Herbicide Classification by Mode of Action•   Inhibit photosynthetic electron transport•   Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis...
Inhibit photosynthetic electron                transportHerbicide      Common                 TradeFamily         Name    ...
Triazines• Stop photosynthesis: you see yellowing• Mobile in plant and environment (move on  soil off site)• pH—low pH are...
Inhibit photosynthetic electron              transportHerbicide     Common         TradeFamily        Name           NameP...
Phenylureas• Mobile in plant
Inhibit photosynthetic electron              transportHerbicide    Common       TradeFamily       Name         NameUracils...
Uracils• Mobil in plant• Symptoms  – Bleaching and yellowing
Inhibit photosynthetic electron              transportHerbicide    Common        TradeFamily       Name          NameDiazi...
Diazinones• Do not move in plant—contact activity
Inhibit photosynthetic electron              transportHerbicide     Common      TradeFamily        Name        NameBipyrid...
Bipyridyliums• Do not move in plant—contact activity
Inhibit photosynthetic electron               transportHerbicide       Common       TradeFamily          Name         Name...
Benzonitriles• Does not move in plant
Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis            (ALS)—Imi’sHerbicide      Common        TradeFamily         Name          NameI...
Imidazolinones (Imi’s)• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make  certain amino acids• Scepter/Imi’s need rain to act...
Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis            (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide       Common          TradeFamily          Name            ...
Sulfonylureas (SU’s)• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make  certain amino acids• Soilborne• Symptoms:   – Pruned ...
Sulfonylureas (SU’s) cont.• Lime amended slug = high pH = SU  carryover• Low to normal pH (<6.0-6.5) = microbes  work to b...
Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis             (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide       Common           TradeFamily          Name          ...
Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis             (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide       Common           TradeFamily          Name          ...
Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis               (ALS)Herbicide      Common        TradeFamily         Name          NameSulf...
Sulfonamides• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot  make certain amino acids• Cold, wet damage is worse because plant ...
Inhibit amino acid biosynthesisHerbicide     Common       TradeFamily        Name         NamePhosphono     glyphosate   R...
Phosphono amino acid            derivatives• Roundup blocks an emzyme—not a  photosynthesis inhibitor• Symptoms:  – Yellow...
Inhibit protporphyringen oxidase               (PPO’S)Herbicide       Common          TradeFamily          Name           ...
PPO’s• Another enzyme system is blocked• Symptoms:  – Bronzing (contact burn)
Inhibit lipid biosynthesis (ACCase               Inhibitors)Herbicide           Common               TradeFamily          ...
ACCase Inhibitors• Works on enzyem system—goes to  meristem and kills it• Post grass products in soybeans
Act as growth regulatorsHerbicide       Common     TradeFamily          Name       NamePhenoxys        2, 4-D     Many    ...
Growth Regulators: Oldest compounds• Symptoms:  – Distortion in plant growth  – Bending of corn, twisting of leaves  – Fus...
Act as a growth regulatorHerbicide   Common       TradeFamily      Name         NamePyridines   picloram     Tordon       ...
Inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis        (Pigment inhibitors)Herbicide       Common        TradeFamily          Name        ...
Pigment inhibitors• Symptoms:  – Bleach leaves—turn white  – Carryover in small grains with Command—    white plants
Inhibit seedling growth (Shoot               inhibitors)Herbicide        Common         TradeFamily           Name        ...
Shoot inhibitors (Chloroacetamides)• Main group outside of permit• Symptoms:  – Typical “buggy whipping” early in season  ...
Inhibit seedling growth (Shoot              inhibitors)Herbicide      Common          TradeFamily         Name            ...
Shoot inhibitors (Thiocarbamates)• Incorporated products• Thio=sulfur• Symptoms:  – “buggy whipping” early in season  – Pu...
Inhibit seedling growth (Root         inhibitors – DNA’s)Herbicide       Common          TradeFamily          Name        ...
Root inhibitors (Dinitroanalines)• Important group• Proves brittle bean syndrome• Symptoms:  – Pruned roots, stubby
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Herbicide classification by mode of action

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  • Diphenyl ethers are all post emergence—contact, and the oxadiazole is a soil applied
  • Transcript of "Herbicide classification by mode of action"

