiation by Readiness, Interest or Learning Style   Kay Brimijoin, 1999
    • 83. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 84. ThinkDOTs
      •  
      • After a conceptual unit has been presented and students are familiar with the ideas and associated skills, “Think DOTS” is an excellent activity for students to construct meaning for themselves about the concept they are studying. The instructor first defines readiness levels, interests or learning styles in the class, using on-going assessment.
      • Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die, and an activity sheet. Each student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Each student then completes the activity on the activity sheet.
      • Materials:
      • 1.        8 ½ x 11 inch paper
      • 2.       Hole punch
      • 3.       Metal or plastic rings
      • 4.      Dice
      • 5. Scissors
      • 6. Markers or dots
      • 7. Laminating materials
    • 85. ThinkDOTs pg. 2
      •   Construction:
      • 1.   For each readiness level, six activities should be created.
      • 2.   On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six sections (this can be done easily on the computer by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as a template), the activities should be written or typed in each section.
      • 3.   On the back of each page, dots corresponding to the dots on the faces of a die should be either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery adhesive dots) on each of the six sections of the page.
      • 4.   The pages should be laminated for durability.
      • 5.   Then each page should be cut into the six sections.
      • 6.   Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each activity card.
      • 7.   Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set of six cards together
      • 8.     Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management.
    • 86. ThinkDOTs pg. 3
      • Suggestions:
      • 1.    Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles.
      • 2.    Have students work in pairs.
      • 3.    Let students choose which activities – for example; roll the die and choose any three; create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days.
      • 4.    After students have worked on activity cards individually, have them come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to synthesize 
    • 87. ThinkDOTs pg. 4
      • Application:
      • 1.   Use “ThinkDOTS” to lead students into deeper exploration of a concept.
      • 2.   Use “ThinkDOTS” for review before assessment.
      • 3.   Use “ThinkDOTS” as an assessment.
    • 88.      Space Think DOTS
      • ThinkDOTS were used as a final assessment and to complete research after a
      • full unit of study about space. Students worked in groups of 2-4 over two plus
      • weeks to complete ThinkDOTS tasks and then presented what they had learned
      • to the school and parents.
      • KNOW:
      • Key vocabulary - astronomer, atmosphere, axis, constellation, gravity, moon,
      • orbit, phase, planet, revolution, rotation, solar, system, star (X Factor, crater,
      • eclipse, flare, galaxy, meteorite, nebula, sunspot)
      • Components of the solar system
      • Physical characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and Earth
      • Four seasons and their characteristics
      • Objects that move in the sky
      Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4 th Grades Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona 1
    • 89.      UNDERSTAND:
      • DO :
      • Identify the solar system and the planets in relationship to the sun
      • Describe and compare the physical-characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and Earth
      • Identify objects that move in the sky
      • Describe patterns of change visible in the sky over time
      • Observe and record phases of the moon, positions of constellations
      • Identify the seasons and their characteristics
      • Distinguish between revolution and rotation and demonstrate the difference
      • Use a variety of resources, including the internet, to complete research
      • Work cooperatively in a group
      • Plan, design, conduct, and report on the conclusions of basic experiments
      • Construct models to illustrate concepts, compare those models to what they represent
      • Set goals and evaluate progress.
