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Survey of human anatomy and physiology Chapter 1 to 4


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Power Point Presentation of Chapters 1 through 4 in "Survey of Anatomy and Physiology"

Power Point Presentation of Chapters 1 through 4 in "Survey of Anatomy and Physiology"

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  • 1. Fall 2013 Cathy Mahon,PA Instructor
  • 2.  Chapter 1
  • 3.  Anatomy and Physiology Means literally to “cut apart” Function and vital processes Define A&P Study of the structure of the body Answers the question of HOW the body works!
  • 4.  The body is made up of approximately 50-100 trillion cells Over the course of a lifetime of 75 years we will inhale and exhale roughly 236 million liters of air The average length of the small intestine in the human male is 22 ft 6 inches and in female 23 ft 4 inches Did you know?
  • 5.  Anatomy Micro: seen with microscope Macro Gross Anatomy: Bones Micro vs Macro Anatomy Cytology Chest x-ray Histology
  • 6.  Morphology Description of forms and structures Describes shapes and sizes Define Morphology
  • 7. The gene for sickle cell anemia when expressed as a recessive trait protects one from contracting malaria. Which race of humans in the U.S. has the highest incidence of sickle cell anemia? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Caucasian or White B.Native American C.African American D.Asian American
  • 8.  Disease Literally means “not at ease” Condition in which body fails to function normally Define Disease
  • 9.  Pathology Pathophysiology The Language of Disease The study of disease characteristics including cause and effect The science that investigates abnormal body function
  • 10.  Etiology Nosocomial Epidemiology Communicable Contagious The Language of Disease The cause of illness and disease Acquired in medical facility The study of transmission, frequency occurrence and distribution of disease Spread person to person, animal to person, insect to person Readily or easily transmitted
  • 11.  Center for Disease Control Keeps track of diseases worldwide Began 60 years ago The Language of Disease
  • 12.  Endemic- continually present in population Epidemic- occurs suddenly and in large numbers in one region Pandemic- spreads country or worldwide The Language of Disease
  • 13.  What infectious disease was one of two to be eradicated world wide in 1979 through vaccination campaigns? A. Chicken Pox B. Small Pox C. Whooping Cough D. Herpes Simplex The P.A./Instructor asks:
  • 14.  Complete the 8 questions for Section 1-1 Test Your Knowledge
  • 15.  Word Root Prefix Prefix Word Root Suffix Suffix Medical Terminology + +
  • 16.  abdomin o plasty Combining Forms Word Root Vowel Suffix Adding a vowel to the word root makes easier to say
  • 17.  Write down as many “ologists” as you can think of in two minutes. Hint: Think of all of the different doctors who are specialists that you or your family have been to over the years. The Language of A&P
  • 18.  Review of medical terminology- Using the flash cards to test your partner. Find the word root and the prefix and/or suffix The Language of A&P
  • 19.  Complete the 11 questions for Section 1-2 Test Your Knowledge
  • 20. Medical Terminology Written language Health professionals Metric System Mathematical language Health Professionals The Language of A&P
  • 21.  Metric Int’l System of Units Power of ten English U.S Customary System Inconsistent units Metric System vs English
  • 22.  Metric Centimeters, milliliters, kilometers, kilograms Used all around the world and U.S. health professionals English Inches, pounds, miles and gallons Used mainly in United States Metric System vs English
  • 23.  •Anabolism •Catabolism Metabolism •Negative feedback loop •Positive feedback loop Homeostasis A&P Disease Concepts
  • 24.  •Building phase •Simple compounds built up for growth, repair and reproduction Anabolism •Breakdown phase •Complex substances broken down into simpler substances Catabolism Anabolism vs. Catabolism
  • 25.  A state of being that utilizes physiological process to MONITOR and MAINTAIN a stable internal environment What is Homeostasis?
