CLIL       FORSECONDARY  STUDENTS              1
CONTENTPART 1: BEFORE WE START     1.1. SARA     1.2. What qualities make a good teacher?PART 2: INTRODUCTION TO CLIL     ...
PART 1: BEFORE WE START1.1. SARAThe first a CLIL teacher (or any other ESL teacher) must bear in mind is “to be friends wi...
It is said that a long time ago, around 5,000 years ago, in what is now modern Iraq, the Attakians conquered the Sumerians...
Other schools teach partial immersion programmes where almost half the curriculum is taught in the target language. This i...
3.2. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY.In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification o...
Examples: watching a video, students repeat information/utterances of adult or peer, students remember prior knowledge.The...
-    creating interest       -    breaking down tasks into small steps       -    providing before, during and after task ...
small groups. Then, in discussing it with the whole class, the teacher can group the ideas in a logical format by using he...
- Examining parts and how they relate                   Why can’t fish live on land?For creative thinking:- ImaginingFor A...
knowledge)                           up, plan, produce, supposeEvaluating (saying is something      Assess, comment on, gi...
Organise and            Increase            manage              Problem solve            comprensión         observations,...
6.2. WHY USE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS?Learners need “process skills” to interact successfully with content.Learners need to deve...
The language of giving instructions is an example of Language for Learning. The main things to consider when planning/givi...
-    to collect materials    -    to plan for scaffolding    -    to support the lots and hots    -    to ensure quality  ...
o structures              o functions    6.   in relation with above (5)              o examples of communication (interac...
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Què és AICLE?

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Breu història i principis fonamentals de la metodologia AICLE (CLIL)

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Què és AICLE?

  1. 1. CLIL FORSECONDARY STUDENTS 1
  2. 2. CONTENTPART 1: BEFORE WE START 1.1. SARA 1.2. What qualities make a good teacher?PART 2: INTRODUCTION TO CLIL 2.1. Brief history of CLIL 2.2. What is CLIL? 2.3. Benefits of CLIL? 2.4. Types of CLILPART 3: PRINCIPLES OF CLIL 3.1. The four Cs: CLIL 3.2. Bloom’s Taxonomy 3.3. Cummins’ QuadrantPART 4: CONTENT LEARNING 4.1. What is meant by Content Learning? 4.2. Scaffolding Learning 4.3. More about scaffolding learning 2PART 5: COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT 5.1. What are cognitive skills? 5.2. Developing Cognitive Skills 5.3. Examples of cognitive skillsPART 6: GRAPHIC ORGANISERS 6.1. Types of Graphic Organisers 6.2. Why use Graphic Organisers?PART 7: LANGUAGE USED IN CLIL 7.1. Types of Language 7.1.1. Language of learning 7.1.2. Language through Learning 7.1.3. Language for learning 7.2. ThunksPART 8: LESSON PLANNING 8.1. Why do we plan lessons? 8.2. Page 1 of a lesson plan 8.3. Page 2: Procedures Page 8.4. Example of a CLIL Lesson
  3. 3. PART 1: BEFORE WE START1.1. SARAThe first a CLIL teacher (or any other ESL teacher) must bear in mind is “to be friends with SARA”. Sara stands for:Select the materialAdapt the materialReject what you don’t need or like about the materialAdd anything necessary to make your lessons high-valued.These four clues must come with you all along your career’s life or at least until another more up-to-date strategy appears and itputs SARA away. But let’s remember we should never put friends away so, we rather not get rid of SARA or any other friends nomatter things happen.1.2. WHAT QUALITIES MAKE A GOOD TEACHER?Research showed that, according to teenagers, the top qualities most valued in a teacher are: 1. knowledgeable 2. creativity 3 3. rapport 4. motivating 5. sense of humourThis should make us think of our students that even though they like having fun in class, they also appreciate the fact that ateacher masters what is teaching.As for CLIL teachers exclusively, it is important that they grade their use of language when giving instructions and that they usedifferent techniques to clarify. Teachers can allow their students to clarify in L1 as all students have their wait time. Wait time isthe time a student of a foreign language need to produce oral output in L2. It is different for every person. In general, it is saidthat Chinese people need a longer wait time than other learners because they are more concerned and more cautious thanother L2 learners. This does not mean that they are not learning. It means that they are not producing yet. So, we mustemphasize with our students.What sometimes happen to me is that if I use L1 in class I feel very guilty but Françoise has told me not to feel such way as longas I do my best. So, teachers, now I am telling you: as long as you do your best in anything, do not feel guilty! PART 2: CLIL AND ITS HISTORY2.1. BRIEF HISTORY OF CLILLet’s go on with a bit of a history. Although the word CLIL was coined not a long time ago, in 1994, CLIL is not a brand newphenomenon at all.