      • Organize and present information
      Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4 th Grades • Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, AZ The parts of the solar system influence one another and appear to be a unified whole. The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth have different physical characteristics and regular movements that result in daily, monthly, and yearly patterns. Scientific investigation of the solar system has an impact on human activity and the environment and is is a result of the contribution of many people. 2
    • 90.  Space ThinkDOTS (1) Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4 th Grades • Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona Build a model of the solar system and label its parts. Show why it is a system. Create a mobile to show the 4 major phases of the moon. Be sure to put them in the order in which they occur . Use words, pictures, and color to complete attribute webs for the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. List the similarities and differences you find.                Illustrate the key vocabulary for our space study. Write the word under each picture. Be sure to check your spelling. Plan a skit that will show you understand the characteristic of the four seasons and when they happen. Be ready to answer questions from the audience. You are an astronomer and have discovered another planet in our solar system. Describe the planet’s location and attributes. Draw a picture and name your planet.       3
    • 91.  Space ThinkDOTS (2) Multi-age Classrooms: 3rd & 4th Grades Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona Draw and label a map of our solar system to scale. Describe why it is considered a system. Demonstrate that you know all the phases of the moon and why they occur. You are from another galaxy going to explore the solar system’s Sun, Earth, and Moon. What will you take with you? What will you find there? What useful information will you take back to your galaxy? Share your findings with the earthlings in our class.                Create an illustrated glossary for a book about how the objects in our solar system move in space and are related to one another. Use the key vocabulary from our space study. Be sure to check your spelling. Prove why we have seasons. Create a way to show us what would happen without the rotation and revolution of the Earth. You are an astronomer and have discovered another space system. Find a way to tell us all about it and what makes it a system.        4
    • 92.  Space ThinkDOTS (3) Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4th Grades Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona Develop a way to categorize the planets in our solar system and their relationship to the sun. Why is it considered to be a system? Demonstrate that you know all the phases of the moon and why they occur. You are from another galaxy going to explore the solar system’s Sun, Earth, and Moon. What will you take with you? What will you find there? What useful information will you take back to your galaxy? Share your findings with the earthlings in our class.                If you were going to teach a unit on space, what key vocabulary would you want your students to under- stand? List the words, their meanings, and how you would teach each one. Compare and contrast the movement in space that causes day and night to the movement that creates the seasons. If you were an astronomer, predict what your job would be like during the next 10 years. What might you discover?.         5
    • 93. ALGEBRA THINK DOTS Level I
      • a, b, c and d each represent a different value. If a = 2, find b, c, and d.
      • a + b = c
      • a - c = d
      • a + b = 5
      • 2. Explain the mathematical reasoning involved in solving card 1.
      • 3. Explain in words what the equation 2x + 4 = 10 means. Solve the problem.
      • 4. Create an interesting word problem that is modeled by 8x- 2 = 7x.
      • 5. Diagram how to solve 2x = 8.
      • 6. Explain what changing the “3” in 3x = 9 to a “2” does to the value of x.
      • Why is this true?
    • 94. ALGEBRA THINK DOTS Level 2 Level 2: 1. a, b, c and d each represent a different value. If a = -1, find b, c, and d. a + b = c b + b= d c - a + -a 2. Explain the mathematical reasoning involved in solving card l. 3. Explain how a variable is used to solve word problems. 4. Create an interesting word problem that is modeled by 2x + 4 = 4x - 10. Solve the problem. 5. Diagram how to solve 3x + 1 = 10. 6. Explain why x = 4 in 2x = 8. But x = 16 in 1/2x = 8. Why does this make sense?
    • 95. Level 3: 1. a, b, c and d each represent a different value. If a = 4, find b, c, and d. a + c = b b - a = c cd= -d d + d = a 2. Explain the mathematical reasoning involved in solving card l. 3. Explain the role of a variable in mathematics. Give examples. 4. Create an interesting word problem that is modeled by 3x - 1< 5x + 7. Solve the problem. 5. Diagram how to solve 3x + 4 = x + 12. 6. Given ax = 15, explain how x is changed if a is large or a is small in value. Algebra Think Dots Level 3
    • 96. Think Dots: Grade 2 Math
      • What students should know
        • Count by fives
        • Count up to sixty
        • Tell time to the half hour
        • 4 quarters is equal $1.00
        • 3 fives makes fifteen
        • There is quarter after and a quarter till
        • Clock is divided into 4 parts and is similar to 4 quarters
        • equaling $1.00
      • What students should understand
        • Time helps people plan their lives better.
        • Time helps people communicate.
      • What students should be able to do
        • Tell time to the quarter hour
    • 97. Think Dots: Grade 2 Math
      • Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clock.
      • Think Dots Version 1: Time
      The Think Dots could be used the following ways: Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment Dawn LoCassale ● How many fives are in the number 60? ●● If it is 5:15pm, how many minutes after 5 is it? ●●● How many minutes are in quarter after 2:00? ●● ●● A soccer player has practice at 6:00pm. Draw what the clock face would look like if soccer practice were an hour and fifteen minutes. ●● ● ●● How many minutes are in quarter till 3:00? ●●● ●●● Create an interesting word problem using the times 4:00pm and 5:15pm.