  • 26. •The reaction of system to stimulus is to do the opposite •E.g. The body reacts to fevers & if it’s too hot, system cools Negative feedback loop •Increases the magnitude of change away from ideal set point •E.g. Contraction of uterus from increasing oxytocin levels until baby is born Positive feedback loop Homeostasis
  • 27.  Explain how the body brings the body temperature back to normal if it gets too cold? The P.A./Instructor asks: By shivering, the muscles of the body contract rapidly and involuntarily, generating heat
  • 28.  Signs Objective Measurable Symptoms Subjective Perceived by patient Assessment of Disease
  • 29. Blood pressure Pulse Respirations Temperature Vital Signs
  • 30. Pain Tachycardia Itching Hypotension Blurred vision Sign or Symptoms? SIGN SYMPTOM
  • 31.  Grouping of signs and symptoms relating to a specific disease What is a syndrome? Marfan’s Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Down’s Syndrome
  • 32.  Chief complaint: Why is the patient here? Were symptoms sudden or gradual? History of present illness Ask open ended questions Let patient explain how they feel Medical History Including previous hospitalizations and surgeries Disease Concepts: Diagnosis Diagnosis means “know through completely”
  • 33.  Disease Factors Disease starts with an imbalance in the body Stress & Inactivity Immune system dysfunction Delayed healing Poor diet
  • 34.  Prognosis Remission Relapses Exacerbation More Disease Concepts Once a disease process is identified, we can predict an outcome and monitor for disappearance or recurrence of signs/symptoms as well as acute flare ups.
  • 35.  Terminal Mortality Morbidity More Disease Concepts Disease processes may lead to death or disability and cases are recorded and studied later
  • 36.  Complete the 3 questions for Section 1-3 Test Your Knowledge
  • 38.  Any disease producing microorganism. Some are pathogenic ONLY when they enter PORTALS OF ENTRY or grow in uncontrolled manner. What is a pathogen?
  • 39.  Portals of Entry Openings in the body where pathogens can enter
  • 40.  •Chemicals •Temperature •Radiation •Allergens •Foreign substance •Injury •Trauma •Bacteria •Virus Skin Immune response Allergic Inflam- mation Body’s Defense System
  • 41.  Redness Heat Swelling Pain Signs of Inflammation
  • 42.  Vector Contact-direct or indirect Common Vehicle Airborne Disease Process- Pathogens Disease producing organisms that enter the body are called “pathogenic” and have FOUR main routes of transmission
  • 43.  Insect Animal Vector Transmission Vector Insects can carry malaria and animals like birds can carry flu virus
  • 44.  Biological Mechanical Vector Transmission Vector Pathogen lives in animal or insect Pathogen present on surface of animal or insect
  • 45.  Direct Indirect Contact Transmission Contact Contact can be with infected tissue or waste or contaminated material
  • 46.  Blood products IV tubing Food Common Vehicle Transmission Common Vehicle- contaminated
  • 47.  Respiratory droplets Air droplets from equipment AirborneTransmission Airborne
  • 48.  Source Transport Entry Standard Precautions Assume that everyone is carrying a communicable disease and break the chain of infection to stop the spread of infectious disease.
  • 49.  Gloves Masks Goggles Face shields PLUS: Prevention of Needle Sticks Standard Precautions- PPE
  • 50.  What is the single most important practice to reduce the spread of (transmission) of infectious agents in a health care setting (or anywhere)? The P.A./Instructor Asks: A. Wearing Gloves B. Wiping counter tops clean C. Hand hygiene D.Wearing a white coat
  • 51.  Complete the 2 questions for Section 1-4 and Discuss the Case study Test Your Knowledge
  • 52.  Chapter Two
  • 53.  Stand Erect Feet Together Arms at the side Palms Up Reading the Map of Human Body
  • 54.  Body Positions Supine Lateral Prone
  • 55.  Trendelenburg Originally used to position the pelvic organs correctly during surgery by Frederick Trendelenburg, then used to help raise blood pressure in patients going into shock
  • 56.   NOW ONLY RECOMMEDED: Current Recommendations The Trendelenburg position is clinically useful for: *Insertion or removal of central venous catheters *Certain spinal anesthetic techniques The Trendelenburg position is probably not indicated or may have harmful effects in: *Resuscitation of patients who are hypotensive *Patients in whom mechanical ventilation is difficult, or patients with decreased vital capacity *Patients who have increased intracranial pressure *Patients who have cerebral edema *Patients who have increased intraocular pressure *Patients with ischemia of the lower limbs
  • 57.   45-60 degree head elevation Fowler Position Can be used to relax tension of the abdominal muscles, allowing for improved breathing in immobile patients as it alleviates compression of the chest due to gravity, and to increase comfort during eating and other activities.