  4. 4. It is said that a long time ago, around 5,000 years ago, in what is now modern Iraq, the Attakians conquered the Sumerians. Theywanted to learn the local language and so Sumerian was used as the language of instruction to learn content.Later, in the1890s approximately, bilingualism and multilingualism existed among the most privileged wealthy families. Theywere two ways of learning a foreign language. Wealthy families either rented the services of a tutor (male teacher for boys) or agoverness (female teacher for girls) to teach their children or they sent their children abroad to learn the foreign language.A more recently recorded fact, which can be described as the first example of modern CLIL was in 1965 in Canada. Englishspeaking parents who were living in the French quarters of Quebec were worried because they saw their children were indisadvantage with French speakers. So, they asked the Government to produce immersion of programmes in the schools so thatthey learned the subjects in French (instead of French). This idea apparently spread all over Canada and the rest of the world.At last, in the 1970s appeared more bilingual immersion programmes for people of different backgrounds and there was anincrease of awareness that language and content should go hand-in-hand.This is actually a very brief history of CLIL but it makes us realise that nothing is brand new but it has just been recycled andbrought into fashion again. And I think that in such a global-like world CLIL is key to be able to step out in our society in a firmpermanent way. We need to learn languages, more than one if it is possible and CLIL is definitely a very useful tool.2.2. WHAT IS CLIL?CLIL stands to Content and Language Integrated Learning. It is an approach concerning languages or intercultural knowledge andunderstanding (Marsh, 2002); it is a meaning-focused learning method (Van de Craen, 2006) and an “umbrella”term used to talkabout bilingual education situations (Gajo, 2007).According to TKT CLIL handbook (The TKT Course, CLIL module, Kay Bentley, CUP 2010) CLIL is an evolving educational approachto teaching and learning where subjects are taught through the medium of a non-native language. 4It is increasingly important in our global, technological society, where knowledge of another language helps learners to developskills which will be able to communicate to people around the worlds.It is a completely different learning experience compared with most foreign language teaching because content and languageare taught together.A language teacher has the challenge to learn more about subject content and subject teachers need to learn about thelanguage needed for their subjects.It can be taught to very young learners, teenagers, adults, and also in vocational or academic studies. * See Appendix: What is CLIL?2.3. THE BENEFITS OF CLIL . CLIL aims to: 1. Introduce learners to new concepts through studying in a TL. 2. Improve learners’ production of TL. 3. Improve learners’ performance in the curricular subject 4. Provide materials which develop thinking skills from the start. 5. Increase learners’ confidence in the TL and L1. 6. Encourage the value of community and citizenship. 7. Make the curricular subject the main focus of classroom materials2.4. TYPES OF CLILSome schools teach topics from the curriculum as part of a language course. This is called soft CLIL.
