Fall 2013
Cathy Mahon,PA
Instructor

Chapter 1

Anatomy
and
Physiology
Means
literally to
“cut
apart”
Function
and vital
processes
Define A&P
Study of
the
structure of
...

The body is made up of
approximately 50-100 trillion
cells
Over the course of a lifetime of 75
years we will inhale and ...

Anatomy
Micro: seen
with
microscope
Macro
Gross
Anatomy:
Bones
Micro vs Macro
Anatomy
Cytology Chest x-ray
Histology

Morphology
Description
of forms and
structures
Describes
shapes and
sizes
Define Morphology
The gene for sickle cell anemia when
expressed as a recessive trait protects
one from contracting malaria. Which
race of ...

Disease
Literally
means “not
at ease” Condition
in which
body fails
to function
normally
Define Disease

Pathology
Pathophysiology
The Language of
Disease
The study of disease characteristics including cause and effect
The sc...

Etiology
Nosocomial
Epidemiology
Communicable
Contagious
The Language of
Disease
The cause of illness and disease
Acquir...

Center for
Disease
Control
Keeps
track of
diseases
worldwide
Began
60 years
ago
The Language of
Disease

Endemic-
continually
present in
population
Epidemic-
occurs
suddenly and
in large
numbers in
one region
Pandemic-
spread...

What infectious disease was one
of two to be eradicated world
wide in 1979 through vaccination
campaigns?
A. Chicken Pox...

Complete the 8 questions for
Section 1-1
Test Your Knowledge

Word
Root
Prefix
Prefix
Word
Root
Suffix Suffix
Medical Terminology
+
+

abdomin o plasty
Combining Forms
Word
Root Vowel Suffix
Adding a vowel to the word root makes easier to say

Write down as many “ologists” as you
can think of in two minutes.
Hint: Think of all of the different doctors
who are sp...

Review of medical terminology-
Using the flash cards to test your
partner.
Find the word root and the prefix
and/or suff...

Complete the 11 questions for
Section 1-2
Test Your Knowledge
Medical
Terminology
Written
language
Health
professionals
Metric
System
Mathematical
language
Health
Professionals
The La...

Metric
Int’l System
of Units
Power of
ten
English
U.S
Customary
System
Inconsistent
units
Metric System vs
English

Metric
Centimeters,
milliliters,
kilometers,
kilograms
Used all around
the world and
U.S. health
professionals
English
I...

•Anabolism
•Catabolism
Metabolism
•Negative feedback loop
•Positive feedback loop
Homeostasis
A&P Disease Concepts

•Building phase
•Simple compounds built up for
growth, repair and reproduction
Anabolism
•Breakdown phase
•Complex subst...

A state of being that utilizes
physiological process to MONITOR
and MAINTAIN a stable internal
environment
What is Homeo...
•The reaction of system to
stimulus is to do the opposite
•E.g. The body reacts to fevers & if
it’s too hot, system cools...

Explain how the body brings
the body temperature back to
normal if it gets too cold?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
By shiver...

Signs
Objective
Measurable
Symptoms
Subjective
Perceived
by patient
Assessment of Disease
Blood pressure
Pulse
Respirations
Temperature
Vital Signs
Pain
Tachycardia
Itching
Hypotension
Blurred vision
Sign or Symptoms?
SIGN SYMPTOM

Grouping of signs
and symptoms
relating to a
specific disease
What is a syndrome?
Marfan’s
Syndrome
Metabolic
Syndrome
A...

Chief
complaint:
Why is the
patient here?
Were symptoms
sudden or
gradual?
History of
present illness
Ask open ended que...

Disease Factors
Disease starts with an imbalance in the body
Stress &
Inactivity
Immune
system
dysfunction
Delayed
heali...

Prognosis
Remission
Relapses
Exacerbation
More Disease Concepts
Once a disease
process is
identified, we
can predict an
...

Terminal
Mortality
Morbidity
More Disease Concepts
Disease
processes
may lead to
death or
disability and
cases are
recor...

Complete the 3 questions for
Section 1-3
Test Your Knowledge

TAKE A BREAK
FIVE MINUTES

Any disease producing microorganism.
Some are pathogenic ONLY when they
enter PORTALS OF ENTRY or grow in
uncontrolled m...

Portals of Entry
Openings in the body where
pathogens can enter

•Chemicals
•Temperature
•Radiation
•Allergens
•Foreign
substance
•Injury
•Trauma
•Bacteria
•Virus
Skin
Immune
response
A...

Redness
Heat
Swelling
Pain
Signs of Inflammation

Vector
Contact-direct or
indirect
Common Vehicle
Airborne
Disease Process-
Pathogens
Disease
producing
organisms that
en...

Insect
Animal
Vector Transmission
Vector
Insects can
carry malaria
and animals
like birds can
carry flu
virus

Biological
Mechanical
Vector Transmission
Vector
Pathogen lives
in animal or
insect
Pathogen
present on
surface of
anima...

Direct
Indirect
Contact Transmission
Contact
Contact can
be with
infected
tissue or
waste or
contaminated
material

Blood
products
IV
tubing
Food
Common Vehicle
Transmission
Common
Vehicle-
contaminated

Respiratory
droplets
Air droplets
from
equipment
AirborneTransmission
Airborne

Source Transport Entry
Standard Precautions
Assume that everyone is carrying a
communicable disease and break the chain ...

Gloves
Masks
Goggles
Face shields
PLUS: Prevention of Needle Sticks
Standard Precautions-
PPE

What is the single most important practice to reduce
the spread of (transmission) of infectious agents in a
health care ...

Complete the 2 questions for
Section 1-4 and
Discuss the Case study
Test Your Knowledge

Chapter Two

Stand
Erect
Feet
Together
Arms
at the
side
Palms
Up
Reading the Map of
Human Body

Body Positions
Supine
Lateral
Prone

Trendelenburg
Originally used to
position the pelvic
organs correctly during
surgery by Frederick
Trendelenburg, then
us...

 NOW ONLY RECOMMEDED:
Current
Recommendations
The Trendelenburg position is clinically useful for:
*Insertion or remova...

 45-60 degree head elevation
Fowler Position
Can be used to relax
tension of the abdominal
muscles, allowing for
improv...

Disease Concepts
 Body position
can affect a
patient’s signs
(observable)
and symptoms
(what a patient
feels).
Jugular ...

Complete the 4 questions for
Section 2-1
Test Your Knowledge

 A plane, when referring to directions, is an
imaginary line drawn through an object; in this case
the HUMAN BODY
Body ...

THREE BODY PLANES
Transverse , Sagittal and Frontal

 Same as horizontal or cross section and divides the
body into TOP AND BOTTOM (superior and
inferior)
TRANSVERSE

Cranial-head/skull
Caudal-tail
Directions: Top to
Bottom

SAGITTAL
Divides the body into RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES
If each side is equal, it is a “mid-sagittal”cut

Medial Medial
Medial Direction
MEDIAL means toward the MIDLINE of the body
from either the left or right side of the body

Lateral Lateral
Lateral Direction
LATERAL means away from or LEAVING the
midline of the body to the left or right

FRONTAL
Divides the body BACK and FRONT
• Posterior
• Dorsal
• Back
• Anterior
• Ventral
• Front

Superficial Superficial
Superficial Direction
Close to the Surface of
ANY PART OF THE BODY

Deep Deep
Deep Direction
Away from the surface of
ANY PART OF THE BODY

Proximal Proximal
Proximal Direction
Near a point of reference or
origin of the body

Distal Distal
Distal Direction
Away from ANY point of reference in the body

Internal
External
External
External
External
External vs Internal
INSIDE VS. OUTSIDE

Center
of Body
Peripheral
Peripheral
Peripheral
Peripheral
Central vs Peripheral
CENTER VS. OUTER REGIONS
Outer regions
...

Central Part of Body
Head and Torso
*Vital Organs
for Survival

Peripheral Part of Body
Arms and Legs or
“extremities”
*Non-vital to
survival

Which condition can contribute
to the formation of a blood clot
that starts in the leg (DVT) and
can go to the lung?
A. ...

Complete the 10 questions for
Section 2-2
Test Your Knowledge

TAKE A BREAK
FIVE MINUTES

Body Cavities
Body cavities
divided
between front
and back by
SPINAL
VERTEBRAE

FRONT Body Cavities
Anterior means
FRONT,
Posterior means
BACK or
behind, in
reference to
SPINE

FRONT Body Cavities
Ventral also
means FRONT,
Dorsal also
means BACK or
behind, in
reference to
SPINE

FRONT Body Cavities
Anterior
• Thoracic
Anterior
• Abdominopelvic

What large muscle divides the
thoracic cavity from the
abdominopelvic cavity?
A. Psoas
B. Biceps
C. Gluteus maximus
D. D...