    • 98. Think Dots: Grade 2 Math
      • Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clock.
      • Think Dots Version 2: Time
      The Think Dots could be used the following ways: Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment Dawn LoCassale ● Explain the similarities between quarter till and quarter after. ●● It is 4:15pm and dinner starts at 6:00pm. How many minutes until dinner? ●●● Explain the difference between 5:15 and 5:45. ●● ●● It’s 3:15 in Egypt. What do you think the people of Egypt are doing? ●● ● ●● Create a word problem using the times 9:00pm and 7:00am. ●●● ●●● Explain the difference between 12:00am and 12:00pm.
    • 99. Create an ad for a good that Ancient Greece and Rome did NOT trade with Egypt. Make your ad convincing enough that an Egyptian will want to buy your good. Illustrate, explain, video or record these definitions (in your own words): Interdependence Economic Specialization Government Services Taxation or Taxes Opportunity Cost Scarcity Price Savings Investments Could you live without goods, service or money? Defend your position. Research goods and services in Greece, Rome, or Jamestown today. Compare and contrast with goods and services in those places long ago. Create a map of Europe and Jamestown that illustrates the concept of interdependence between the two. Be sure to include a key of any symbols used. Pretend you are running for office. Defend raising taxes for a government service of your choice.
    • 100. Research what goods are traded between Greece and Rome and Egypt today. Compare and contrast with goods that were traded long ago. Illustrate, explain, video or record these definitions (in your own words): Interdependence Economic Specialization Government Services Taxation or Taxes Opportunity Cost Scarcity Price Savings Investments What kinds of choices do you and your family make based on goods, services, and savings? Why? Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast goods and services produced in Greece, Rome, or Jamestown. Choose two places to compare. Use a storyboard to create a story about what happens to a bale of tobacco and a barrel of peanuts when they leave the farmlands of Jamestown and head for Europe. Explain what happens and why. Create 3 fib game cards listing government services paid for by taxes. Add a question on each card asking why the fib is a fib and why taxes wouldn't be used to pay for it.
    • 101. What goods did Ancient Greece and Rome trade with Egypt? Illustrate and label and explain why they traded each good. Record or write a story about a French cloth maker and a Jamestown farmer. Tell how they depend on each other. Name two goods and services that you depend on today. How do you get them? On a chart, list the goods and services produced in Greece, Rome, and Jamestown long ago. Illustrate, explain, video or record these definitions (in your own words): Interdependence Economic Specializations Government Services Taxation or Taxes Opportunity Cost Scarcity Price Savings Investments Using pictures from magazines, creates a collage of government services that you would be willing to pay taxes for.
    • 102.
      • Visit: www.emule.com/poetry/ and click on the link for the top ten poems. Read several poems and select one that you really like. Print out the poem and write a short explanation on why you enjoyed this poem. Look up unfamiliar words. Explain what you believe the poem to mean.
      • Make a great big list (30 or more) of pairs of words that rhyme. Write a poem using one of the pair of words you have chosen. You can use any form of poetry you desire.
      • Remember a quatrain is a poem written in four verses with different rhyme patterns. There are many ways to write a quatrain: a,a,b,b; a,b,c,b; or a,b,a,b. Your task is to write two quatrains. Be creative and as always try to place meaning into your poetry.
      • Poetry is a lot of fun! One of the craziest and funniest forms of poetry is a limerick. Edward Lear is credited for popularizing this form of poetry. Now let's see how you can do. Remember that lines 1,2 and 5 rhyme and lines 3 and 4 rhyme. Go to it!!
      • A skill of some of the best writers is to use metaphor to add description to a story. Remember that metaphor is used to compare two dissimilar objects that are alike in some way. Example: Music is the honey of the human spirit. Find several examples of metaphor using classroom books and write three examples of your own.