  • 58.  Disease Concepts  Body position can affect a patient’s signs (observable) and symptoms (what a patient feels). Jugular Venous Distension Orthostatic hypotension Orthopnea SIGN SYMPTOM
  • 59.  Complete the 4 questions for Section 2-1 Test Your Knowledge
  • 60.   A plane, when referring to directions, is an imaginary line drawn through an object; in this case the HUMAN BODY Body Planes/Directions
  • 61.  THREE BODY PLANES Transverse , Sagittal and Frontal
  • 62.   Same as horizontal or cross section and divides the body into TOP AND BOTTOM (superior and inferior) TRANSVERSE
  • 63.  Cranial-head/skull Caudal-tail Directions: Top to Bottom
  • 64.  SAGITTAL Divides the body into RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES If each side is equal, it is a “mid-sagittal”cut
  • 65.  Medial Medial Medial Direction MEDIAL means toward the MIDLINE of the body from either the left or right side of the body
  • 66.  Lateral Lateral Lateral Direction LATERAL means away from or LEAVING the midline of the body to the left or right
  • 67.  FRONTAL Divides the body BACK and FRONT • Posterior • Dorsal • Back • Anterior • Ventral • Front
  • 68.  Superficial Superficial Superficial Direction Close to the Surface of ANY PART OF THE BODY
  • 69.  Deep Deep Deep Direction Away from the surface of ANY PART OF THE BODY
  • 70.  Proximal Proximal Proximal Direction Near a point of reference or origin of the body
  • 71.  Distal Distal Distal Direction Away from ANY point of reference in the body
  • 72.  Internal External External External External External vs Internal INSIDE VS. OUTSIDE
  • 73.  Center of Body Peripheral Peripheral Peripheral Peripheral Central vs Peripheral CENTER VS. OUTER REGIONS Outer regions Outer regions Outer regions Outer regions
  • 74.  Central Part of Body Head and Torso *Vital Organs for Survival
  • 75.  Peripheral Part of Body Arms and Legs or “extremities” *Non-vital to survival
  • 76.  Which condition can contribute to the formation of a blood clot that starts in the leg (DVT) and can go to the lung? A. Varicose Veins B. Use of blood thinners C. Venous stasis D. Use of TED hose (support stockings) The P.A./Instructor asks:
  • 77.  Complete the 10 questions for Section 2-2 Test Your Knowledge
  • 79.  Body Cavities Body cavities divided between front and back by SPINAL VERTEBRAE
  • 80.  FRONT Body Cavities Anterior means FRONT, Posterior means BACK or behind, in reference to SPINE
  • 81.  FRONT Body Cavities Ventral also means FRONT, Dorsal also means BACK or behind, in reference to SPINE
  • 82.  FRONT Body Cavities Anterior • Thoracic Anterior • Abdominopelvic
  • 83.  What large muscle divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity? A. Psoas B. Biceps C. Gluteus maximus D. Diaphragm The P.A./Instructor asks:
  • 84.  FRONT Body Cavities Thoracic Cavity Contains: • Heart • Lungs • Large Vessels-Aorta, Superior Vena Cava
  • 85.  FRONT Body Cavities Heart has its own cavity called the PERIDCARDIAL Cavity or SAC
  • 86.  FRONT Body Cavities Abdominal Cavity Contains: • Stomach • Intestines • Liver, Gallbladder • Pancreas • Spleen
  • 87.  FRONT Body Cavities Pelvic Cavity Contains: • Bladder • Reproductive Organs • End of Large Intestine
  • 88.  Dividing Front & Back The spine is CENTRALLY located with 30 vertebrae and divides the anterior and posterior cavities
  • 89.  Dividing Front & Back There are SEVEN Cervical vertebrae like SEVEN days in a week
  • 90.  Dividing Front & Back There are TWELVE Thoracic vertebrae like TWELVE months in a year
  • 91.  Dividing Front & Back There are FIVE Lumbar vertebrae like FIVE fingers on a hand
  • 92.  Dividing Front & Back There are FIVE Fused SACRAL vertebrae like FIVE fingers on a hand
  • 93.  Dividing Front & Back There is ONE COCCYX or TAIL at the end of the spine
  • 94.  BACK Body Cavities Posterior •Spinal Posterior •Cranial
  • 95.  BACK Body Cavities Spinal Cavity Contains: • Spinal Cord
  • 96.  BACK Body Cavities Cranial Cavity Contains: • Brain
  • 97.  Complete the 6 questions for Section 2-3 Test Your Knowledge
  • 98.  BODY REGIONS NINE REGIONS OF THE BODY 1. Right Hypochondriac 2. Epigastric 3. Left Hypochondriac 4. Right Lumbar 5. Umbilical 6. Left Lumbar 7. Right Iliac 8. Hypogastric 9. Left Iliac
  • 99.  BODY REGIONS- Quadrants Easier to describe a patient’s symptoms by using quadrants as a way to identify a body region
  • 100.  BODY REGIONS Anterior and Posterior Body Regions* *Page 35 and 36
  • 101.  Which type of hernia is most common in newborn babies after “cutting the cord”? A. Umbilical B. Femoral C. Inguinal D. Ventral The P.A./Instructor asks:
  • 102.  Complete the 5 questions for Section 2-4 Test Your Knowledge