FRONT Body Cavities
Thoracic Cavity
Contains:
• Heart
• Lungs
• Large Vessels-Aorta,
Superior Vena Cava

FRONT Body Cavities
Heart has its own
cavity called the
PERIDCARDIAL
Cavity or SAC

FRONT Body Cavities
Abdominal Cavity
Contains:
• Stomach
• Intestines
• Liver, Gallbladder
• Pancreas
• Spleen

FRONT Body Cavities
Pelvic Cavity Contains:
• Bladder
• Reproductive Organs
• End of Large Intestine

Dividing Front & Back
The spine is
CENTRALLY
located with
30 vertebrae
and divides
the anterior
and posterior
cavities

Dividing Front & Back
There are
SEVEN
Cervical
vertebrae like
SEVEN days
in a week

Dividing Front & Back
There are
TWELVE
Thoracic
vertebrae like
TWELVE
months in a
year

Dividing Front & Back
There are
FIVE
Lumbar
vertebrae like
FIVE fingers
on a hand

Dividing Front & Back
There are
FIVE
Fused
SACRAL
vertebrae like
FIVE fingers
on a hand

Dividing Front & Back
There is ONE
COCCYX or
TAIL at the
end of the
spine

BACK Body Cavities
Posterior
•Spinal
Posterior
•Cranial

BACK Body Cavities
Spinal Cavity Contains:
• Spinal Cord

BACK Body Cavities
Cranial Cavity Contains:
• Brain

Complete the 6 questions for
Section 2-3
Test Your Knowledge

BODY REGIONS
NINE REGIONS OF
THE BODY
1. Right Hypochondriac
2. Epigastric
3. Left Hypochondriac
4. Right Lumbar
5. Umbi...

BODY REGIONS-
Quadrants
Easier to
describe a
patient’s
symptoms by
using
quadrants as a
way to identify
a body region

BODY REGIONS
Anterior
and
Posterior
Body
Regions*
*Page 35 and 36

Which type of hernia is most
common in newborn babies
after “cutting the cord”?
A. Umbilical
B. Femoral
C. Inguinal
D. V...

Complete the 5 questions for
Section 2-4
Test Your Knowledge

Radiology-Viewing the
Body

Air-Least Dense
DARK
Tissue/Fat DARK OR LIGHT
Water- MID RANGE
Bone/Metal LIGHT
Radiology-Viewing the
Body

PA posterior to anterior
PA back to front
Distance 6 feet from
machine to film
Radiology-Viewing the
Body

AP anterior to posterior
PA front to back
Distance 4 feet from
machine to film
Used in hospitals-patient in
bed
Radiolog...

Radiology-Viewing the
Body
Focused
Beam that
circles the
body
Thin slices for
greater detail

CT SCAN
Allows for 3
dimensional view, like a
loaf of sliced bread gives
better idea of total shape
of loaf

Radiology-Viewing the
Body
Magnetic
energy to
create cross
section imagesPatient cannot move or have
metal objects in th...

Radiology-Viewing the
Body
Sound waves
that allow you
to view body
parts in real
time
No radiation
involved

On page 39 in your book, what
is wrong with the description of
the xray on the left?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
The label...

Review case study and
Complete the Review Questions on
page 41 and 42
Test Your Knowledge

Let’s watch the videos of the
bones of the skull
Bones of Skull
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcdEwPkfyvs
Use your han...

Bones of the Spine-on
the Quiz

Chapter 3

Biochemistry of Life
Vital
and
with interactions
between
molecules

Tissue
Atoms
Elements
Molecules
Cells
Biochemistry of Life
Phyisiology is how Chemistry
relates to a living organism

Power of TEN
Watch animation on website
www.scaleofuniverse.com
Making what’s seemingly
invisible and only in our
imagin...

Element
Fe
Fe
Fe
Fe
Atoms, Elements & Ions
Smallest
unit of
matter
that retains
unique
chemical
properties
Fe =Iron

Molecules
Two or more
elements joined
together
O=Oxygen
O
O
O
O
O
O
Oxygen in the air is two
elements joined together

Compounds
Molecules with
more than one
element
H=Hydrogen
O=Oxygen
O
H
H
H
O
O
A carbohydrate is a combination of
three ...

Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
Parts of the Atom
Smallest
recognizable
unit of an
element

Atoms, Elements & Ions
Elements
are listed
in periodic
table based
on number
of protons
*abbreviated with 1 or 2 letters

What important trace element
found in seafood is necessary
for the activity of the thyroid?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
A....

Protons Electrons
Parts of the Atom
Number of
PROTONS is
equal to
ELECTRONS
=

Protons Electrons
Protons & Electrons
=+ _
Protons are
positively
charged and
electrons
are
negatively
charged

Protons Electrons
Ions-Electric Charge
_
+ _
Atoms that
lose an
electron are
positively
charged
IONS

Protons
ElectronElectron
Ions-Electric Charge
- -
Atoms that
gain an
electron are
negatively
charged
IONS
+

Protons
ElectronElectron
Polar Ion with Charge
- -
Polarity
refers to
atoms with
an electric
charge
either
negative…
+

Protons Electrons
Polar Ion with Charge
_
+ _
…OR
positively
charged

POSITIVE NEGATIVE
Ions with a Charge
OPPOSITES ATTRACT!!!!!
Positive ions attracted to
negative ions

Positive Positive
Ions with a Charge
SIMILARS REPEL!!!!!
Positive ions repelled by
positive ions

 Charged Ions
found in the
body, influence
muscles,
nervous systems
and fluid
balance
ELECTROLYTES
Cl-
Na+
Na+
Na+
K+
N...

What organ in the body is
responsible for regulating the
electrolyte balance?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
A.Heart
B.Liver
...

ACIDS AND BASES
Electrolytes
(Ions) that can
conduct
electricity and
break down
water into its
separate parts

ACIDS
Release
hydrogen H+
ions when
dissolved in
water

BASES
Accept
hydrogen H+
ions when
dissolved in
water

Acid Base Concentration
pH stands for “potential of hydrogen”
to be attracted to OH-

Acid Base Concentration
The lower the number, the less OH- ions and the more
there is H+ ions available to be released

Regulating Acid/Bases
O2
CO2
Respiratory system takes in O2 and gets rid of
excess CO2 which is a weak acid with kidneys...

TAKE A BREAK
FIVE MINUTES

BONDING

Joining
of
elements
Covalent
Ionic
Chemical Bonding
Molecules
are formed
by joining
elements

Covalent Bonding
Electron Electron
Joining Elements to form Molecules by
Sharing of Electrons
.
.

Ionic Bonding
Joining Elements to form Molecules by
one atom Donating Electrons to another

Polar Covalent
Electron Electron
One atom takes more than its share of
electrons, creating a weak charge
. -.+ XX

Ionic
Polar
Covalent
Covalent
Comparing Bonds
Highly charged Weakly charged Not charged

WATER IS LIFE

WE ARE WATER
Water is a
polar solvent
with polar
covalent bonds
with a slight
charge

WATER is H20
Oxygen takes more
of its share of
electrons than
hydrogen and carries
a weak charge that
attracts other
cha...

MIXES EASILY
with H2O
Charged molecules
like oxygen,
phosphorus and
nitrogen are
attracted to one end
or another of H20
...

DOES NOT MIX EASILY
with H2O
Molecules that do
not carry a charge
will not mix easily
with H2O like
Fats and Oils
-
+
+

CELL MEMBRANES
Hydrophobic fat layer on the outside of
cell membrane regulates movement in
and out of the cell.

HYDROGEN BONDS
Hydrogen bonds
between H20 are
weak and increase
water’s capacity to
store heat meaning
water can heat up...

Why does someone who does
not sweat become easily
overheated?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
Because moisture (water) on the ...

SOLUTIONS
Dissolving one substance in another
Solute Solvent Solution
Solute-substance that is dissolved
Solvent substan...

SOLUTIONS
Dissolving one substance in another
Electro
lytes Water Solution
Solute-substance that is dissolved
Solvent su...

Solutions at Home
Mix ¼ cup of sugar
with 1 cup of H20 and
heat until solute is
dissolved in solvent

Solute Concentration
Amount of solute dissolved in solvent
Solute
¼ cup
Solvent
1 cup
Solution
Solute is sugar
Solvent i...