      • Now it is time to play free style poetry. Use this opportunity to write a poem about a topic of your choice using free style poetry. Here are some topic ideas:
      • Emotions School Friendship
    • 103. ThinkDOTS Activities for Middle School Science Lesson Concept:STRUCTURE How do the atomic numbers in the periodic table change from the top to the bottom? From left to right across the table? Predict as many properties for potassium as you can. To make your predictions, look at the information in the box for this element and consider its location on the periodic table. Carbon is atomic number 6. How are 2 carbon atoms with mass numbers of 12 and 14 different? Why are these atoms called isotopes? Why do you think scientists used the term &quot;cloud&quot; to describe the position of electrons in an atom? Suppose you were given some sugar cubes, a grinder, some water, a pan, and a hot plate. What physical and chemical changes could you make in the sugar? There are 3 jars in the front of the room. Each has a substance with a strong odor. One is a solid, one is a liquid and one is a gas. Which odor would students in the back of the room smell first? Why? What is the correct symbol for the element helium? Research the history of this element and create a timeline showing what elements were discovered just before and after helium. Name three types of physical changes. Create a list with at least two examples of each that are different from the examples in the book. Which is higher, an element's atomic number or its mass number? Why? Share two ways that scientists study atoms. Suggest any new ways you might think of. How are physical and chemical properties different? Why? What does the periodic table tell us about calcium? How can this help us in our everyday lives?
    • 104. “ Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice
      • Prejudice
      • Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but also to those who practice them.
      • Scapegoating
      • Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of this group and the treatments they received because of them.
      • Articles
      • Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you justify and minds of those responsible?  
      • Photography
      • Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you chose it.
      • Genetics
      • Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the characteristics of your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use your science knowledge.
      • Stereotypes
      • Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who has been persecuted in more recent years. Compare the two and give reasons why.
    • 105. “ Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice
      • Prejudice
      • Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?
      • Scapegoating
      • What is scapegoating? Explore the word ’ s etymology and hypothesize about its present day meaning. How was your group scapegoated?
      • Articles
      • Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why?
      • Photography
      • Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think they are related?
      • Genetics
      • Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If genetics don ’ t affect your group explain why.
      • Stereotypes  
      • Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped?
    • 106. “ Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice
      • Prejudice
      • Discuss the following statement: “ Genocide can never be eliminated because it is deeply rooted in human nature. ” Do you agree or disagree? Provide evidence from your readings for your position.
      • Scapegoating
      • Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group.
      • Articles  
      • Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why you did what you did, what would you say?
      • Photography  
      • Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences?
      • Genetic  
      • Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why?
      • Stereotypes  
      • Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were the stereotypes your group had?  
    • 107. Learning Contracts
    • 108. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 109. Learning Contracts
      • Contracts take a number of forms that begin with an agreement between student and teacher.
      • The teacher grants certain freedoms and choices about how a student will complete tasks,
      • and the student agrees to use the freedoms appropriately in designing and completing work according to specifications
      Strategy: Learning Contracts
    • 110. Designing a Differentiated Learning Contract
      • A Learning Contract has the following components
      • A Skills Component
        • Focus is on skills-based tasks
        • Assignments are based on pre-assessment of students’ readiness
        • Students work at their own level and pace
      • A content component
        • Focus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings)
        • Requires sense making and production
        • Assignment is based on readiness or interest
      • A Time Line
        • Teacher sets completion date and check-in requirements
        • Students select order of work (except for required meetings and homework)
      • 4. The Agreement
        • The teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their time
        • Students agree to use the time responsibly
        • Guidelines for working are spelled out
        • Consequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineated
        • Signatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreement
      Differentiating Instruction: Facilitator’s Guide, ASCD, 1997
    • 111.  
    • 112. Friendships Shape Up! Reading Contract Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by ____________________. Have fun! This contract belongs to _____________________. Brenda Spurgeon, 2nd Grade, Riverside Elementary School, Boise, ID
    • 113. Friendships Shape Up! Cont’d Make a poster advertising yourself as a good friend. Use words and pictures to help make people want to be your friend. Make sure your name is an important pare of the poster. Make a two sided circle-rama. Use it to tell people what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words and make sure your name is an important part of the display. Make a mobile that shows what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words to hang on your mobile. Write your name on the top of the mobile in beautiful letters. Get with a friend and make a puppet show about a problem and the solution in your book. Get with a friend & act out a problem and its solution from your book. Meet with me & tell me about a problem and its solution from the story. Then tell me about a problem you have had and how you solved it. Draw a picture of a problem in the story. Then use words to tell about the problem and how the characters solved their problem . Write a letter to one of the characters in your book. Tell them about a problem you have. Then have them write back with a possible solution to your problem. Think about another problem on of the characters in your book might have. Write a new story for the book about the problem and tell how it was solved.
