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Overview of CH 2 - The Human Body in Health & Diseases

Overview of CH 2 - The Human Body in Health & Diseases

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Chapter 2 -PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PowerPoint® Presentation for Medical Terminology Chapter 2: The Human Body in Health and DiseaseCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1
  • 2. Knowledge Learning Objectives • Define anatomy and physiology and use anatomic reference systems to identify the anatomic position, body planes, directions, and cavities. • Define the terms associated with cytology and genetics including chromosomes, genes, DNA, and mutation.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2
  • 3. Comprehension Learning Objectives • Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the terms related to the abdominal cavity and peritoneum. • Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the terms related to the structure, function, pathology, and procedures of cells, tissues, and glands.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3
  • 4. Comprehension Learning Objectives • Identify the body systems in terms of their major structures and functions. • Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the terms related to types of diseases and the modes of disease transmission.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4
  • 5. Application Learning Objectives • Differentiate between genetic and congenital disorders and identify examples of each.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5
  • 6. Word Parts • -ac • Coron/o • Aden/o • Cyt/o • Adip/o • Endo- • Cephal/o • Exo-Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6
  • 7. Word Parts • Hist/o • -oma • -malacia • Path/o • -plasia • -ologist • -ologyCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7
  • 8. Key Terms • Abdominal cavity • Adenomalacia • Abdominopelvic • Adenosclerosis cavity • Adenectomy • Adipose tissue • Adenoma • AnaplasiaCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8
  • 9. Key Terms • Anomaly • Cephalic • Anterior • Communicable disease • Aplasia • Congenital disorder • Caudal • CoronalCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9
  • 10. Key Terms • Cytoplasm • Dysplasia • Deoxyribonucleic • Endemic • Distal • Endocrine glands • Dorsal • EpidemicCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10
  • 11. Key Terms • Epigastric region • Genome • Epithelial tissue • Hemophilia • Etiology • Histology • Exocrine glands • HomeostasisCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11
  • 12. Key Terms • Hyperplasia • Hypoplasia • Hypertrophy • Iatrogenic illness • Hypochondriac • Idiopathic disease regions • Hypogastric region • Iliac regionsCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12
  • 13. Key Terms • Infectious disease • Midsagittal plane • Inguinal • Nosocomial infection • Lumbar regions • Nucleus • Mesentery • PandemicCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13
  • 14. Key Terms • Pathology • Phenylketonuria • Pelvic cavity • Physiology • Peritoneum • Posterior • Peritonitis • ProximalCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14
  • 15. Key Terms • Retroperitoneal • Thoracic cavity • Transverse plane • VentralCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15
  • 16. Anatomic Reference Systems • Body planes • Body directions • Body cavities • Structural UnitsCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16
  • 17. The Anatomic Position • Standing up so that the body is erect. • Facing forward • Holding the arms at the sides • Turning the hands with the palms toward the front.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17
  • 18. Body Planes • Divides the body vertically and horizontally while in the anatomic position. • Aids in descriptive purposes.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18
  • 19. Vertical and Horizontal Planes • Sagittal plane • Midsagittal plane • Coronal plane • Transverse planeCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19
  • 20. Major Body Cavities • Dorsal • VentralCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20
  • 21. Dorsal Cavity • Cranial cavity • Spinal cavityCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21
  • 22. Ventral Cavity • Thoracic cavity • Abdominal cavity • Pelvic cavity • Abdominopelvic cavityCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22
  • 23. Quadrants of the Abdomen • Right upper quadrant • Left upper quadrant • Right lower quadrant • Left lower quadrantCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23
  • 24. Regions of the Thorax and Abdomen • Hypochondriac regions • Epigastric region • Lumbar regions • Umbilical regionCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 24
  • 25. Regions of the Thorax and Abdomen • Iliac regions • Hypogastric regionCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 25
  • 26. Peritoneum • Parietal peritoneum • Visceral peritoneumCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 26
  • 27. Cells: The Body’s Basic Unit • Basic structural units of the body. • Grouped together to form tissues and organs. • Exact replicas are produced when the cell divides.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 27
  • 28. Stem Cells • Unspecialized cells that renew themselves through cell division. • Can be induced to become cells with special functions. • Used for bone marrow transplants in the treatment of leukemia.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 28
  • 29. Sources of Stem Cells • Newly formed embryos. • Cord blood • Adult tissuesCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 29
  • 30. The Structure of Cells • Cell membrane • Cytoplasm • NucleusCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 30
  • 31. Chromosomes • Found in cell nucleus • Bearers of genesCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 31
  • 32. Somatic Cell • Contains 46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs. • 22 identical pairs of chromosomes, plus an XX or XY pair to determine sex.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 32
  • 33. Sex Cells • Sperm and eggs, also called gametes • Do not have 46 chromosomes • Each mature sex cell has 23 single chromosomes.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 33
  • 34. Genetics • DNA • Genome • CloneCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 34
  • 35. Genetic Mutation • Somatic cell mutation • Gametic Cell MutationCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 35
  • 36. Dominant and Recessive Genes • Offspring will have genetic condition, when dominant gene is inherited from one parent • Offspring will not have genetic condition when a recessive gene is inherited from one parent and normal gene is inherited from other parent.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 36
  • 37. Dominant and Recessive Genes • Offspring will have the genetic condition when a recessive gene is inherited from both parents.Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 37
  • 38. Genetic Disorders • Cystic fibrosis • Muscular dystrophy • Down Syndrome • Phenylketonuria • Hemophilia • Sickle cell anemia • Huntington’s disease • Tay-Sachs diseaseCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 38
  • 39. Congenital Disorders • Developmental disorder • Prenatal influences • Birth injuriesCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 39
  • 40. Tissue: Cells Working Together • Histology • HistologistCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 40
  • 41. Types of Tissue • Epithelial Tissues • Connective Tissues • Muscle Tissue • Nerve TissueCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41
  • 42. Epithelial Tissues • Epithelial tissues • Epithelium • EndotheliumCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42
  • 43. Connective Tissues • Connective tissues • Adipose tissue • Loose connective tissueCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 43
  • 44. Pathology of Tissue Formation • Anaplasia • Hyperplasia • Aplasia • Hypertrophy • Dysplasia • HypoplasiaCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 44
  • 45. Glands • Exocrine glands • Endocrine glandsCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 45
  • 46. Pathology and Procedures of the Glands • Adenectomy • Adenomalacia • Adenitis • Adenosclerosis • Adenoma • AdenosisCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 46
  • 47. Organs and Body Systems • Somewhat independent body part • Performs a special function or functionsCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 47
  • 48. Major Body Systems • Skeletal • Respiratory • Muscular • Digestive • Cardiovascular • Urinary • Lymphatic and • Nervous ImmuneCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 48
  • 49. Major Body Systems • Special Senses • Integumentary • Endocrine • ReproductiveCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 49
  • 50. Pathology • Disease transmission • Outbreaks of Diseases • Types of DiseasesCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 50
  • 51. Disease Transmission • Communicable disease • Bloodborne transmission • Airborne transmission • Foodborne and waterborne transmissionCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 51
  • 52. Outbreaks of Diseases • Endemic • Epidemic • PandemicCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 52
  • 53. Types of Diseases • Infectious disease • Iatrogenic illness • Idiopathic disorder • Nosocomial infection • Organic disorder • Functional disorderCopyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 53