Complete the 5 questions in
Section 3-1
Test Your Knowledge

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
Found in living systems

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Carbohydrates
Used for
energy and
structural
molecules

Monosaccharides
Simple sugars

Disaccharides
Disaccharides are
two simple sugars
+

Polysaccharides
Stored
energy in
liver

LIPIDS
Mainly carbon
and hydrogen
and very little
oxygen

LIPIDS
Fats and oils
contain glycerol
used for energy
storage,
communication
and protection

WAXES
Fatty acid with
alcohol. The most
hydrophobic for
protection

PHOSPHOLIPIDS
Two fatty acid
“tails” and
phosphate
“head” and key
ingredient in cell
membranes

STEROIDS
Lipids with
carbon atoms
arranged in
rings for
structure or
communication
between cells

TAKE A BREAK
FIVE MINUTES

PROTEINS
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
A special linkage unique to proteins called the
PEPTIDE BOND ties the amino aci...

VERSATILE PROTEINS
Collagens Enzymes
Muscle
proteins
Antibodies
Hormones

PROTEINS
Cytosine
Guanine
Adenosine
Thymine
The structure of a protein is determined
by order of amino acids

NUCLEIC ACIDS
ibo
cid
ucleic
Controls the activities of cells and contains your
genetic code responsible for cellular re...

NUCLEIC ACIDS
eoxyribo
cid
ucleic
Controls the activities of cells and contains your
genetic code responsible for cellul...

Complete the 5 questions in
Section 3-2
Test Your Knowledge

METABOLISM

All
chemical
operations
in the body
Anabolism
Catabolism
METABOLISM

All
chemical
operations
in the body
Nutrients to
Fuel the
body
Produces
Waste
METABOLISM

Metabolism
Anabolism
Dehydration Build
up
Catabolism
BreakdownHydrolysis
METABOLISM

Anabolism
Simple
compounds built
for growth, repair
and reproduction
Dehydration
removes H20 to
form large
molecules
Cat...

What common condition in
patients slows the metabolism
causing weight gain?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
A.Diabetes
B.Hyper...

ENZYMES

ENZYMES

Enzymes to the Rescue
Chemical
reactions in
cells are TOO
SLOW and
need help so
they can use the
materials

ENZYMES
Enzymes
are
unchanged
by the
chemical
reaction

ENZYMES
Protein molecules with
special binding sites
Molecules that need help in a
chemical reaction

ENZYMES
Enzymes
are
matched
to
SPECIFIC
substrate

ENZYMES
Substrates
compete
for
binding
sites until
all are
filled

“Ride the ENZYME”
Biological molecules bind to enzymes
and are carried like riders in a roller
coaster. Enzymes return f...

“You Can’t Ride the
ENZYME”
Enzymes can also prevent the
substrate molecule from
binding/riding the roller coaster

CELL ENERGY & ATP
We all need food
for energy, but
HOW DOES IT
GET TO THE
CELLS?

Cellular Respiration
Glucose Oxygen ATP
Inside the
mitochondria, glucose
is combined with O2
and made into high
energy m...

ATP-Stored Energy
denosine
ri
hosphate Made up of a base, a sugar and
three “tri” phosphate groups held
by HIGH ENERGY B...

ADP-Released Energy
denosine
i
hosphate When bonds are broken, energy is
released and molecule becomes
“di”and is ready ...

Complete the 4 questions in
Section 3-3, Case Study and Review
Questions
Test Your Knowledge

Oct 3, 2013
Exam on Chapters 1-3
Go to myhealthprofessionskit.com
Most of the test questions will come from
worksheets a...

Chapter 4 The Cells
Each structure of the body is made up of
“building blocks” called THE CELLS

Chapter 4 The Cells
Each cell has its own component parts
cytoplasm
nucleolus
ribosome
Cell membrane
mitochondria
nucleu...

Specialized
Cells
Organs
Organ
System
Organelles
Cells
Chapter 4 The Cells
Human

All of the following organs are
part of the gastrointestinal
system except?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
A.Kidney
B.Gallbla...
 Cells contain chemicals and structures and make up
 ALL LIVING THINGS
CELLS of LIFE

MICROSCOPIC CELLS
Our body is made up almost entirely of microscopic
cells and cannot be seen with the naked eye. The
ne...

MICROSCOPIC CELLS
Cells come in various shapes and sizes
Flat
Round
Threadlike
Irregular

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Review:
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Cell Structure
Almost all cells possess a nucleus, organelles, cytoplasm
and a cell membrane each with a special purpose...

Cell Membrane
Surrounds the cytoplasm as a protective
covering with a defined border and
definite shape

Selectively Permeable
Allows materials in and out of the cell and
decide specifically which things are not
allowed

Specialized Structures
Contains specialized structures: channels,
tunnels or carriers

Identification Markers
Markers on the cell membrane identify the
cell as belonging to specific individual and
set off an...

Cell Membrane
Transport Methods

Passive
Across the
membrane
No energy
Active
Across the
membrane
Requires
energy
Transport Methods

Diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Facilitated Diffusion
PASSIVE TRANSPORT

Diffusion
Higher Concentration to lower concentration

Concentration Gradient
Higher Concentration minus lower concentration

Concentration Gradient
Nature likes a nice equal balance
The water
assumes same
color & flavor
as the powder
Traffic mov...

Diffusion
Diffusion is necessary for
O2 to go from lungs to
blood and for CO2 to go
from blood to lungs and
out into the...

What specialized cell in the blood
carries oxygen to the cells of the body
as well as carry carbon dioxide out of
body?
...

Diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Facilitated Diffusion
PASSIVE TRANSPORT

Osmosis
A solute, like sugar, cannot pass through
membrane, but water goes from low to higher
concentration of the SOLUTE

Osmosis
H20 travels through semipermeable membrane
until SOLUTE concentrations are equalized

Diffusion
Substance moves from
High to low
concentration through
cell membrane
Osmosis
Water alone moves from
low to hig...

OSMOTIC PRESSURE
Ability of a substance to “pull” H20 toward
area of high concentration of the solute

Diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Facilitated Diffusion
PASSIVE TRANSPORT

FILTRATION
Pressure is exerted to force H20 and its dissolved
material across the membrane

FILTRATION-Kidneys
Major supplier of force is the pumping of heart which
forces blood into the kidney where filtration t...

Diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Facilitated Diffusion
PASSIVE TRANSPORT

FACILITATED
DIFFUSION
A substance is helped across the membrane on a
“carrier protein”

FACILITATED
DIFFUSION
The protein is specific for each substance and is
available to carry it through the membrane

Complete the 7 questions in
Section 4-1
And briefly explain one of the two
diseases, Cystic Fibrosis or Diabetes
as it r...

TAKE A BREAK
FIVE MINUTES

Passive
Across the
membrane
No energy
Active
Across the
membrane
Requires
energy
Transport Methods

Active Transport Pumps
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Active Transport Pumps
Uses a protein carrier with energy from ATP to
move a substance as it moves UP the gradient

Active Transport Pumps
Na+ and ATP used in active transport pump
needed to transmit a nerve impulse

Active Transport Pumps
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Endo
Used for
intake
Phago or
pinocytosis
Exo
Exit out of
the cell
Uses ATP
for energy
Endo vs Exocytosis

ENDOCYTOSIS
Used for intake of LIQUID AND FOOD when
substance is too large to diffuse across membrane

ENDOCYTOSIS
Cell membrane surrounds substance forming a vesicle
and becomes separate from original membrane

PHAGOCYTOSIS
Solid particle engulfed in a cell

PINOCYTOSIS
Liquid substance engulfed in a cell

EXOCYTOSIS
Happens when cell needs to transport substances out of
itself. After substance made, it is surrounded by vesi...

Endo vs. exocytosis
Intake of liquid and food versus
transport of substances out of the cell

Complete the 3 questions in
Section 4-2
And briefly explain familial
hypercholesterolemia
Test Your Knowledge

Cell Structure
cytoplasm
nucleolus
ribosome
Cell membrane
mitochondria
nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
cen...

CYTOPLASM
A watery solution of organic and inorganic
chemicals ENCLOSED in the cell membrane

Nucleus & Nucleolus
Nucleus is control center of cell with chromatin that
contains DNA which can form chromosomes
contai...

Nucleus & Nucleolus
The DNA material inside the genes is what
determines
inherited characteristics

Nucleolus
Nucleolus is inside the nucleus and it’s main
function is to synthesize RNA that forms ribosomes

Ribosome
Found on the endoplasmic reticulum or in
cytoplasm and is the site where enzymes and
proteins are made for cell...