    • 114. Writing Bingo Try for one or more BINGOs this month. Remember, you must have a real reason for the writing experience! If you mail or email your product, get me to read it first and initial your box! Be sure to use your writing goals and our class rubric to guide your work. Recipe Thank you note Letter to the editor Directions to one place to another Rules for a game Invitation Email request for information Letter to a pen pal, friend, or relative Skit or scene Interview Newspaper article Short story FREE Your choice Grocery or shopping list Schedule for your work Advertisement Cartoon strip Poem Instructions Greeting card Letter to your teacher Proposal to improve something Journal for a week Design for a web page Book Think Aloud
    • 115. Math Ticket
      • Graphics Problem of the Day Computer
      • Tangram Ex (p.14#1) Complete the odd # problems Complete the
      • Tangram Ex (p.11,#9) from the POD board. blue task cards
      • Geoboard Pentagon
      • Geoboard Hexagon
      • Math Writing Math with Legs Teacher Feature
      • Explain in clear step by step Develop a real problem When you are way how you: someone might have which called graphing might help them. *Solved your problem of Explain and model how it
      • the day or solved your the problem & solution Tangram/Geoboard challenge would work.
      • *Use pictures and words to teach someone how to do one of your five math tasks
    • 116.  
    • 117.  
    • 118. Science Agenda on Chemical Problems in the Environment
      • IMPERATIVES (You must do these…)
        • 1) Select a chemical problem in the environment and
          • Define and describe the difficulties is presents
          • Be sure to discuss why, where, and to whom/what
          • Your choices are:
              • Global Warming/Greenhouse Effect
              • Ozone Depletion
              • Acid Rain
              • Air Pollution
              • Water Pollution (including thermal pollution and land/ground pollution)
        • 2) Complete a map showing where the problem exists, what/who is affected by it, and the degree of impact
        • 3) Develop a talking paper that describes present and future solutions, as well as your recommendations.
    • 119.
      • NEGOTIABLES (You must do at least one of these…)
        • 1) Determine the approximate costs of the problem of one badly affected region and develop a graphic that shows total costs and what makes the costs (for example: Health costs, clean-up costs, lost revenues from land, etc.)
        • 2) Develop a timeline of the evolution of the problem over the last 100 years, including significant dates, and factors that contributed to the change. Take the timeline into the future based on your current understanding of trends associated with the problem.
      • OPTIONS (You may do one or more of these…)
        • 1) Create a Gary Larson-type cartoon or an editorial cartoon that makes a commentary on the problem.
        • 2) Prepare a fictionalized account, but based on scientific fact, of a person who lives in a badly affected area. Your goal is to put a human face on the problem.
        • 3) Develop a 60-second public service announcement (taped) to raise audience awareness of the problem and introduce positive actions citizens might take to improve the prognosis for the future.
    • 120.
      • Soups/Salads
      • Homework Assignments
      • All homework must be completed and turned in for a grade.
      • Transparency #13
      • Transparency #16
      • Study Guide 8.1
      • Study Guide 8.2
      • Study Guide 8.3
      Microorganism Menu Name: Class: Appetizers: Can always work on Soups/Salads: Homework Main Course: Required Desserts: Challenges
      • Appetizers
      • Something I can always be working on.
      • These are assignments that will reinforce concepts.
      • Vocabulary Words/Definitions
      • Word Searches
      • Idea Maps
      • Matching Worksheets
      • Label the Microorganism/Cell
      • Main Course
      • Required
      • These labs must be completed and turned in for credit.
      • Enormous E
      • Focus on Scopes
      • Pond Water Culture
      • Your Choice
      • Chapter 8 Test
      • Desserts
      • Things I can do to challenge myself.