  • 103.  Radiology-Viewing the Body
  • 104.  Air-Least Dense DARK Tissue/Fat DARK OR LIGHT Water- MID RANGE Bone/Metal LIGHT Radiology-Viewing the Body
  • 105.  PA posterior to anterior PA back to front Distance 6 feet from machine to film Radiology-Viewing the Body
  • 106.  AP anterior to posterior PA front to back Distance 4 feet from machine to film Used in hospitals-patient in bed Radiology-Viewing the Body
  • 107.  Radiology-Viewing the Body Focused Beam that circles the body Thin slices for greater detail
  • 108.  CT SCAN Allows for 3 dimensional view, like a loaf of sliced bread gives better idea of total shape of loaf
  • 109.  Radiology-Viewing the Body Magnetic energy to create cross section imagesPatient cannot move or have metal objects in their body
  • 110.  Radiology-Viewing the Body Sound waves that allow you to view body parts in real time No radiation involved
  • 111.  On page 39 in your book, what is wrong with the description of the xray on the left? The P.A./Instructor asks: The label identifies it as showing “typical” joint changes associated with osteoarthritis. It is actually an xray of a patient who has had a TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT
  • 112.  Review case study and Complete the Review Questions on page 41 and 42 Test Your Knowledge
  • 113.  Let’s watch the videos of the bones of the skull Bones of Skull Use your handouts and label the parts
  • 114.  Bones of the Spine-on the Quiz
  • 115.  Chapter 3
  • 116.  Biochemistry of Life Vital and with interactions between molecules
  • 117.  Tissue Atoms Elements Molecules Cells Biochemistry of Life Phyisiology is how Chemistry relates to a living organism
  • 118.  Power of TEN Watch animation on website Making what’s seemingly invisible and only in our imagination, visible and REAL
  • 119.  Element Fe Fe Fe Fe Atoms, Elements & Ions Smallest unit of matter that retains unique chemical properties Fe =Iron
  • 120.  Molecules Two or more elements joined together O=Oxygen O O O O O O Oxygen in the air is two elements joined together
  • 121.  Compounds Molecules with more than one element H=Hydrogen O=Oxygen O H H H O O A carbohydrate is a combination of three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen C C C C=Carbon
  • 122.  Protons Electrons Neutrons Parts of the Atom Smallest recognizable unit of an element
  • 123.  Atoms, Elements & Ions Elements are listed in periodic table based on number of protons *abbreviated with 1 or 2 letters
  • 124.  What important trace element found in seafood is necessary for the activity of the thyroid? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Manganese B.Copper C.Zinc D.Iodine
  • 125.  Protons Electrons Parts of the Atom Number of PROTONS is equal to ELECTRONS =
  • 126.  Protons Electrons Protons & Electrons =+ _ Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged
  • 127.  Protons Electrons Ions-Electric Charge _ + _ Atoms that lose an electron are positively charged IONS
  • 128.  Protons ElectronElectron Ions-Electric Charge - - Atoms that gain an electron are negatively charged IONS +
  • 129.  Protons ElectronElectron Polar Ion with Charge - - Polarity refers to atoms with an electric charge either negative… +
  • 130.  Protons Electrons Polar Ion with Charge _ + _ …OR positively charged
  • 131.  POSITIVE NEGATIVE Ions with a Charge OPPOSITES ATTRACT!!!!! Positive ions attracted to negative ions
  • 132.  Positive Positive Ions with a Charge SIMILARS REPEL!!!!! Positive ions repelled by positive ions
  • 133.   Charged Ions found in the body, influence muscles, nervous systems and fluid balance ELECTROLYTES Cl- Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphate
  • 134.  What organ in the body is responsible for regulating the electrolyte balance? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Heart B.Liver C.Pancreas D.Kidney
  • 135.  ACIDS AND BASES Electrolytes (Ions) that can conduct electricity and break down water into its separate parts
  • 136.  ACIDS Release hydrogen H+ ions when dissolved in water
  • 137.  BASES Accept hydrogen H+ ions when dissolved in water
  • 138.  Acid Base Concentration pH stands for “potential of hydrogen” to be attracted to OH-
  • 139.  Acid Base Concentration The lower the number, the less OH- ions and the more there is H+ ions available to be released
  • 140.  Regulating Acid/Bases O2 CO2 Respiratory system takes in O2 and gets rid of excess CO2 which is a weak acid with kidneys excreting excess acids in the body
  • 142.  BONDING
  • 143.  Joining of elements Covalent Ionic Chemical Bonding Molecules are formed by joining elements
  • 144.  Covalent Bonding Electron Electron Joining Elements to form Molecules by Sharing of Electrons . .