Centrosome
Specialized regions of cell designed to build
new cell structures to replace old.

Centrosome
The tubular centrioles inside the centrosome come
in pairs and are involved in the division of the cell

Mitochondria
Provide up to 95% of body’s energy for cellular
repair, movement and reproduction

Mitochondria-
Liver vs Sperm
Cells with more
activity need more
mitochondria

Mitochondria
Enzymes in mitochondria help take in O2 and use to
produce energy in form of ATP which the cell uses

Endoplasmic Reticulum
A series of channels formed from folded membranes,
there are two kinds ROUGH and SMOOTH

Rough & Smooth ER
Rough has ribosomes on its surface responsible for synthesis
of protein. Smooth synthesizes lipids and...

Golgi Apparatus
Receives protein from ER, processes and stores it by
surrounding it with a vesicle, then it is expelled ...

Golgi Apparatus
Organs with high secretory function such as pancreatic cells
and salivary glands contain high numbers of...

Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes are proteins made in the Golgi apparatus and stay
in the cell

Lysosomes
Lysosomes are proteins made in the Golgi apparatus and
contain enzymes to clean up debris & waste as well as a...

Vesicles & Cytoskeleton
A transport vesicle carries
substance made by Golgi
apparatus
Made up of
microtubules/filaments ...

Flagella and Cilia
Has a whipped shaped tail
used for movement
Short hair-like projections
on outer cell creating
waveli...

What common activity by
humans can cause emphysema
by destroying cilia in the lung?
The P.A./Instructor asks:
A.Drinking...

Complete the 4 questions in
Section 4-3
Test Your Knowledge

TAKE A BREAK
FIVE MINUTES

Cellular Reproduction
The process of
making a new cell
occurs in MITOSIS
and cell division-
one cell divides
into two
ID...

Cellular Reproduction
Cells of human
body have several
chromosomes in
nucleus with DNA
“packages” of
chromatin

Cellular Reproduction
Chromosomes
carry instructions
from cell on how to
function and
reproduce.
All chromosomes
are cop...

Cellular Reproduction
Cells divide by
binary fission.
There is NO
nucleus or
organelles. DNA
copies itself &
cytoplasm s...

CELL CYCLE
There are TWO
PHASES of the
cell’s life:
INTERPHASE
And
MITOTIC PHASE

INTERPHASE
80-90% of time
spent in
INTERPHASE
when cell is not
dividing but
functioning
normally

MITOTIC PHASE
Actual cell
dividing during
MITOSIS when
genetic material
is divided and
CYTOKINESIS

MITOTIC PHASE
MITOSIS occurs in
your body any
time your cells
need to be replaced
during REPAIR &
REGENERATION
and
GROWT...

FOUR PHASES
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telephase

PROPHASE
The nucleus disappears, chromosomes visible and
centrioles move to the sides of the cell. “Guide wire”
spindles...

METAPHASE
The chromosomes line up in the
center of the cell

ANAPHASE
The chromosomes split and the spindles pull
them apart

TELEPHASE
The chromosomes go to the far end of the cell, the
spindle disappears and the nuclei reappear

CYTOKINESIS
The cell divides in half and the “mother” cell has
now formed into two identical “daughter” cells

An example of mitosis in your
body includes all of these things
except:
The P.A./Instructor asks:
A.Healing of laceratio...

Sexual Reproduction
Meiosis occurs
when four cells are
produced from one,
each having only
HALF the genetic
material and...

Sexual Reproduction
The sperm and
egg are joined
during
fertilization
and allow the
reproduction of
the human
being

Complete the 4 questions in
Section 4-4
Test Your Knowledge

MICROORGANISMS
Bacteria
*
Virus
*
Fungi
Protozoa

MICROORGANISMS
 Bacteria produce
disease and can
either be a pathogen
or NORMAL FLORA
Normal flora are found in
mouth, ...

MICROORGANISMS
 Viruses (Latin for
“poison”)are
particles that have
core containing
genetic material
DNA or
RNA,covered...

MICROORGANISMS
Fungi are one
celled or multi-
celled filaments
called “mycelia”
that travel
outside of the
cell or by r...

MICROORGANISMS
 Protozoa are one
celled organisms
found in ponds and
soil with diseases
caused by drinking
contaminated...

MICROORGANISMS
Cause Disease-Pathogens
Bacteria
*
Virus
*
Fungi
Protozoa

MICROORGANISMS
Cause Disease-Bacteria
Bacteria release toxins
*
Bacteria destroy tissue,
blood cells, inhibit ribosome
*...

MICROORGANISMS
Cause Disease-Virus
Viruses shut down a cell
*
Viruses destroy cells &
trigger other infections
*
Viruses...

MICROORGANISMS
Cause Disease-Fungi
Fungi are inhaled or
ingested or in open
wounds
*
Fungi are resistant to
environmenta...

MICROORGANISMS
Cause Disease-Protozoa
Protozoa cause disease
by ingesting H20
*
Protozoa are parasites
living in human c...

Because of its overuse early on, this
antibiotic is no longer as effective
against bacterial infections:
The P.A./Instru...

Chapter 4 Case Study and Review
Questions
Test Your Knowledge

KETOACIDOSIS
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Survey of human anatomy and physiology Chapter 1 to 4

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Survey of human anatomy and physiology Chapter 1 to 4