      • These are not required unless you have been given specific instructions.
      • Movie Notes
      • Make a Slide
      • Guess the Disease
      • Write a Letter
      • Microbe Mysteries
      • http://www.microbeworld.org
      Created by Meri-Lyn Stark Elementary Science Coordinator Park City School District
    • 121. Tic-Tac-Toe designed to help students make connections between science standards (4 th Grade Rock, Soil, and Fossils Activity) Created by Meri-Lyn Stark Elementary Science Coordinator Park City School District Create a game for others to play to learn how fossils are formed and found Teach the class a lesson about dinosaur extinction Compare Utah locations with examples of weathering and erosion, show examples Draw and label a soil profile showing how the layers differ Graph types of fossils found in Utah and create simple fossil map Demonstrate plant growth in 2 or more different soil types, share in class Survey everyone in class for their theory about dinosaur extinction, share results Design a display of different rocks and minerals, label and prepare descriptions Develop a timeline of prehistoric life in Utah
    • 122. WebQuests
      • A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners’ time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners’ thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The model was developed in the early 1995 at San Diego State University by Bernie Dodge with Tom March.
    • 123. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description Description of the Strategy Steps in Developing It Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02
    • 124. Uses of Webquests Learning Center Activities Hook the computer up to your TV to use as a station. Find webquests that help students process the “Big Ideas” in your curricular unit. Tiered Assignments Locate 3 different webquests at varying levels of complexity that help students apply the unit’s skills or ideas.
      • Anchor Activity for Research
          • Create your own Filamentality site to assist
          • students in carrying out their research.
    • 125. The Power of Webquests According to Bernie Dodge (1997), a webquest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which students interact with information gleaned primarily from resources on the Internet. http://webquest.sdsu.edu/ http://www.ozline.com/webquests/intro.html http://www.kn.pacbell.com/ Check out the digital dozen and Filamentality Webquest Design Patterns http://webquest.sdsu.edu/designpatterns/HS/t-webquest.htm
    • 126. http://www.internet4classrooms.com/tide.htm http://wcvt.com/%7Etiggr/ Bones and the Badge Webquest http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/kearny/forensic/index.htm http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/buildingblocks/p-index.htm/ Webquests as Powerful Teaching Tools in Math and Science http://www.enc.org/features/focus/archive/webquests/ http://studenthome.nku.edu/~webquest/gabbard/index.htm
    • 127. Steps for Guiding Student Research
      • Assess, Find, or Create Student Interests
      • Help Students Find a Question(s) to Research
      • Develop a Plan of Action to Guide the Research
      • Help Locate Multiple Resources
      • Provide Methodological Assistance
      • Develop a Research Question(s) to Answer
      • Provide Managerial Assistance
      • Help to Find Products and Audiences
      • Provide Feedback/Escalate the Process
      • Evaluate
    • 128. Assess, Find, and Create Interest
        • Investigations Stem from Many Sources:
        • Individual interests
        • Curricular units of study
        • Problems that exist in the world (city, state, community, global, etc.)
        • Unresolved questions
        • Someone asking students to generate solutions to problems
      • Strategies for Generating Interest:
        • Sharing articles from Discover, Newsweek , newspapers
        • Guest speakers
        • Student interest inventories/questionnaires
        • Questions that students ask
        • Student identified problems
        • I wonder bulletin boards
        • Interest centers
    • 129.
        • If I ran the school . . . . . . .
      Name _________________ Grade__________Teacher________ If I ran the school, I would choose to learn about these ten things.