  5. 5. Other schools teach partial immersion programmes where almost half the curriculum is taught in the target language. This iscalled hard CLIL.Modular CLIL programme is where a subject is taught for a certain number of hours in the target language.Type of CLIL Language / Subject Time Context BalanceSoft CLIL Language-led 45 minutes once a Some curricular topics are taught during a language week courseModular CLIL Subject-led 15 hours during a term Schools or teachers choose parts of the subject (1-hour a week) syllabus which they teach in the target language.Hard CLIL Subject-led (partial About 50% of the About half of the curriculum is taught in the TL. The immersion) curriculum content can reflect what is taught in the L1 curriculum or can be new content. PART 3: PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL)CLIL principals consist of three main blocks: - the 4Cs: Content, Communication, Culture and Cognition - - Bloom’s taxonomy Cummin’s Quadrant 5 3.1. THE 4 CS: CLIL PRINCIPLES IN ACTIONConditions Aims for the classroomCOGNITION To use a range of thinking skills To use the child’s real life experience with a manageable bridge between old and new. To use the child’s own level of articulation To achieve and evaluate the contentCULTURE We can create a sense of community by - getting children to collaborate on activities and share experiences. - Encouraging cooperation, help and respect. - Rewarding risks - Identifying learner’s roles.CONTENT To give: Natural, real or understandable content Content which is related to the child’s previous experiences. Engaging content that allows for learning to be active Language as a vehicle to do things (role plays/tasks etc.)COMMUNICATION We can encourage communication by: - setting the classroom up (seating, posters, resources) to support communication - scaffolding tasks which reduces stress and makes explorative tasks more manageable. - Using learning opportunities that don’t always have a right or wrong answer. - Offering choices about how to do things. - Reducing teacher talking time (TTT) and increasing student talking time (STT). * See Appendix: The four Cs
  6. 6. 3.2. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY.In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectualbehaviour important in learning.During the 1990s a new group of cognitive psychologists, lead by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom’s), updated the sttaxonomy reflecting relevance to 21 century work. They basically changed the nouns used in Bloom’s taxonomy to verbs.Creating, Evaluating, Analyzing, Applying, Understanding, RememberingLevels of intellectual What can students do at each Strategiesbehaviour level?Remembering Students can recall the define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state, information etc.Understanding Students can explain ideas or Classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, concepts. They can classify select, translate, paraphrase.Applying Students can use the Choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, information in a new way operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.Analyzing Students can distinguish Appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, between the different parts distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.Evaluating Students can justify a stand or Appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate. decision.Creating Students can create new Assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write. 6 product or point of view * See Appendix: Bloom’s Taxonomy 3.2.1. HOTS AND LOTSRemembering, understanding and applying are HOTS. That is, they are higher-order thinking skills. Analyzing, evaluating andcreating are LOTS, which means, they are lower-order thinking skills.When teaching we have to combine HOTS and LOTS activities in order not to tire our students but be careful! You can’t go fromremembering to creating straight away as the two levels are very different demanding tasks and students would get lost!My advice is to start from the bottom and climb up the levels step by step but keep going backwards by climbing. The graphicthat would best show this concept is the one of a spring. * See Appendix: HOTS Question Templates 3.3. CUMMINS’ QUADRANT FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSESCummins’ quadrant is a useful tool for designing content lessons. Lessons should first work on BICS (Basic InterpersonalCommunication Skills) and move on to complete CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency). In order to do that, Cummins’Quadrant advices us to move from A to C to B to D.Cummins advices us to start with a task that is cognitively simple and context-embedded. That is a BICS task. This is found inquadrant A and it is called VIEWING. It involves everyday conversational and transactional language.
  7. 7. Examples: watching a video, students repeat information/utterances of adult or peer, students remember prior knowledge.Then you should follow with activities that are cognitively complex and context-embedded. This is quadrant C and it is calledDOING. It involves challenging ideas, richer in terms of representation and it is an opportunity to scaffold language fromdescriptive to more abstract.Examples: to create a map, a timeline, students compare and contrast, students summarise, students transform, personalisegiven information.The following activity should be cognitively simple again but this time context-reduced. This is quadrant B and it is calledTALKING. It involves abstract but cognitively simple activities.Examples: to talk in pairs or groups (cooperatively) about the topic, matching information, describing observations, sequencing.Finally, the last step is the most challenging one: It is cognitively complex and context-reduced. This is quadrant D and it is calledTRANSFORMING. The aim is using academic language of school learning. It is the ability to transform one’s understanding ofcontent into the technical CALP language.Examples: writing an essay, listening to a lecture or taking a standardised written test, justifying an opinion or judgement,predicting results.In every step, we bring our students to a Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). * See Appendix: Cummins’ Quadrant PART 4: CONTENT LEARNING 74.1. WHAT IS MEANT BY CONTENT LEARNING? (from CLIL, Do Coyle, Philip Hood, David Marsh, CUP, 2010).Syllabuses and programmes always address the WHAT of content learning. The studies of eminent theorists such as Bruner,Vygotsky and Wood does not always influence classroom practice.CLIL, which is built on potential synergos, demands an analysis of what is meant by effective pedagogies in different contexts.In recent years, many Western societies uses a pedagogic model called “banking model” (Freire, 1972), where the teacherdeposits information and skills into the memory of the learner. This is teacher-controlled and teacher-led.Alternatively, social-constructivist approaches emphasize on a more student-centred experience, encouraging a more activelearning. It is interactive, mediated and student-led. Learners interact with teachers and their learning is scaffolded by someoneor something more “expert” that does not necessarily mean that is the teacher. It can be other learners or resources. Whenlearners accommodate cognitive challenge, they are more likely to become engaged in interacting with “expert” others todevelop their individual thinking. The learners are in the ZPD type of learning: it is challenging but yet potentially within reach ofindividual learners as long as support, scaffolding and guidance are provided (this term was introduced by Vygotsky in 1978).Let’s have a look at what we understand by ´scaffolding´. Scaffolding is the steps teachers take to support learners so that theycan understand new content and develop new skills. Vygotsky wrote that what learners can do today with support, they can doalone tomorrow (quoted in Gibbons, 2008). Some learners need more support than others or they need to be supported forlonger. Other learners may need support on one subject but not on the other. * See Appendix: The learning of content4.2. SCAFFOLDING LEARNINGThe key question is: “How can we scaffold learning”? - considering the language we use
  8. 8. - creating interest - breaking down tasks into small steps - providing before, during and after task support - using visuals and realia - demonstrating tasks - using word banks, glossaries, sentence substitution tables, writing frames - using model texts for production of language - providing constructive feedback.Scaffolding listening and reading Scaffolding speaking and writing - pre-listening and pre-reading activities to - talking about what will be said or written contextualise. - provide listening and reading models before - predicting speaking or writing. - pre-teach or elicit new vocabulary. - Help notice the language to be used. - Underline key language (words or sentences). - Use visual organisers to brainstorm - Discussing the use of certain language. - Encourage collaborative work - Using visual organisers to use while reading or - Focus on the audience and the motive. listening. - Providing a wide range of listenings and reading texts.It is important to always build on the content and the language learners already know. * See Appendix: Scaffolding content and language learning 84.3. MORE ABOUT SCAFFOLDINGWith listening tasks, it is helpful to provide tables, grids, schedules or diagrams to be completed so that the students are guidedtowards what precisely to listen out for. And this works with songs too!With speaking tasks, students can usefully be given role-play cards or cue cards so that they are not lost for words whenrequired to participate in interactive tasks with classmates. These props can be removed, of course, once the students haverehearsed their dialogues and have the confidence to speak unaided.Proficient readers access the meaning of text by building up a global understanding of what they are reading as they go along –rather than by decoding the meaning of each individual word in turn. In order to give our students practice in reading skillsdevelopment, we should work a lot on the pre-reading stage. We can ask our students to: - Examine the title of the reading or a picture related to it and predict what the text will be about. - Focus on the meaning of key words that will appear in the text, - Examine the overall organisation of a factual or argumentative piece of writing by identifying the topic sentence and controlling idea of each paragraph before reading it right through. - Guess how a story will end, etc.Writing requires the most extensive scaffolding. This is not surprising as it is a task in quadrant D of Cummins’ quadrant.If students are required to describe what happens in a series of pictures, the teacher can elicit what is happening and can writekey words and expressions on the board. Then students can repeat the story orally before retelling it in written form. For morecreative writing, you can use pictures or drawings to set a mood on the students and they can brainstorm words they would liketo use in their own stories. For essays following a specific format, students can brainstorm ideas relevant to the given topic in
  9. 9. small groups. Then, in discussing it with the whole class, the teacher can group the ideas in a logical format by using headings,columns, boxes, arrows, and so on. * See Appendix: Scaffolding according to Rose SeniorWith appropriate scaffolding, students are likely to complete challenging tasks successfully and to a higher standard. And what ismore important is that students will eventually be able to work on their own without having to use the scaffolding. PART 5: COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT (FROM CLIL, DO COYLE, PHILIP HOOD, DAVID MARSH, CUP, 2010).For content learning to be effective learning, students must be cognitively engaged. Teachers must involve learners in their ownlearning and this implies that they must be aware of their own learning.In a CLIL classroom students will be required to cooperate with each other and work effectively in groups in order to use theirstrengths and compensate for their weaknesses. These life skills cannot be left to develop by chance. Instead, they must besupported. Learners must learn to deal with the unexpected, observational skills and