  1. 1. Fall 2013 Cathy Mahon,PA Instructor
  2. 2.  Chapter 1
  3. 3.  Anatomy and Physiology Means literally to “cut apart” Function and vital processes Define A&P Study of the structure of the body Answers the question of HOW the body works!
  4. 4.  The body is made up of approximately 50-100 trillion cells Over the course of a lifetime of 75 years we will inhale and exhale roughly 236 million liters of air The average length of the small intestine in the human male is 22 ft 6 inches and in female 23 ft 4 inches Did you know?
  5. 5.  Anatomy Micro: seen with microscope Macro Gross Anatomy: Bones Micro vs Macro Anatomy Cytology Chest x-ray Histology
  6. 6.  Morphology Description of forms and structures Describes shapes and sizes Define Morphology
  7. 7. The gene for sickle cell anemia when expressed as a recessive trait protects one from contracting malaria. Which race of humans in the U.S. has the highest incidence of sickle cell anemia? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Caucasian or White B.Native American C.African American D.Asian American
  8. 8.  Disease Literally means “not at ease” Condition in which body fails to function normally Define Disease
  9. 9.  Pathology Pathophysiology The Language of Disease The study of disease characteristics including cause and effect The science that investigates abnormal body function
  10. 10.  Etiology Nosocomial Epidemiology Communicable Contagious The Language of Disease The cause of illness and disease Acquired in medical facility The study of transmission, frequency occurrence and distribution of disease Spread person to person, animal to person, insect to person Readily or easily transmitted
  11. 11.  Center for Disease Control Keeps track of diseases worldwide Began 60 years ago The Language of Disease
  12. 12.  Endemic- continually present in population Epidemic- occurs suddenly and in large numbers in one region Pandemic- spreads country or worldwide The Language of Disease
  13. 13.  What infectious disease was one of two to be eradicated world wide in 1979 through vaccination campaigns? A. Chicken Pox B. Small Pox C. Whooping Cough D. Herpes Simplex The P.A./Instructor asks:
  14. 14.  Complete the 8 questions for Section 1-1 Test Your Knowledge
  15. 15.  Word Root Prefix Prefix Word Root Suffix Suffix Medical Terminology + +
  16. 16.  abdomin o plasty Combining Forms Word Root Vowel Suffix Adding a vowel to the word root makes easier to say
  17. 17.  Write down as many “ologists” as you can think of in two minutes. Hint: Think of all of the different doctors who are specialists that you or your family have been to over the years. The Language of A&P
  18. 18.  Review of medical terminology- Using the flash cards to test your partner. Find the word root and the prefix and/or suffix The Language of A&P
  19. 19.  Complete the 11 questions for Section 1-2 Test Your Knowledge
  20. 20. Medical Terminology Written language Health professionals Metric System Mathematical language Health Professionals The Language of A&P
  21. 21.  Metric Int’l System of Units Power of ten English U.S Customary System Inconsistent units Metric System vs English
  22. 22.  Metric Centimeters, milliliters, kilometers, kilograms Used all around the world and U.S. health professionals English Inches, pounds, miles and gallons Used mainly in United States Metric System vs English
  23. 23.  •Anabolism •Catabolism Metabolism •Negative feedback loop •Positive feedback loop Homeostasis A&P Disease Concepts
  24. 24.  •Building phase •Simple compounds built up for growth, repair and reproduction Anabolism •Breakdown phase •Complex substances broken down into simpler substances Catabolism Anabolism vs. Catabolism
  25. 25.  A state of being that utilizes physiological process to MONITOR and MAINTAIN a stable internal environment What is Homeostasis?
  26. 26. •The reaction of system to stimulus is to do the opposite •E.g. The body reacts to fevers & if it’s too hot, system cools Negative feedback loop •Increases the magnitude of change away from ideal set point •E.g. Contraction of uterus from increasing oxytocin levels until baby is born Positive feedback loop Homeostasis
  27. 27.  Explain how the body brings the body temperature back to normal if it gets too cold? The P.A./Instructor asks: By shivering, the muscles of the body contract rapidly and involuntarily, generating heat
  28. 28.  Signs Objective Measurable Symptoms Subjective Perceived by patient Assessment of Disease
  29. 29. Blood pressure Pulse Respirations Temperature Vital Signs
  30. 30. Pain Tachycardia Itching Hypotension Blurred vision Sign or Symptoms? SIGN SYMPTOM
  31. 31.  Grouping of signs and symptoms relating to a specific disease What is a syndrome? Marfan’s Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Down’s Syndrome
  32. 32.  Chief complaint: Why is the patient here? Were symptoms sudden or gradual? History of present illness Ask open ended questions Let patient explain how they feel Medical History Including previous hospitalizations and surgeries Disease Concepts: Diagnosis Diagnosis means “know through completely”
  33. 33.  Disease Factors Disease starts with an imbalance in the body Stress & Inactivity Immune system dysfunction Delayed healing Poor diet
  34. 34.  Prognosis Remission Relapses Exacerbation More Disease Concepts Once a disease process is identified, we can predict an outcome and monitor for disappearance or recurrence of signs/symptoms as well as acute flare ups.
  35. 35.  Terminal Mortality Morbidity More Disease Concepts Disease processes may lead to death or disability and cases are recorded and studied later
  36. 36.  Complete the 3 questions for Section 1-3 Test Your Knowledge
  37. 37.  TAKE A BREAK FIVE MINUTES
  38. 38.  Any disease producing microorganism. Some are pathogenic ONLY when they enter PORTALS OF ENTRY or grow in uncontrolled manner. What is a pathogen?
  39. 39.  Portals of Entry Openings in the body where pathogens can enter
  40. 40.  •Chemicals •Temperature •Radiation •Allergens •Foreign substance •Injury •Trauma •Bacteria •Virus Skin Immune response Allergic Inflam- mation Body’s Defense System
  41. 41.  Redness Heat Swelling Pain Signs of Inflammation
  42. 42.  Vector Contact-direct or indirect Common Vehicle Airborne Disease Process- Pathogens Disease producing organisms that enter the body are called “pathogenic” and have FOUR main routes of transmission
  43. 43.  Insect Animal Vector Transmission Vector Insects can carry malaria and animals like birds can carry flu virus
  44. 44.  Biological Mechanical Vector Transmission Vector Pathogen lives in animal or insect Pathogen present on surface of animal or insect
  45. 45.  Direct Indirect Contact Transmission Contact Contact can be with infected tissue or waste or contaminated material
  46. 46.  Blood products IV tubing Food Common Vehicle Transmission Common Vehicle- contaminated
  47. 47.  Respiratory droplets Air droplets from equipment AirborneTransmission Airborne
  48. 48.  Source Transport Entry Standard Precautions Assume that everyone is carrying a communicable disease and break the chain of infection to stop the spread of infectious disease.
  49. 49.  Gloves Masks Goggles Face shields PLUS: Prevention of Needle Sticks Standard Precautions- PPE
  50. 50.  What is the single most important practice to reduce the spread of (transmission) of infectious agents in a health care setting (or anywhere)? The P.A./Instructor Asks: A. Wearing Gloves B. Wiping counter tops clean C. Hand hygiene D.Wearing a white coat
  51. 51.  Complete the 2 questions for Section 1-4 and Discuss the Case study Test Your Knowledge
  52. 52.  Chapter Two
  53. 53.  Stand Erect Feet Together Arms at the side Palms Up Reading the Map of Human Body
  54. 54.  Body Positions Supine Lateral Prone
  55. 55.  Trendelenburg Originally used to position the pelvic organs correctly during surgery by Frederick Trendelenburg, then used to help raise blood pressure in patients going into shock
  56. 56.   NOW ONLY RECOMMEDED: Current Recommendations The Trendelenburg position is clinically useful for: *Insertion or removal of central venous catheters *Certain spinal anesthetic techniques The Trendelenburg position is probably not indicated or may have harmful effects in: *Resuscitation of patients who are hypotensive *Patients in whom mechanical ventilation is difficult, or patients with decreased vital capacity *Patients who have increased intracranial pressure *Patients who have cerebral edema *Patients who have increased intraocular pressure *Patients with ischemia of the lower limbs
  57. 57.   45-60 degree head elevation Fowler Position Can be used to relax tension of the abdominal muscles, allowing for improved breathing in immobile patients as it alleviates compression of the chest due to gravity, and to increase comfort during eating and other activities.
  58. 58.  Disease Concepts  Body position can affect a patient’s signs (observable) and symptoms (what a patient feels). Jugular Venous Distension Orthostatic hypotension Orthopnea SIGN SYMPTOM
  59. 59.  Complete the 4 questions for Section 2-1 Test Your Knowledge
  60. 60.   A plane, when referring to directions, is an imaginary line drawn through an object; in this case the HUMAN BODY Body Planes/Directions
  61. 61.  THREE BODY PLANES Transverse , Sagittal and Frontal
  62. 62.   Same as horizontal or cross section and divides the body into TOP AND BOTTOM (superior and inferior) TRANSVERSE
  63. 63.  Cranial-head/skull Caudal-tail Directions: Top to Bottom