  • 145.  Ionic Bonding Joining Elements to form Molecules by one atom Donating Electrons to another
  • 146.  Polar Covalent Electron Electron One atom takes more than its share of electrons, creating a weak charge . -.+ XX
  • 147.  Ionic Polar Covalent Covalent Comparing Bonds Highly charged Weakly charged Not charged
  • 148.  WATER IS LIFE
  • 149.  WE ARE WATER Water is a polar solvent with polar covalent bonds with a slight charge
  • 150.  WATER is H20 Oxygen takes more of its share of electrons than hydrogen and carries a weak charge that attracts other charged molecules - + +
  • 151.  MIXES EASILY with H2O Charged molecules like oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen are attracted to one end or another of H20 - + +
  • 152.  DOES NOT MIX EASILY with H2O Molecules that do not carry a charge will not mix easily with H2O like Fats and Oils - + +
  • 153.  CELL MEMBRANES Hydrophobic fat layer on the outside of cell membrane regulates movement in and out of the cell.
  • 154.  HYDROGEN BONDS Hydrogen bonds between H20 are weak and increase water’s capacity to store heat meaning water can heat up and cool down slower than air - + +
  • 155.  Why does someone who does not sweat become easily overheated? The P.A./Instructor asks: Because moisture (water) on the skin allows it to heat up more slowly than dry skin and keeps it at a more normal temperature longer.
  • 156.  SOLUTIONS Dissolving one substance in another Solute Solvent Solution Solute-substance that is dissolved Solvent substance doing the dissolving
  • 157.  SOLUTIONS Dissolving one substance in another Electro lytes Water Solution Solute-substance that is dissolved Solvent substance doing the dissolving
  • 158.  Solutions at Home Mix ¼ cup of sugar with 1 cup of H20 and heat until solute is dissolved in solvent
  • 159.  Solute Concentration Amount of solute dissolved in solvent Solute ¼ cup Solvent 1 cup Solution Solute is sugar Solvent is water
  • 160.  Complete the 5 questions in Section 3-1 Test Your Knowledge
  • 161.  BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Found in living systems
  • 162.  Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
  • 163.  Carbohydrates Used for energy and structural molecules
  • 164.  Monosaccharides Simple sugars
  • 165.  Disaccharides Disaccharides are two simple sugars +
  • 166.  Polysaccharides Stored energy in liver
  • 167.  LIPIDS Mainly carbon and hydrogen and very little oxygen
  • 168.  LIPIDS Fats and oils contain glycerol used for energy storage, communication and protection
  • 169.  WAXES Fatty acid with alcohol. The most hydrophobic for protection
  • 170.  PHOSPHOLIPIDS Two fatty acid “tails” and phosphate “head” and key ingredient in cell membranes
  • 171.  STEROIDS Lipids with carbon atoms arranged in rings for structure or communication between cells
  • 173.  PROTEINS Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen A special linkage unique to proteins called the PEPTIDE BOND ties the amino acids together
  • 174.  VERSATILE PROTEINS Collagens Enzymes Muscle proteins Antibodies Hormones
  • 175.  PROTEINS Cytosine Guanine Adenosine Thymine The structure of a protein is determined by order of amino acids
  • 176.  NUCLEIC ACIDS ibo cid ucleic Controls the activities of cells and contains your genetic code responsible for cellular reproduction
  • 177.  NUCLEIC ACIDS eoxyribo cid ucleic Controls the activities of cells and contains your genetic code responsible for cellular reproduction
  • 178.  Complete the 5 questions in Section 3-2 Test Your Knowledge
  • 179.  METABOLISM
  • 180.  All chemical operations in the body Anabolism Catabolism METABOLISM
  • 181.  All chemical operations in the body Nutrients to Fuel the body Produces Waste METABOLISM
  • 182.  Metabolism Anabolism Dehydration Build up Catabolism BreakdownHydrolysis METABOLISM
  • 183.  Anabolism Simple compounds built for growth, repair and reproduction Dehydration removes H20 to form large molecules Catabolism Complex substances broken down Hydrolysis adds H20 to break up large molecules Anabolism vs Catabolism
  • 184.  What common condition in patients slows the metabolism causing weight gain? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Diabetes B.Hypertension C.Hypothyroidism D.Arthritis
  • 185.  ENZYMES
  • 186.  ENZYMES
  • 187.  Enzymes to the Rescue Chemical reactions in cells are TOO SLOW and need help so they can use the materials
  • 188.  ENZYMES Enzymes are unchanged by the chemical reaction
  • 189.  ENZYMES Protein molecules with special binding sites Molecules that need help in a chemical reaction
  • 190.  ENZYMES Enzymes are matched to SPECIFIC substrate
  • 191.  ENZYMES Substrates compete for binding sites until all are filled
  • 192.  “Ride the ENZYME” Biological molecules bind to enzymes and are carried like riders in a roller coaster. Enzymes return for more molecules/passengers when reaction/ride is complete
  • 193.  “You Can’t Ride the ENZYME” Enzymes can also prevent the substrate molecule from binding/riding the roller coaster
  • 194.  CELL ENERGY & ATP We all need food for energy, but HOW DOES IT GET TO THE CELLS?