constructing knowledge.Besides, evidence shows that, to raise achievement levels, learners have to be intellectually challenged in order to transforminformation and ideas, to solve problems, to gain understanding and to discover new meaning. In other words, they must bechallenged with HOT (Higher-order thinking) activities.5.1. WHAT ARE COGNITIVE SKILLS?Cognitive skills or thinking skills are the processes our brains use when we think and learn. They develop from a very young age. 9Learners progress from information processing or concrete thinking skills such as identifying and organising information (thewhat, when, where, which, who and how many questions) to abstract thinking such as reasoning and hypothesising (the whyand what if questions).Learners need to develop a range of cognitive skills as well as language for thinking.They also need to develop CALP (cognitive academic language proficiency) so that they can study curriculum subjects in L2.We have already learned that for the students to develop thinking skills, they need progressively challenging tasks. With CLIL,they also benefit from a language-rich classroom which helps them to think and learn well. They need their time to take thingsin. This is called the Wait time (they need the opportunity to stop, think and process) and finally, teachers need to see if thetasks ask for the right level of cognitive demands. * See Appendix: Cognitive Skills5.2. DEVELOPING COGNITIVE SKILLSBut the question is HOW CAN DEVELOP COGNITIVE SKILLS IN THE CLASSROOM?Through tasks and challenges appropriate to the subject and through effective questioning that will help learners makeassociations and to think more deeply.But WHAT KIND OF QUESTIONS CAN WE ASK IN THE CLIL CLASSROOM?Types of thinking Types of questionsFor concrete thinking:- Defining: what is a shark?- Recalling facts: where do they live? / name parts of a fishFor reasoning thinking:
  10. 10. - Examining parts and how they relate Why can’t fish live on land?For creative thinking:- ImaginingFor Abstract thinking:- Finding patterns and connections. What are the similarities and differences between fish and amphibians?For evaluative thinking:- Judging 3 things you learned in the classroom.5.3. EXAMPLES OF COGNITIVE SKILLS (from the TKT Course CLIL Module)COGNITIVE SKILLS CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES EXAMPLE ACTIVITYRemembering (thinking about Recall, recite, recognise, relate, spell, Take turns to recite a verse from the poemthings you know) tell about autumn (literacy).Identifying (showing a Identify, label, list, locate, match, Name three different types of musicalrelationship between things) name instrument you can see in the picture (music).Ordering (putting things in Order, organise, sequence Write the dates on the time-line in theparticular places) order of when they happened (history).Rank ordering (putting in order Order, put, place Put the statements in order of importance 10of size, importance, success, to describe what makes an ideal farmeretc.) (geography).Defining (saying what Define, explain, outline, show, What kind of colours did you use to paintsomething or someone is). translate the landscape? (art)Comparing and contrasting Compare, contrast, distinguish, Find three similarities and differences(finding similarities and investigate the similarities and between your capital city and one indifferences) differences another continent (geography).Dividing (separating into smaller Divide, separate, share I’m going to divide the class into teams ofgroups) six to play volleyball. (PE).Classifying (putting things into Classify, categorise, decide which Classify the rocks into different groups.groups according to their group, put into (science)features)Predicting (saying what you Predict, think about, guess Predict what will happen when more waterthink will happen) is added to the solution. (science)Hypothesising (suggesting what Suggest, decide, imagine, suppose If global electronic systems broke down,could happen or have happened suggest what could happen (ICT)without knowing if it is true)Reasoning (thinking why, what Choose, conclude, decide, explain, Justify the increase in spending on wagescauses and what results in justify, recommend, solve last year (economics).something)Creative thinking / synthesis Imagine, build, change, compose, Invent a new symbol for saving water(producing imaginative ideas or create, describe, design, invent, make (citizenship)thoughts from previous
  11. 11. knowledge) up, plan, produce, supposeEvaluating (saying is something Assess, comment on, give an opinion, Read your partner’s report on wind farmsis good, useful, effective or not) judge, rate and comment on how clearly it was written (environment) PART 6: GRAPHIC ORGANISERS6.1. TYPES OF GRAPHIC ORGANISERS Graphic organizers can be selected according to the type of task which learners need to do. Learners might need examples of language which can be used with different organizers. There are several common patterns. If you browse the internet for the following names you will see how to use them and what they look like: - bar chart - binary key - Carroll diagram - Cycle - Mind map - Flow diagram or flow chart - - Grid Line graph 11 - Pie chart - Process / cause-effect diagram - Quadrants - Storyboard - T-chart - Table - Time-line - Tree diagram - Venn diagram 1 - Venn diagram 2We need to decide which organiser is the most effective for the task. What is the purpose of the organiser? Is it to classify, todescribe, to give examples, to explain a process, to identify, to show the order of events, to show cause-effect relationships or toshow similarities and differences?For example, if learners have to show the similarities and differences between for two deserts in different countries, what wouldthe best graphic organiser be? Do you know? Not yet? Well, I will help you: Venn diagram 1!To do a Venn diagram you can use hula-hoops or you can also do them on the walls. You can be creative! You must be creative!The benefits of using graphic diagrams are endless. Tony Buzan is an educator who was the creator of the mind map and it issaid he was able to teach very difficult students! Look for his biography in the Wikipedia!