  64. 64.  SAGITTAL Divides the body into RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES If each side is equal, it is a “mid-sagittal”cut
  65. 65.  Medial Medial Medial Direction MEDIAL means toward the MIDLINE of the body from either the left or right side of the body
  66. 66.  Lateral Lateral Lateral Direction LATERAL means away from or LEAVING the midline of the body to the left or right
  67. 67.  FRONTAL Divides the body BACK and FRONT • Posterior • Dorsal • Back • Anterior • Ventral • Front
  68. 68.  Superficial Superficial Superficial Direction Close to the Surface of ANY PART OF THE BODY
  69. 69.  Deep Deep Deep Direction Away from the surface of ANY PART OF THE BODY
  70. 70.  Proximal Proximal Proximal Direction Near a point of reference or origin of the body
  71. 71.  Distal Distal Distal Direction Away from ANY point of reference in the body
  72. 72.  Internal External External External External External vs Internal INSIDE VS. OUTSIDE
  73. 73.  Center of Body Peripheral Peripheral Peripheral Peripheral Central vs Peripheral CENTER VS. OUTER REGIONS Outer regions Outer regions Outer regions Outer regions
  74. 74.  Central Part of Body Head and Torso *Vital Organs for Survival
  75. 75.  Peripheral Part of Body Arms and Legs or “extremities” *Non-vital to survival
  76. 76.  Which condition can contribute to the formation of a blood clot that starts in the leg (DVT) and can go to the lung? A. Varicose Veins B. Use of blood thinners C. Venous stasis D. Use of TED hose (support stockings) The P.A./Instructor asks:
  77. 77.  Complete the 10 questions for Section 2-2 Test Your Knowledge
  78. 78.  TAKE A BREAK FIVE MINUTES
  79. 79.  Body Cavities Body cavities divided between front and back by SPINAL VERTEBRAE
  80. 80.  FRONT Body Cavities Anterior means FRONT, Posterior means BACK or behind, in reference to SPINE
  81. 81.  FRONT Body Cavities Ventral also means FRONT, Dorsal also means BACK or behind, in reference to SPINE
  82. 82.  FRONT Body Cavities Anterior • Thoracic Anterior • Abdominopelvic
  83. 83.  What large muscle divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity? A. Psoas B. Biceps C. Gluteus maximus D. Diaphragm The P.A./Instructor asks:
  84. 84.  FRONT Body Cavities Thoracic Cavity Contains: • Heart • Lungs • Large Vessels-Aorta, Superior Vena Cava
  85. 85.  FRONT Body Cavities Heart has its own cavity called the PERIDCARDIAL Cavity or SAC
  86. 86.  FRONT Body Cavities Abdominal Cavity Contains: • Stomach • Intestines • Liver, Gallbladder • Pancreas • Spleen
  87. 87.  FRONT Body Cavities Pelvic Cavity Contains: • Bladder • Reproductive Organs • End of Large Intestine
  88. 88.  Dividing Front & Back The spine is CENTRALLY located with 30 vertebrae and divides the anterior and posterior cavities
  89. 89.  Dividing Front & Back There are SEVEN Cervical vertebrae like SEVEN days in a week
  90. 90.  Dividing Front & Back There are TWELVE Thoracic vertebrae like TWELVE months in a year
  91. 91.  Dividing Front & Back There are FIVE Lumbar vertebrae like FIVE fingers on a hand
  92. 92.  Dividing Front & Back There are FIVE Fused SACRAL vertebrae like FIVE fingers on a hand
  93. 93.  Dividing Front & Back There is ONE COCCYX or TAIL at the end of the spine
  94. 94.  BACK Body Cavities Posterior •Spinal Posterior •Cranial
  95. 95.  BACK Body Cavities Spinal Cavity Contains: • Spinal Cord
  96. 96.  BACK Body Cavities Cranial Cavity Contains: • Brain
  97. 97.  Complete the 6 questions for Section 2-3 Test Your Knowledge
  98. 98.  BODY REGIONS NINE REGIONS OF THE BODY 1. Right Hypochondriac 2. Epigastric 3. Left Hypochondriac 4. Right Lumbar 5. Umbilical 6. Left Lumbar 7. Right Iliac 8. Hypogastric 9. Left Iliac
  99. 99.  BODY REGIONS- Quadrants Easier to describe a patient’s symptoms by using quadrants as a way to identify a body region
  100. 100.  BODY REGIONS Anterior and Posterior Body Regions* *Page 35 and 36
  101. 101.  Which type of hernia is most common in newborn babies after “cutting the cord”? A. Umbilical B. Femoral C. Inguinal D. Ventral The P.A./Instructor asks:
  102. 102.  Complete the 5 questions for Section 2-4 Test Your Knowledge
  103. 103.  Radiology-Viewing the Body
  104. 104.  Air-Least Dense DARK Tissue/Fat DARK OR LIGHT Water- MID RANGE Bone/Metal LIGHT Radiology-Viewing the Body
  105. 105.  PA posterior to anterior PA back to front Distance 6 feet from machine to film Radiology-Viewing the Body
  106. 106.  AP anterior to posterior PA front to back Distance 4 feet from machine to film Used in hospitals-patient in bed Radiology-Viewing the Body
  107. 107.  Radiology-Viewing the Body Focused Beam that circles the body Thin slices for greater detail
  108. 108.  CT SCAN Allows for 3 dimensional view, like a loaf of sliced bread gives better idea of total shape of loaf
  109. 109.  Radiology-Viewing the Body Magnetic energy to create cross section imagesPatient cannot move or have metal objects in their body
  110. 110.  Radiology-Viewing the Body Sound waves that allow you to view body parts in real time No radiation involved
  111. 111.  On page 39 in your book, what is wrong with the description of the xray on the left? The P.A./Instructor asks: The label identifies it as showing “typical” joint changes associated with osteoarthritis. It is actually an xray of a patient who has had a TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT
  112. 112.  Review case study and Complete the Review Questions on page 41 and 42 Test Your Knowledge
  113. 113.  Let’s watch the videos of the bones of the skull Bones of Skull http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcdEwPkfyvs Use your handouts and label the parts
  114. 114.  Bones of the Spine-on the Quiz
  115. 115.  Chapter 3
  116. 116.  Biochemistry of Life Vital and with interactions between molecules
  117. 117.  Tissue Atoms Elements Molecules Cells Biochemistry of Life Phyisiology is how Chemistry relates to a living organism
  118. 118.  Power of TEN Watch animation on website www.scaleofuniverse.com Making what’s seemingly invisible and only in our imagination, visible and REAL
  119. 119.  Element Fe Fe Fe Fe Atoms, Elements & Ions Smallest unit of matter that retains unique chemical properties Fe =Iron
  120. 120.  Molecules Two or more elements joined together O=Oxygen O O O O O O Oxygen in the air is two elements joined together
  121. 121.  Compounds Molecules with more than one element H=Hydrogen O=Oxygen O H H H O O A carbohydrate is a combination of three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen C C C C=Carbon
  122. 122.  Protons Electrons Neutrons Parts of the Atom Smallest recognizable unit of an element
  123. 123.  Atoms, Elements & Ions Elements are listed in periodic table based on number of protons *abbreviated with 1 or 2 letters
  124. 124.  What important trace element found in seafood is necessary for the activity of the thyroid? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Manganese B.Copper C.Zinc D.Iodine
  125. 125.  Protons Electrons Parts of the Atom Number of PROTONS is equal to ELECTRONS =
  126. 126.  Protons Electrons Protons & Electrons =+ _ Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged
  127. 127.  Protons Electrons Ions-Electric Charge _ + _ Atoms that lose an electron are positively charged IONS
  128. 128.  Protons ElectronElectron Ions-Electric Charge - - Atoms that gain an electron are negatively charged IONS +
  129. 129.  Protons ElectronElectron Polar Ion with Charge - - Polarity refers to atoms with an electric charge either negative… +
  130. 130.  Protons Electrons Polar Ion with Charge _ + _ …OR positively charged
  131. 131.  POSITIVE NEGATIVE Ions with a Charge OPPOSITES ATTRACT!!!!! Positive ions attracted to negative ions
  132. 132.  Positive Positive Ions with a Charge SIMILARS REPEL!!!!! Positive ions repelled by positive ions
  133. 133.   Charged Ions found in the body, influence muscles, nervous systems and fluid balance ELECTROLYTES Cl- Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphate
  134. 134.  What organ in the body is responsible for regulating the electrolyte balance? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Heart B.Liver C.Pancreas D.Kidney
  135. 135.  ACIDS AND BASES Electrolytes (Ions) that can conduct electricity and break down water into its separate parts
  136. 136.  ACIDS Release hydrogen H+ ions when dissolved in water
  137. 137.  BASES Accept hydrogen H+ ions when dissolved in water
  138. 138.  Acid Base Concentration pH stands for “potential of hydrogen” to be attracted to OH-
  139. 139.  Acid Base Concentration The lower the number, the less OH- ions and the more there is H+ ions available to be released
  140. 140.  Regulating Acid/Bases O2 CO2 Respiratory system takes in O2 and gets rid of excess CO2 which is a weak acid with kidneys excreting excess acids in the body
  141. 141.  TAKE A BREAK FIVE MINUTES
  142. 142.  BONDING
  143. 143.  Joining of elements Covalent Ionic Chemical Bonding Molecules are formed by joining elements
  144. 144.  Covalent Bonding Electron Electron Joining Elements to form Molecules by Sharing of Electrons . .
  145. 145.  Ionic Bonding Joining Elements to form Molecules by one atom Donating Electrons to another
  146. 146.  Polar Covalent Electron Electron One atom takes more than its share of electrons, creating a weak charge . -.+ XX
  147. 147.  Ionic Polar Covalent Covalent Comparing Bonds Highly charged Weakly charged Not charged
  148. 148.  WATER IS LIFE
  149. 149.  WE ARE WATER Water is a polar solvent with polar covalent bonds with a slight charge