    1. 1. Herbicide Classification by Mode of Action• Inhibit photosynthetic electron transport• Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis• Inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase• Inhibit lipid biosynthesis (ACCase inhibitors)• Act as growth regulators• Inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis• Inhibit seeding growth
    2. 2. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameTriazines atrazine AAtrex ametryn Evik simazine Princep cyanazine Bladex metribuzin Sencor,Lexone hexazinone Velpar atrazine + cyanazine Extrazine II
    3. 3. Triazines• Stop photosynthesis: you see yellowing• Mobile in plant and environment (move on soil off site)• pH—low pH are soil bound (unavailable), high pH are available for plant uptake• Low pH, lime increases pH, used high atrazine on corn, then plant small grains get injury
    4. 4. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePhenylureas linuron Lorox tebuthiuron Spike diuron Karmex siduron Tuperson fluormeturon Cotoran
    5. 5. Phenylureas• Mobile in plant
    6. 6. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameUracils bromacil Hyvar terbacil Sinbar
    7. 7. Uracils• Mobil in plant• Symptoms – Bleaching and yellowing
    8. 8. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameDiazinones bentazon Basagran pyridate Tough chloridazon Pyramin
    9. 9. Diazinones• Do not move in plant—contact activity
    10. 10. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameBipyridyliums paraquat Gramoxone Extra diquat Diquat
    11. 11. Bipyridyliums• Do not move in plant—contact activity
    12. 12. Inhibit photosynthetic electron transportHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameBenzonitriles bromoxynil Buctril
    13. 13. Benzonitriles• Does not move in plant
    14. 14. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—Imi’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameImidazolinones imazethapyr Pursuit imazaquin Scepter imazapyr Arsenal imazamethabenz Assert imazamox Raptor imazapyr+ imazethapyr Lightning
    15. 15. Imidazolinones (Imi’s)• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make certain amino acids• Scepter/Imi’s need rain to activate—in a dry year there is carryover to the next crop• long lived in environment• Symptoms: – prunes roots – purpling and stunted plant – bright yellow areas in whorl of plant
    16. 16. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonylureas bensulfuron Londax chlorimuron Classic chlorsulfuron Glean, Telar metsulfuron Ally nicosulfuron Accent primisulfuron Beacon sufometuron Oust
    17. 17. Sulfonylureas (SU’s)• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make certain amino acids• Soilborne• Symptoms: – Pruned roots – Short plant – Yellowing in whorl• Permit—in very warm temperature, actively growing corn has a tough time growing = late season “buggy whipping”
    18. 18. Sulfonylureas (SU’s) cont.• Lime amended slug = high pH = SU carryover• Low to normal pH (<6.0-6.5) = microbes work to break down hericide = no carryover = good• High pH (>6.5) slows microbial activity and hydrolysis stops = Bad!
    19. 19. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonylureas thifensulfuron Harmony GT triasulfuron Amber tribenuron Express thifensulfuron Harmony + tribenuron Extra Halosulfuron Permit,Battalion rimsulfuron Matrix prosulfuron Peak
    20. 20. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)—SU’sHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonylureas primisulfuron+ prosulfuron Exceed,Spirit rimsulfuron + thifensulfuron Basis sulfosulfuron Maverick
    21. 21. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesis (ALS)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameSulfonamides flumetsulam Python
    22. 22. Sulfonamides• ALS: block an enzyme so the plant cannot make certain amino acids• Cold, wet damage is worse because plant is not actively growing—does not metabolize herbicide• Symptoms: – Purpling – stunting
    23. 23. Inhibit amino acid biosynthesisHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePhosphono glyphosate Roundup,Amino Acid TouchdownDerivatives
    24. 24. Phosphono amino acid derivatives• Roundup blocks an emzyme—not a photosynthesis inhibitor• Symptoms: – Yellow band where spray droplet landed (stays yellow all season) – Will kill Non-Roundup Ready Corn
    25. 25. Inhibit protporphyringen oxidase (PPO’S)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameDiphenyl ethers acifluorofen Blazer lactofen Cobra fomesafen Reflex oxyfluorofen GoalOxadiazoles sulfentrazone Authority
    26. 26. PPO’s• Another enzyme system is blocked• Symptoms: – Bronzing (contact burn)
    27. 27. Inhibit lipid biosynthesis (ACCase Inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameAryloxyphenoxy- diclofop HoelonPropionates fluazifop Fusilade DX(ACC-fop) fenoxaprop OptionII,Acclaim quizalofop Assure II fluazifop + Fusion fenoxapropCyclohexanediones sethoxydim Poast, Poast Plus(Acc-dim) clethodim Select
    28. 28. ACCase Inhibitors• Works on enzyem system—goes to meristem and kills it• Post grass products in soybeans
    29. 29. Act as growth regulatorsHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePhenoxys 2, 4-D Many MCPP Many MCPA Many 2, 4-D B Butyrac, ButoxoneBenzoic acids dicamba Banvel, Clarity, Distinct
    30. 30. Growth Regulators: Oldest compounds• Symptoms: – Distortion in plant growth – Bending of corn, twisting of leaves – Fusion of brace roots – If applied too late, kills ear—no kernals, can stop the development of seed head in small grains – Cupping in leaves upward (2, 4D) – Cupping in leaves downward (dicamba) = “Cobra Head”
    31. 31. Act as a growth regulatorHerbicide Common TradeFamily Name NamePyridines picloram Tordon clopyralid Stinger triclopyr Garlon
    32. 32. Inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis (Pigment inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameIsoxazolidinones clomazone CommandPyridazinones norflurazon Zorial, SolicamIsoxazoles isoxaflutole Balance
    33. 33. Pigment inhibitors• Symptoms: – Bleach leaves—turn white – Carryover in small grains with Command— white plants
    34. 34. Inhibit seedling growth (Shoot inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameChloroacetamides metolachlor Dual alachlor lasso, Micro-Tech propachlor Ramrod acetachlor Harness, Surpass dimethenamid Frontier
    35. 35. Shoot inhibitors (Chloroacetamides)• Main group outside of permit• Symptoms: – Typical “buggy whipping” early in season – Puckering on soybeans with Dual, Lasso, Frontier • V-shape at puckering at leaf tip • Favored by cold, wet conditions
    36. 36. Inhibit seedling growth (Shoot inhibitors)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameThiocarbamates EPTC Eptam EPTC + safener Eradicane butylate+safener Sutan Plus
    37. 37. Shoot inhibitors (Thiocarbamates)• Incorporated products• Thio=sulfur• Symptoms: – “buggy whipping” early in season – Puckering on soybeans
    38. 38. Inhibit seedling growth (Root inhibitors – DNA’s)Herbicide Common TradeFamily Name NameDinitroanalines trifluralin Treflan, etc ethafluralin Sonalan penimethanlin Prowl benefin Balan oryzalin Surflan
    39. 39. Root inhibitors (Dinitroanalines)• Important group• Proves brittle bean syndrome• Symptoms: – Pruned roots, stubby

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