  • 195.  Cellular Respiration Glucose Oxygen ATP Inside the mitochondria, glucose is combined with O2 and made into high energy molecule
  • 196.  ATP-Stored Energy denosine ri hosphate Made up of a base, a sugar and three “tri” phosphate groups held by HIGH ENERGY BONDS
  • 197.  ADP-Released Energy denosine i hosphate When bonds are broken, energy is released and molecule becomes “di”and is ready to pick up another phosphate
  • 198.  Complete the 4 questions in Section 3-3, Case Study and Review Questions Test Your Knowledge
  • 199.  Oct 3, 2013 Exam on Chapters 1-3 Go to Most of the test questions will come from worksheets and the website: multiple choice, fill in the blank, true or false, matching and short essay Test Your Knowledge
  • 200.  Chapter 4 The Cells Each structure of the body is made up of “building blocks” called THE CELLS
  • 201.  Chapter 4 The Cells Each cell has its own component parts cytoplasm nucleolus ribosome Cell membrane mitochondria nucleus centrosomes endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus
  • 202.  Specialized Cells Organs Organ System Organelles Cells Chapter 4 The Cells Human
  • 203.  All of the following organs are part of the gastrointestinal system except? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Kidney B.Gallbladder C. Colon D.Esophagus
  • 204.  Cells contain chemicals and structures and make up  ALL LIVING THINGS CELLS of LIFE
  • 205.  MICROSCOPIC CELLS Our body is made up almost entirely of microscopic cells and cannot be seen with the naked eye. The nerve cell is the largest and can be TWO FEET LONG
  • 206.  MICROSCOPIC CELLS Cells come in various shapes and sizes Flat Round Threadlike Irregular
  • 207.  Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Review: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
  • 208.  Cell Structure Almost all cells possess a nucleus, organelles, cytoplasm and a cell membrane each with a special purpose cytoplasm nucleolus ribosome cell membrane mitochondria nucleus Golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum
  • 209.  Cell Membrane Surrounds the cytoplasm as a protective covering with a defined border and definite shape
  • 210.  Selectively Permeable Allows materials in and out of the cell and decide specifically which things are not allowed
  • 211.  Specialized Structures Contains specialized structures: channels, tunnels or carriers
  • 212.  Identification Markers Markers on the cell membrane identify the cell as belonging to specific individual and set off an “attack” of foreign cells
  • 213.  Cell Membrane Transport Methods
  • 214.  Passive Across the membrane No energy Active Across the membrane Requires energy Transport Methods
  • 215.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  • 216.  Diffusion Higher Concentration to lower concentration
  • 217.  Concentration Gradient Higher Concentration minus lower concentration
  • 218.  Concentration Gradient Nature likes a nice equal balance The water assumes same color & flavor as the powder Traffic moves when concentration of cars decreases
  • 219.  Diffusion Diffusion is necessary for O2 to go from lungs to blood and for CO2 to go from blood to lungs and out into the air
  • 220.  What specialized cell in the blood carries oxygen to the cells of the body as well as carry carbon dioxide out of body? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.White Blood Cells B. Alveoli C. Platelets D.Red Blood Cells
  • 221.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  • 222.  Osmosis A solute, like sugar, cannot pass through membrane, but water goes from low to higher concentration of the SOLUTE
  • 223.  Osmosis H20 travels through semipermeable membrane until SOLUTE concentrations are equalized
  • 224.  Diffusion Substance moves from High to low concentration through cell membrane Osmosis Water alone moves from low to high solute concentration through semi-permeable membrane Diffusion vs. Osmosis
  • 225.  OSMOTIC PRESSURE Ability of a substance to “pull” H20 toward area of high concentration of the solute
  • 226.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  • 227.  FILTRATION Pressure is exerted to force H20 and its dissolved material across the membrane
  • 228.  FILTRATION-Kidneys Major supplier of force is the pumping of heart which forces blood into the kidney where filtration takes place
  • 229.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  • 230.  FACILITATED DIFFUSION A substance is helped across the membrane on a “carrier protein”
  • 231.  FACILITATED DIFFUSION The protein is specific for each substance and is available to carry it through the membrane