  150. 150.  WATER is H20 Oxygen takes more of its share of electrons than hydrogen and carries a weak charge that attracts other charged molecules - + +
  151. 151.  MIXES EASILY with H2O Charged molecules like oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen are attracted to one end or another of H20 - + +
  152. 152.  DOES NOT MIX EASILY with H2O Molecules that do not carry a charge will not mix easily with H2O like Fats and Oils - + +
  153. 153.  CELL MEMBRANES Hydrophobic fat layer on the outside of cell membrane regulates movement in and out of the cell.
  154. 154.  HYDROGEN BONDS Hydrogen bonds between H20 are weak and increase water’s capacity to store heat meaning water can heat up and cool down slower than air - + +
  155. 155.  Why does someone who does not sweat become easily overheated? The P.A./Instructor asks: Because moisture (water) on the skin allows it to heat up more slowly than dry skin and keeps it at a more normal temperature longer.
  156. 156.  SOLUTIONS Dissolving one substance in another Solute Solvent Solution Solute-substance that is dissolved Solvent substance doing the dissolving
  157. 157.  SOLUTIONS Dissolving one substance in another Electro lytes Water Solution Solute-substance that is dissolved Solvent substance doing the dissolving
  158. 158.  Solutions at Home Mix ¼ cup of sugar with 1 cup of H20 and heat until solute is dissolved in solvent
  159. 159.  Solute Concentration Amount of solute dissolved in solvent Solute ¼ cup Solvent 1 cup Solution Solute is sugar Solvent is water
  160. 160.  Complete the 5 questions in Section 3-1 Test Your Knowledge
  161. 161.  BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Found in living systems
  162. 162.  Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
  163. 163.  Carbohydrates Used for energy and structural molecules
  164. 164.  Monosaccharides Simple sugars
  165. 165.  Disaccharides Disaccharides are two simple sugars +
  166. 166.  Polysaccharides Stored energy in liver
  167. 167.  LIPIDS Mainly carbon and hydrogen and very little oxygen
  168. 168.  LIPIDS Fats and oils contain glycerol used for energy storage, communication and protection
  169. 169.  WAXES Fatty acid with alcohol. The most hydrophobic for protection
  170. 170.  PHOSPHOLIPIDS Two fatty acid “tails” and phosphate “head” and key ingredient in cell membranes
  171. 171.  STEROIDS Lipids with carbon atoms arranged in rings for structure or communication between cells
  172. 172.  TAKE A BREAK FIVE MINUTES
  173. 173.  PROTEINS Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen A special linkage unique to proteins called the PEPTIDE BOND ties the amino acids together
  174. 174.  VERSATILE PROTEINS Collagens Enzymes Muscle proteins Antibodies Hormones
  175. 175.  PROTEINS Cytosine Guanine Adenosine Thymine The structure of a protein is determined by order of amino acids
  176. 176.  NUCLEIC ACIDS ibo cid ucleic Controls the activities of cells and contains your genetic code responsible for cellular reproduction
  177. 177.  NUCLEIC ACIDS eoxyribo cid ucleic Controls the activities of cells and contains your genetic code responsible for cellular reproduction
  178. 178.  Complete the 5 questions in Section 3-2 Test Your Knowledge
  179. 179.  METABOLISM
  180. 180.  All chemical operations in the body Anabolism Catabolism METABOLISM
  181. 181.  All chemical operations in the body Nutrients to Fuel the body Produces Waste METABOLISM
  182. 182.  Metabolism Anabolism Dehydration Build up Catabolism BreakdownHydrolysis METABOLISM
  183. 183.  Anabolism Simple compounds built for growth, repair and reproduction Dehydration removes H20 to form large molecules Catabolism Complex substances broken down Hydrolysis adds H20 to break up large molecules Anabolism vs Catabolism
  184. 184.  What common condition in patients slows the metabolism causing weight gain? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Diabetes B.Hypertension C.Hypothyroidism D.Arthritis
  185. 185.  ENZYMES
  186. 186.  ENZYMES
  187. 187.  Enzymes to the Rescue Chemical reactions in cells are TOO SLOW and need help so they can use the materials
  188. 188.  ENZYMES Enzymes are unchanged by the chemical reaction
  189. 189.  ENZYMES Protein molecules with special binding sites Molecules that need help in a chemical reaction
  190. 190.  ENZYMES Enzymes are matched to SPECIFIC substrate
  191. 191.  ENZYMES Substrates compete for binding sites until all are filled
  192. 192.  “Ride the ENZYME” Biological molecules bind to enzymes and are carried like riders in a roller coaster. Enzymes return for more molecules/passengers when reaction/ride is complete
  193. 193.  “You Can’t Ride the ENZYME” Enzymes can also prevent the substrate molecule from binding/riding the roller coaster
  194. 194.  CELL ENERGY & ATP We all need food for energy, but HOW DOES IT GET TO THE CELLS?
  195. 195.  Cellular Respiration Glucose Oxygen ATP Inside the mitochondria, glucose is combined with O2 and made into high energy molecule
  196. 196.  ATP-Stored Energy denosine ri hosphate Made up of a base, a sugar and three “tri” phosphate groups held by HIGH ENERGY BONDS
  197. 197.  ADP-Released Energy denosine i hosphate When bonds are broken, energy is released and molecule becomes “di”and is ready to pick up another phosphate
  198. 198.  Complete the 4 questions in Section 3-3, Case Study and Review Questions Test Your Knowledge
  199. 199.  Oct 3, 2013 Exam on Chapters 1-3 Go to myhealthprofessionskit.com Most of the test questions will come from worksheets and the website: multiple choice, fill in the blank, true or false, matching and short essay Test Your Knowledge
  200. 200.  Chapter 4 The Cells Each structure of the body is made up of “building blocks” called THE CELLS
  201. 201.  Chapter 4 The Cells Each cell has its own component parts cytoplasm nucleolus ribosome Cell membrane mitochondria nucleus centrosomes endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus
  202. 202.  Specialized Cells Organs Organ System Organelles Cells Chapter 4 The Cells Human
  203. 203.  All of the following organs are part of the gastrointestinal system except? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Kidney B.Gallbladder C. Colon D.Esophagus
  204. 204.  Cells contain chemicals and structures and make up  ALL LIVING THINGS CELLS of LIFE
  205. 205.  MICROSCOPIC CELLS Our body is made up almost entirely of microscopic cells and cannot be seen with the naked eye. The nerve cell is the largest and can be TWO FEET LONG
  206. 206.  MICROSCOPIC CELLS Cells come in various shapes and sizes Flat Round Threadlike Irregular
  207. 207.  Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Review: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
  208. 208.  Cell Structure Almost all cells possess a nucleus, organelles, cytoplasm and a cell membrane each with a special purpose cytoplasm nucleolus ribosome cell membrane mitochondria nucleus Golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum
  209. 209.  Cell Membrane Surrounds the cytoplasm as a protective covering with a defined border and definite shape
  210. 210.  Selectively Permeable Allows materials in and out of the cell and decide specifically which things are not allowed
  211. 211.  Specialized Structures Contains specialized structures: channels, tunnels or carriers
  212. 212.  Identification Markers Markers on the cell membrane identify the cell as belonging to specific individual and set off an “attack” of foreign cells
  213. 213.  Cell Membrane Transport Methods
  214. 214.  Passive Across the membrane No energy Active Across the membrane Requires energy Transport Methods
  215. 215.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  216. 216.  Diffusion Higher Concentration to lower concentration
  217. 217.  Concentration Gradient Higher Concentration minus lower concentration
  218. 218.  Concentration Gradient Nature likes a nice equal balance The water assumes same color & flavor as the powder Traffic moves when concentration of cars decreases
  219. 219.  Diffusion Diffusion is necessary for O2 to go from lungs to blood and for CO2 to go from blood to lungs and out into the air
  220. 220.  What specialized cell in the blood carries oxygen to the cells of the body as well as carry carbon dioxide out of body? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.White Blood Cells B. Alveoli C. Platelets D.Red Blood Cells
  221. 221.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  222. 222.  Osmosis A solute, like sugar, cannot pass through membrane, but water goes from low to higher concentration of the SOLUTE
  223. 223.  Osmosis H20 travels through semipermeable membrane until SOLUTE concentrations are equalized
  224. 224.  Diffusion Substance moves from High to low concentration through cell membrane Osmosis Water alone moves from low to high solute concentration through semi-permeable membrane Diffusion vs. Osmosis
  225. 225.  OSMOTIC PRESSURE Ability of a substance to “pull” H20 toward area of high concentration of the solute
  226. 226.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  227. 227.  FILTRATION Pressure is exerted to force H20 and its dissolved material across the membrane
  228. 228.  FILTRATION-Kidneys Major supplier of force is the pumping of heart which forces blood into the kidney where filtration takes place
  229. 229.  Diffusion Osmosis Filtration Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  230. 230.  FACILITATED DIFFUSION A substance is helped across the membrane on a “carrier protein”
