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Herbicide classification by mode of action
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Herbicide classification by mode of action

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  • Diphenyl ethers are all post emergence—contact, and the oxadiazole is a soil applied

Herbicide classification by mode of action Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Herbicide Classification by Mode of Action• Inhibit photosynthetic electron transport• Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis• Inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase• Inhibit lipid biosynthesis (ACCase inhibitors)• Act as growth regulators• Inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis• Inhibit seeding growth
  • 2. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameTriazines atrazine AAtrex ametryn Evik simazine Princep cyanazine Bladex metribuzin Sencor,Lexone hexazinone Velpar atrazine + cyanazine Extrazine II
  • 3. Triazines• Stop photosynthesis: you see yellowing• Mobile in plant and environment (move on soil off site)• pH—low pH are soil bound (unavailable), high pH are available for plant uptake• Low pH, lime increases pH, used high atrazine on corn, then plant small grains get injury
  • 4. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePhenylureas linuron Lorox tebuthiuron Spike diuron Karmex siduron Tuperson fluormeturon Cotoran
  • 5. Phenylureas• Mobile in plant
  • 6. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameUracils bromacil Hyvar terbacil Sinbar
  • 7. Uracils• Mobil in plant• Symptoms – Bleaching and yellowing
  • 8. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameDiazinones bentazon Basagran pyridate Tough chloridazon Pyramin
  • 9. Diazinones• Do not move in plant—contact activity
  • 10. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameBipyridyliums paraquat Gramoxone Extra diquat Diquat
  • 11. Bipyridyliums• Do not move in plant—contact activity
  • 12. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameBenzonitriles bromoxynil Buctril
  • 13. Benzonitriles• Does not move in plant
  • 14. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—Imi’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameImidazolinones imazethapyr Pursuit imazaquin Scepter imazapyr Arsenal imazamethabenz Assert imazamox Raptor imazapyr+ imazethapyr Lightning
  • 15. Imidazolinones (Imi’s)• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make certain amino acids• Scepter/Imi’s need rain to activate—in a dry year there is carryover to the next crop• long lived in environment• Symptoms: – prunes roots – purpling and stunted plant – bright yellow areas in whorl of plant
  • 16. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonylureas bensulfuron Londax chlorimuron Classic chlorsulfuron Glean, Telar metsulfuron Ally nicosulfuron Accent primisulfuron Beacon sufometuron Oust
  • 17. Sulfonylureas (SU’s)• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make certain amino acids• Soilborne• Symptoms: – Pruned roots – Short plant – Yellowing in whorl• Permit—in very warm temperature, actively growing corn has a tough time growing = late season “buggy whipping”
  • 18. Sulfonylureas (SU’s) cont.• Lime amended slug = high pH = SU carryover• Low to normal pH (<6.0-6.5) = microbes work to break down hericide = no carryover = good• High pH (>6.5) slows microbial activity and hydrolysis stops = Bad!
  • 19. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonylureas thifensulfuron Harmony GT triasulfuron Amber tribenuron Express thifensulfuron Harmony + tribenuron Extra Halosulfuron Permit,Battalion rimsulfuron Matrix prosulfuron Peak
  • 20. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonylureas primisulfuron+ prosulfuron Exceed,Spirit rimsulfuron + thifensulfuron Basis sulfosulfuron Maverick
  • 21. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonamides flumetsulam Python
  • 22. Sulfonamides• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make certain amino acids• Cold, wet damage is worse because plant is not actively growing—does not metabolize herbicide• Symptoms: – Purpling – stunting
  • 23. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesisHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePhosphono glyphosate Roundup,Amino Acid TouchdownDerivatives
  • 24. Phosphono amino acid derivatives• Roundup blocks an emzyme—not a photosynthesis inhibitor• Symptoms: – Yellow band where spray droplet landed (stays yellow all season) – Will kill Non-Roundup Ready Corn
  • 25. Inhibit protporphyringen oxidase (PPO’S)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameDiphenyl ethers acifluorofen Blazer lactofen Cobra fomesafen Reflex oxyfluorofen GoalOxadiazoles sulfentrazone Authority
  • 26. PPO’s• Another enzyme system is blocked• Symptoms: – Bronzing (contact burn)
  • 27. Inhibit lipid biosynthesis (ACCase Inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameAryloxyphenoxy- diclofop HoelonPropionates fluazifop Fusilade DX(ACC-fop) fenoxaprop OptionII,Acclaim quizalofop Assure II fluazifop + Fusion fenoxapropCyclohexanediones sethoxydim Poast, Poast Plus(Acc-dim) clethodim Select
  • 28. ACCase Inhibitors• Works on enzyem system—goes to meristem and kills it• Post grass products in soybeans
  • 29. Act as growth regulatorsHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePhenoxys 2, 4-D Many MCPP Many MCPA Many 2, 4-D B Butyrac, ButoxoneBenzoic acids dicamba Banvel, Clarity, Distinct
  • 30. Growth Regulators: Oldest compounds• Symptoms: – Distortion in plant growth – Bending of corn, twisting of leaves – Fusion of brace roots – If applied too late, kills ear—no kernals, can stop the development of seed head in small grains – Cupping in leaves upward (2, 4D) – Cupping in leaves downward (dicamba) = “Cobra Head”
  • 31. Act as a growth regulatorHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePyridines picloram Tordon clopyralid Stinger triclopyr Garlon
  • 32. Inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis (Pigment inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameIsoxazolidinones clomazone CommandPyridazinones norflurazon Zorial, SolicamIsoxazoles isoxaflutole Balance
  • 33. Pigment inhibitors• Symptoms: – Bleach leaves—turn white – Carryover in small grains with Command— white plants
  • 34. Inhibit seedling growth (Shoot inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameChloroacetamides metolachlor Dual alachlor lasso, Micro-Tech propachlor Ramrod acetachlor Harness, Surpass dimethenamid Frontier
  • 35. Shoot inhibitors (Chloroacetamides)• Main group outside of permit• Symptoms: – Typical “buggy whipping” early in season – Puckering on soybeans with Dual, Lasso, Frontier • V-shape at puckering at leaf tip • Favored by cold, wet conditions
  • 36. Inhibit seedling growth (Shoot inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameThiocarbamates EPTC Eptam EPTC + safener Eradicane butylate+safener Sutan Plus
  • 37. Shoot inhibitors (Thiocarbamates)• Incorporated products• Thio=sulfur• Symptoms: – “buggy whipping” early in season – Puckering on soybeans
  • 38. Inhibit seedling growth (Root inhibitors – DNA’s)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameDinitroanalines trifluralin Treflan, etc ethafluralin Sonalan penimethanlin Prowl benefin Balan oryzalin Surflan
  • 39. Root inhibitors (Dinitroanalines)• Important group• Proves brittle bean syndrome• Symptoms: – Pruned roots, stubby