      • I am really interested in:
      • The Stars and Planets
      • Birds
      • Dinosaurs and fossils
      • Life in the Ocean
      • The Human Body
      • Genetics
      • Animals
      • Outer Space
      • Insects
      • Chemistry
      • Diseases
      • I am really interested in:
      • Families
      • Countries
      • My Community
      • Famous People
      • Holidays
      • Explorers
      • Travel and Transportation
      • Wars
      • History of Long Ago
      • The Future
    • 130. Interest-A-Lyzers Interest-A-Lyzer Family of Instruments Author: Joseph S. Renzulli Copyright 1997 80 pages ISBN: 0-936386-69-X Grade Level: K-12 This manual describes the six interest assessment tools that comprise the Interest-A-Lyzer &quot;Family of Instruments.&quot; Dr. Renzulli discusses the importance of assessing student interests and provides suggestions for administering and interpreting these instruments in the school setting. Sample pages from each interest assessment tool are included in the appendix. http://www.creativelearningpress.com
    • 131. Famous People Economy Mathematics Science Fine Arts/ Literature The Future History Technology Problems Communication Geography Ecology TOPIC GENERATOR My Topic
    • 132. Who Does Research? What kinds of questions would these people ask? Name(s) __________________________________________ Wildlife Biologist Geographer Historian Writer Teacher Newspaper Reporters Doctors Questions They Ask? Person
    • 133. Questions, Questions, Everywhere
      • Researchers are always asking questions about the world around them. They notice things that are interesting, they make observations and wonder why certain things behave as they do, and they are sensitive to problems. Generate some of your own questions that you WONDER about.
      • Categories
        • Eating habits
        • Rules
        • Culture
        • Community
        • Friendship
        • School
        • Growing Up
        • Beliefs
        • Homeless
        • Elderly
    • 134. Help Students Find a Question(s) to Ask
      • Listening to their questions
      • Observing their actions
      • As they begin to wonder why
      • Their pattern of reading interests
      • Favorite subjects
      • Extracurricular activities
      • When they mention a concern
      • Casual statements or opinion
      • Interest in particular topics
    • 135. Cube 1
      • Roll the dice to generate beginning questions. Select one word from each cube to generate possible questions.
      • Use research phrases to prompt possible research questions.
        • It might be interesting to know if?
        • It might be interesting to know how?
        • It might be interesting to know why?
        • Historically, I wonder how or why?
        • I wonder if _____ is related to ____?
        • What factors influenced..?
        • If I _____, I wonder if _____will occur?
      Cube 2 Cube 1 Words Who, What, When, Where, Why, How Cube 2 Words Is, Can, Will, Could (Should, Would), Might, Did Generating Research Questions
    • 136. Question Boxes Fill out the boxes with your questions. Name(s) ______________________________________ How Why Where When What Who Should, Would, Could Might Will Can Did Is
    • 137. Provide Methodological Assistance
      • Shift from learning about to learning how to gather, categorize, analyze, and interpret data.
      • Learn the different types of research conducted by professionals and the tools and methods they use to conduct their research.
      • How to gather data from your questions
      • Interviews (questioning individuals, asking open-ended questions)
      • Surveys and questionnaires (make one)
      • Recording notes
      • Recording references
      • Designing an experiment
    • 138. Provide Managerial Assistance
      • Provide access to people and equipment.
      • Help students to design a way to gather data, organizing findings, and report findings.
    • 139. Develop a Plan of Action to Guide the Research PRODUCT: This is the type of product that I could create. AUDIENCE: This is the audience who could benefit from my research. PROBLEMS: These are the problems that I may encounter. STEPS: Here are the steps I need to take to accomplish my plan. RESOURCES: These are the resources I need to conduct my study. WHAT: This is what I plan to research.
    • 140. Research Planning Sheet
      • Name________Date_______Class_________
      • Problem Finding: Identify the research problem or the area of interest you wish to investigate.
      • Problem Focusing: State the research question(s) that will guide your study.
      • Research Design: Identify the type of research that you will use in your study.
      • Descriptive
      • Correlational
      • Historical
      • Experimental
      • Developmental
      • Case and Field
    • 141.
      • Sample Selection: Explain the type of sampling that you will use.
      • Who:________________ How many:____________
      • How: Random Systematic Stratified Cluster
      • Data Collection: Identify how you will collect your data.
      • Observation Survey Experimental results
      • Interviews Document analysis Questionnaires
      • Data Analysis: Identify the type of research that you will use in your study.
      • Qualitative
        • Mean, mode, median, range, variance, standard deviation, frequency
        • Chi Square
        • T-Test
        • Correlation
        • Other
      • Quantitative
        • Domains
        • Themes
        • Taxonomies
        • Other
      • Reporting Results: In what format will you report your results? Who will be your audience?