  231. 231.  FACILITATED DIFFUSION The protein is specific for each substance and is available to carry it through the membrane
  232. 232.  Complete the 7 questions in Section 4-1 And briefly explain one of the two diseases, Cystic Fibrosis or Diabetes as it relates to passive transport Test Your Knowledge
  233. 233.  TAKE A BREAK FIVE MINUTES
  234. 234.  Passive Across the membrane No energy Active Across the membrane Requires energy Transport Methods
  235. 235.  Active Transport Pumps Endocytosis Exocytosis ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  236. 236.  Active Transport Pumps Uses a protein carrier with energy from ATP to move a substance as it moves UP the gradient
  237. 237.  Active Transport Pumps Na+ and ATP used in active transport pump needed to transmit a nerve impulse
  238. 238.  Active Transport Pumps Endocytosis Exocytosis ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  239. 239.  Endo Used for intake Phago or pinocytosis Exo Exit out of the cell Uses ATP for energy Endo vs Exocytosis
  240. 240.  ENDOCYTOSIS Used for intake of LIQUID AND FOOD when substance is too large to diffuse across membrane
  241. 241.  ENDOCYTOSIS Cell membrane surrounds substance forming a vesicle and becomes separate from original membrane
  242. 242.  PHAGOCYTOSIS Solid particle engulfed in a cell
  243. 243.  PINOCYTOSIS Liquid substance engulfed in a cell
  244. 244.  EXOCYTOSIS Happens when cell needs to transport substances out of itself. After substance made, it is surrounded by vesicle and moves to cell membrane, where it is expelled
  245. 245.  Endo vs. exocytosis Intake of liquid and food versus transport of substances out of the cell
  246. 246.  Complete the 3 questions in Section 4-2 And briefly explain familial hypercholesterolemia Test Your Knowledge
  247. 247.  Cell Structure cytoplasm nucleolus ribosome Cell membrane mitochondria nucleus endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus centrosomes
  248. 248.  CYTOPLASM A watery solution of organic and inorganic chemicals ENCLOSED in the cell membrane
  249. 249.  Nucleus & Nucleolus Nucleus is control center of cell with chromatin that contains DNA which can form chromosomes containing genes that create new cells
  250. 250.  Nucleus & Nucleolus The DNA material inside the genes is what determines inherited characteristics
  251. 251.  Nucleolus Nucleolus is inside the nucleus and it’s main function is to synthesize RNA that forms ribosomes
  252. 252.  Ribosome Found on the endoplasmic reticulum or in cytoplasm and is the site where enzymes and proteins are made for cell repair & reproduction
  253. 253.  Centrosome Specialized regions of cell designed to build new cell structures to replace old.
  254. 254.  Centrosome The tubular centrioles inside the centrosome come in pairs and are involved in the division of the cell
  255. 255.  Mitochondria Provide up to 95% of body’s energy for cellular repair, movement and reproduction
  256. 256.  Mitochondria- Liver vs Sperm Cells with more activity need more mitochondria
  257. 257.  Mitochondria Enzymes in mitochondria help take in O2 and use to produce energy in form of ATP which the cell uses
  258. 258.  Endoplasmic Reticulum A series of channels formed from folded membranes, there are two kinds ROUGH and SMOOTH
  259. 259.  Rough & Smooth ER Rough has ribosomes on its surface responsible for synthesis of protein. Smooth synthesizes lipids and steroids
  260. 260.  Golgi Apparatus Receives protein from ER, processes and stores it by surrounding it with a vesicle, then it is expelled at cell membrane by EXOCYTOSIS
  261. 261.  Golgi Apparatus Organs with high secretory function such as pancreatic cells and salivary glands contain high numbers of Golgi apparatus
  262. 262.  Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes are proteins made in the Golgi apparatus and stay in the cell
  263. 263.  Lysosomes Lysosomes are proteins made in the Golgi apparatus and contain enzymes to clean up debris & waste as well as aid in destroying unwanted bacteria by phagocytosis
  264. 264.  Vesicles & Cytoskeleton A transport vesicle carries substance made by Golgi apparatus Made up of microtubules/filaments & give cell its shape
  265. 265.  Flagella and Cilia Has a whipped shaped tail used for movement Short hair-like projections on outer cell creating wavelike movement
  266. 266.  What common activity by humans can cause emphysema by destroying cilia in the lung? The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Drinking alcohol B.Chewing tobacco C. Eating chocolate D.Smoking cigarettes
  267. 267.  Complete the 4 questions in Section 4-3 Test Your Knowledge
  268. 268.  TAKE A BREAK FIVE MINUTES
  269. 269.  Cellular Reproduction The process of making a new cell occurs in MITOSIS and cell division- one cell divides into two IDENTICAL cells in ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  270. 270.  Cellular Reproduction Cells of human body have several chromosomes in nucleus with DNA “packages” of chromatin
  271. 271.  Cellular Reproduction Chromosomes carry instructions from cell on how to function and reproduce. All chromosomes are copied just before cell divides
  272. 272.  Cellular Reproduction Cells divide by binary fission. There is NO nucleus or organelles. DNA copies itself & cytoplasm splits in half when cell divides
  273. 273.  CELL CYCLE There are TWO PHASES of the cell’s life: INTERPHASE And MITOTIC PHASE
  274. 274.  INTERPHASE 80-90% of time spent in INTERPHASE when cell is not dividing but functioning normally
  275. 275.  MITOTIC PHASE Actual cell dividing during MITOSIS when genetic material is divided and CYTOKINESIS
  276. 276.  MITOTIC PHASE MITOSIS occurs in your body any time your cells need to be replaced during REPAIR & REGENERATION and GROWTH and LENGTHENING
  277. 277.  FOUR PHASES Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telephase
  278. 278.  PROPHASE The nucleus disappears, chromosomes visible and centrioles move to the sides of the cell. “Guide wire” spindles form to anchor chromosomes
  279. 279.  METAPHASE The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
  280. 280.  ANAPHASE The chromosomes split and the spindles pull them apart
  281. 281.  TELEPHASE The chromosomes go to the far end of the cell, the spindle disappears and the nuclei reappear
  282. 282.  CYTOKINESIS The cell divides in half and the “mother” cell has now formed into two identical “daughter” cells
  283. 283.  An example of mitosis in your body includes all of these things except: The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Healing of laceration B.Growing an inch in childhood C. Larger biceps w/exercise D.Ovum produced for ovulation
  284. 284.  Sexual Reproduction Meiosis occurs when four cells are produced from one, each having only HALF the genetic material and so are NOT IDENTICAL to the “mother” cell
  285. 285.  Sexual Reproduction The sperm and egg are joined during fertilization and allow the reproduction of the human being
  286. 286.  Complete the 4 questions in Section 4-4 Test Your Knowledge
  287. 287.  MICROORGANISMS Bacteria * Virus * Fungi Protozoa
  288. 288.  MICROORGANISMS  Bacteria produce disease and can either be a pathogen or NORMAL FLORA Normal flora are found in mouth, vagina and intestines including this E.coli
  289. 289.  MICROORGANISMS  Viruses (Latin for “poison”)are particles that have core containing genetic material DNA or RNA,covered by protein coat CAPSID Must take over cellular activities as it cannot grow or reproduce by itself
  290. 290.  MICROORGANISMS Fungi are one celled or multi- celled filaments called “mycelia” that travel outside of the cell or by release of spores Yeast, aspergillus, candidiasis and cryptococcus
  291. 291.  MICROORGANISMS  Protozoa are one celled organisms found in ponds and soil with diseases caused by drinking contaminated H20 or by being bitten by an insect carrying them Mosquitoes living in contaminated H20 carry malaria
  292. 292.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Pathogens Bacteria * Virus * Fungi Protozoa
  293. 293.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Bacteria Bacteria release toxins * Bacteria destroy tissue, blood cells, inhibit ribosome * Bacteria increase BP, blood clotting, fluid in lungs and cause paralysis Bacteria cause fever, tachycardia, SOB Antibiotics kill the prokaryotic without harming eurkaryotic cell
  294. 294.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Virus Viruses shut down a cell * Viruses destroy cells & trigger other infections * Viruses cause fever, aches, fatigue and immune system can destroy most of them Antibiotics do not kill viruses. Antivirals can adversely affect host cells Viruses contain either DNA or RNA in their core
  295. 295.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Fungi Fungi are inhaled or ingested or in open wounds * Fungi are resistant to environmental changes * Fungi are opportunistic in immune compromised Difficult to treat as drugs are highly toxic Fungal infections of skin are common
  296. 296.  MICROORGANISMS Cause Disease-Protozoa Protozoa cause disease by ingesting H20 * Protozoa are parasites living in human cell * Most cause serious chronic disease including malaria Some are mild diseases like Giardia in water
  297. 297.  Because of its overuse early on, this antibiotic is no longer as effective against bacterial infections: The P.A./Instructor asks: A.Penicillin B.Doxycycline C.Sulfa D.Erythromycin
  298. 298.  Chapter 4 Case Study and Review Questions Test Your Knowledge
  299. 299.  KETOACIDOSIS
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