  12. 12. Organise and Increase manage Problem solve comprensión observations, and integrate and improve research and their thinking recall of factual opinions reading and information writing processesSupport Showlistening to / Students use understandingfollowing an graphic of writtenexplanation by organisers to: information,the teacher organise ideas to make posters. Understand Practice HOTS how pieces of and apply the information are skills to real-life Support their related situtations speaking about some information Promote clearer thinking about 12 Provide Support students with a how to present learners visual link information and understanding between ideas. of information thinking and they listen to or information read aboutIllustrate and Help studentsexplain abstract teachers use organise ideasrelationships graphic before writingbetween ideas organisers to: or makingwhich help presentationslearner’s and posterscomprehension Provide a visual Evaluate link between key student vocab and progress sentence Review patterns for materials as a understanding / post-reading speaking about activity ideas * See Appendix: Types of Graphic Organisers.
  13. 13. 6.2. WHY USE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS?Learners need “process skills” to interact successfully with content.Learners need to develop “thinking skills” (LOTS and HOTS) as well as language skills.How learners interact with content relies on the development of “process skills”For example, in science: - Preparing for task: questioning, predicting - Carrying out task: gathering and recording evidence by observing and using information sources - Reviewing/reporting on task: interpreting evidence and drawing conclusions, communicating and reflectingOn the carry out stage: at this stage the recording and interpretation of evidence or data, known as data-handling, is animportant stage.The ability to put information into categories can be encouraged by using graphic organizers, or visual representation of data. - They reduce the cognitive and linguistic load for the learner allowing them to focus on the key aspects of the ideas involved. - Organizers show learners how information is related, rather than organised as isolated facts. - Learners are more likely to remember the content when it is presented with clear colours, shapes and/or images (Glyphs & pictograms for young learners for example / mindmaps, flowchart, or graphs for older learners). - They provide the necessary scaffolding that is critical to content based learning. - They engage learners in more active learning and consequently increase learner motivation. 13 * See Appendix: Why use graphic organisers? PART 7: LANGUAGE USED IN CLIL7.1. TYPES OF LANGUAGE7.1.1. LANGUAGE OF LEARNING - It is content-obligatory language. Subject specific. * See Appendix: The Language by Subject.7.1.2. LANGUAGE THROUGH LANGUAGEIt is not content-obligatory. It is not a language to support learning but it is the language they can learn in addition during thelesson. It is the “cherry on the cake”. It is language students may choose to learn. It is peripheral / cultural-embedded language.It makes the students’ language richer.7.1.3. LANGUAGE FOR LEARNINGIt is content-compatible language. It is the language the students need outside the classroom. It is functional language tosupport learning. It allows students to express learning, to communicate, to follow instructions or to give instructions.Certain activities require more content-obligatory language than others. We need to be aware of the type of language neededfor each activity and pre-teach some vocabulary if necessary.For instance, in the pyramid of thinking process, where the HOTS are at the top and the LOTS are at the bottom, we could saythat “three in a row” is a more content-obligatory activity and “thunks” are more functional-language like.