  • 232.  Complete the 7 questions in Section 4-1 And briefly explain one of the two diseases, Cystic Fibrosis or Diabetes as it relates to passive transport Test Your Knowledge
  • 234.  Passive Across the membrane No energy Active Across the membrane Requires energy Transport Methods
  • 235.  Active Transport Pumps Endocytosis Exocytosis ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  • 236.  Active Transport Pumps Uses a protein carrier with energy from ATP to move a substance as it moves UP the gradient
  • 237.  Active Transport Pumps Na+ and ATP used in active transport pump needed to transmit a nerve impulse
  • 238.  Active Transport Pumps Endocytosis Exocytosis ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  • 239.  Endo Used for intake Phago or pinocytosis Exo Exit out of the cell Uses ATP for energy Endo vs Exocytosis
  • 240.  ENDOCYTOSIS Used for intake of LIQUID AND FOOD when substance is too large to diffuse across membrane
  • 241.  ENDOCYTOSIS Cell membrane surrounds substance forming a vesicle and becomes separate from original membrane
  • 242.  PHAGOCYTOSIS Solid particle engulfed in a cell
  • 243.  PINOCYTOSIS Liquid substance engulfed in a cell
  • 244.  EXOCYTOSIS Happens when cell needs to transport substances out of itself. After substance made, it is surrounded by vesicle and moves to cell membrane, where it is expelled
  • 245.  Endo vs. exocytosis Intake of liquid and food versus transport of substances out of the cell
  • 246.  Complete the 3 questions in Section 4-2 And briefly explain familial hypercholesterolemia Test Your Knowledge
  • 247.  Cell Structure cytoplasm nucleolus ribosome Cell membrane mitochondria nucleus endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus centrosomes
  • 248.  CYTOPLASM A watery solution of organic and inorganic chemicals ENCLOSED in the cell membrane
  • 249.  Nucleus & Nucleolus Nucleus is control center of cell with chromatin that contains DNA which can form chromosomes containing genes that create new cells
  • 250.  Nucleus & Nucleolus The DNA material inside the genes is what determines inherited characteristics
  • 251.  Nucleolus Nucleolus is inside the nucleus and it’s main function is to synthesize RNA that forms ribosomes
  • 252.  Ribosome Found on the endoplasmic reticulum or in cytoplasm and is the site where enzymes and proteins are made for cell repair & reproduction
  • 253.  Centrosome Specialized regions of cell designed to build new cell structures to replace old.
  • 254.  Centrosome The tubular centrioles inside the centrosome come in pairs and are involved in the division of the cell
  • 255.  Mitochondria Provide up to 95% of body’s energy for cellular repair, movement and reproduction
  • 256.  Mitochondria- Liver vs Sperm Cells with more activity need more mitochondria
  • 257.  Mitochondria Enzymes in mitochondria help take in O2 and use to produce energy in form of ATP which the cell uses
  • 258.  Endoplasmic Reticulum A series of channels formed from folded membranes, there are two kinds ROUGH and SMOOTH
  • 259.  Rough & Smooth ER Rough has ribosomes on its surface responsible for synthesis of protein. Smooth synthesizes lipids and steroids
  • 260.  Golgi Apparatus Receives protein from ER, processes and stores it by surrounding it with a vesicle, then it is expelled at cell membrane by EXOCYTOSIS
  • 261.  Golgi Apparatus Organs with high secretory function such as pancreatic cells and salivary glands contain high numbers of Golgi apparatus
  • 262.  Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes are proteins made in the Golgi apparatus and stay in the cell
  • 263.  Lysosomes Lysosomes are proteins made in the Golgi apparatus and contain enzymes to clean up debris & waste as well as aid in destroying unwanted bacteria by phagocytosis
  • 264.  Vesicles & Cytoskeleton A transport vesicle carries substance made by Golgi apparatus Made up of microtubules/filaments & give cell its shape
  • 265.  Flagella and Cilia Has a whipped shaped tail used for movement Short hair-like projections on outer cell creating wavelike movement
  • 266.  What common activity by humans can cause emphysema by destroying cilia in the lung? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Drinking alcohol B.Chewing tobacco C. Eating chocolate D.Smoking cigarettes
  • 267.  Complete the 4 questions in Section 4-3 Test Your Knowledge
  • 269.  Cellular Reproduction The process of making a new cell occurs in MITOSIS and cell division- one cell divides into two IDENTICAL cells in ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  • 270.  Cellular Reproduction Cells of human body have several chromosomes in nucleus with DNA “packages” of chromatin
  • 271.  Cellular Reproduction Chromosomes carry instructions from cell on how to function and reproduce. All chromosomes are copied just before cell divides
  • 272.  Cellular Reproduction Cells divide by binary fission. There is NO nucleus or organelles. DNA copies itself & cytoplasm splits in half when cell divides
  • 273.  CELL CYCLE There are TWO PHASES of the cell’s life: INTERPHASE And MITOTIC PHASE
  • 274.  INTERPHASE 80-90% of time spent in INTERPHASE when cell is not dividing but functioning normally
  • 275.  MITOTIC PHASE Actual cell dividing during MITOSIS when genetic material is divided and CYTOKINESIS
  • 276.  MITOTIC PHASE MITOSIS occurs in your body any time your cells need to be replaced during REPAIR & REGENERATION and GROWTH and LENGTHENING
  • 277.  FOUR PHASES Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telephase
  • 278.  PROPHASE The nucleus disappears, chromosomes visible and centrioles move to the sides of the cell. “Guide wire” spindles form to anchor chromosomes
  • 279.  METAPHASE The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
  • 280.  ANAPHASE The chromosomes split and the spindles pull them apart
  • 281.  TELEPHASE The chromosomes go to the far end of the cell, the spindle disappears and the nuclei reappear
  • 282.  CYTOKINESIS The cell divides in half and the “mother” cell has now formed into two identical “daughter” cells
  • 283.  An example of mitosis in your body includes all of these things except: The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Healing of laceration B.Growing an inch in childhood C. Larger biceps w/exercise D.Ovum produced for ovulation
  • 284.  Sexual Reproduction Meiosis occurs when four cells are produced from one, each having only HALF the genetic material and so are NOT IDENTICAL to the “mother” cell
  • 285.  Sexual Reproduction The sperm and egg are joined during fertilization and allow the reproduction of the human being
  • 286.  Complete the 4 questions in Section 4-4 Test Your Knowledge
  • 287.  MICROORGANISMS Bacteria * Virus * Fungi Protozoa
  • 288.  MICROORGANISMS  Bacteria produce disease and can either be a pathogen or NORMAL FLORA Normal flora are found in mouth, vagina and intestines including this E.coli
  • 289.  MICROORGANISMS  Viruses (Latin for “poison”)are particles that have core containing genetic material DNA or RNA,covered by protein coat CAPSID Must take over cellular activities as it cannot grow or reproduce by itself
  • 290.  MICROORGANISMS Fungi are one celled or multi- celled filaments called “mycelia” that travel outside of the cell or by release of spores Yeast, aspergillus, candidiasis and cryptococcus
  • 291.  MICROORGANISMS  Protozoa are one celled organisms found in ponds and soil with diseases caused by drinking contaminated H20 or by being bitten by an insect carrying them Mosquitoes living in contaminated H20 carry malaria
  • 292.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Pathogens Bacteria * Virus * Fungi Protozoa
  • 293.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Bacteria Bacteria release toxins * Bacteria destroy tissue, blood cells, inhibit ribosome * Bacteria increase BP, blood clotting, fluid in lungs and cause paralysis Bacteria cause fever, tachycardia, SOB Antibiotics kill the prokaryotic without harming eurkaryotic cell
  • 294.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Virus Viruses shut down a cell * Viruses destroy cells & trigger other infections * Viruses cause fever, aches, fatigue and immune system can destroy most of them Antibiotics do not kill viruses. Antivirals can adversely affect host cells Viruses contain either DNA or RNA in their core
  • 295.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Fungi Fungi are inhaled or ingested or in open wounds * Fungi are resistant to environmental changes * Fungi are opportunistic in immune compromised Difficult to treat as drugs are highly toxic Fungal infections of skin are common
  • 296.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Protozoa Protozoa cause disease by ingesting H20 * Protozoa are parasites living in human cell * Most cause serious chronic disease including malaria Some are mild diseases like Giardia in water
  • 297.  Because of its overuse early on, this antibiotic is no longer as effective against bacterial infections: The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Penicillin B.Doxycycline C.Sulfa D.Erythromycin
  • 298.  Chapter 4 Case Study and Review Questions Test Your Knowledge