  14. 14. The language of giving instructions is an example of Language for Learning. The main things to consider when planning/givinginstructions are: - Grade language - Remain consistent (use language learners will recognise as “instruction”). - No overload learners – needs to know basis - Break instructions down to optimize understanding - Use clear/slow delivery - Check instructions repeatedly throughout the process (Y/N questions) - Use demo/examples - Use gesture/mime - Involve learners - Script instructions when not used to giving them in English - Stretch the learners by adding “new” language as time goes on. * See Appendix: Language for Learning * See Appendix: Talks and Presentations7.2. THUNKSWhat are thunks? Thunks are frown from Independent Thinking’s work in Philosophy for Children and have been used withthousands of young people to get them thinking deeply and critically.They are questions where there are no rights or wrongs and they are hugely liberating for young people and generate levels ofthinking that you often don’t achieve with traditional “guess what’s in the teacher’s head” type question and answering wherethere are right or wrong answers. 14Examples of thunks are: - is there more future or past? - Is black a colour? - If I switch the lights off does the wall change colour?Have fun playing around with these “thought” at http://www.independenthinking.co.uk/Cool+Stuff/Thunks/default.aspx * See Appendix: Thunks PART 8: LESSON PLANNING8.1. WHY DO WE PLAN LESSONS? - to meet the students needs and cater for different styles - to avoid boredom of students - to be organised - to keep a record of what you have done - to control the time - to assess students performances - to create interesting classes and surprise the students - to fulfil the curriculum syllabuses - to set targets - to develop as a teacher - to take risk and enjoy - to structure your lesson: lead-in, task, revision
  15. 15. - to collect materials - to plan for scaffolding - to support the lots and hots - to ensure quality - to incorporate different methods and resources - to be prepared to deliver the class.It is not good not to prepare the class but some risk-taking is ok. However you feel more able to take risks when you haveprepared your class because you feel comfortable.You must also be prepared to lessen the anxiety but if you are not following the plan because something interesting comes up,we don’t need to worry. If you are not anxious you can be more creative.Also, bear in mind that a lesson is not a collection of activities. It needs a lead-in, a task, etc.When you start preparing a lesson you can do a mind-map.A good metaphor or a lesson plan is a ROAD MAP. It may change directions but you know where you want to end up. It can alsobe seen as a MENU A LA CARTE.8.2. PAGE 1 OF A LESSON PLANLearning outcomes - the aim. The students need to know…(expressed in three lines) - by the end of the lesson the students should be able to… - the learners should be aware of…List of different types ofactivities 15ResourcesLanguage learning (which - In a CLIL plan, you must differentiate between content-obligatory and content-lg are they acquiring?) compatible languageThinking verbs in bloom’staxonomyAssessment * See Appendix: Page 1 of a lesson plan * See Appendix: Page 1 of a lesson plan b * See Appendix: Planning a Lesson8.3. PAGE 2: PROCEDURE PAGEThis is the page where you explain the activities. In short, common denominators when planning lessons are: 1. Content 2. Teaching aims 3. learning outcomes: o learners should know o learners should be able to o learners should be aware 4. Assessment: in relation to above (3) o can the learners 5. Communication o vocabulary: revisited/activated – new
  16. 16. o structures o functions 6. in relation with above (5) o examples of communication (interaction/task) 7. Cognition (cognitive skills) and examples 8. Resources o materials (sources), activities 9. procedure: o sequence of stages and steps * See Appendix: Lesson Plan Procedures8.4. EXAMPLE OF A CLIL LESSONAs an example of a CLIL lesson, let’s take “The History of Money”Start by engaging the students and establishing the topic with a lead-in activity. It must be quick and effective in establishing thetopic and it can’t be demanding.For example, show a bank-note or a coin and ask what it is for.Then, pre-teach vocabulary. It should be student led or S-S. You can play a word-definition game, use realia, elicit the vocabularyfrom the students, play the “odd one out” (this is critical thinking because you have to justify. It is also analysing and evaluatingthinking too).The activity will held around a text with gaps. 16Task 1: skimming – get the general idea/gist of the text. 2 minutes to read the text and try to remember 3 or 4 facts about thetext.Task 2: Fill in the gaps. Understand the text. Detailed / demanding task.Task 3: Reading comprehension questions. The level of challenging mustn’t be very high. So, questions should not be difficult toanswer. If you’d like to challenge the students a bit more, they could answer the questions in pairs without looking at the text oryou can make the last question a bit more difficult.Task 4: Follow-up activity with a HOT activity. - Ask the students to do a survey to find out what teenagers spend their money on and ask them to do a report, a composition or a presentation on that. - Lead a discussion on “the danger of credit: is it best cash or credit card?” and follow it with a writing or a presentation. - Ask the students to do a summary in groups. - Imagine or hypnotise: Life in the future. Create a new means of payment and do a presentation to explain it. * See Appendix: Example – Challenging prejudice and discrimination. * See Appendix: Example – The History of Money Worksheet * See Appendix: Example – Geography Lesson * See Appendix: Example - Ecosystems

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