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Chapter 11 The Senses: The
Sights and Sounds
The Senses

Senses enable us
to experience
ALL aspect of
our life
The Senses

Our senses monitor
and detect changes
in the environment
and send
information away
from the receptor
(afferen...
The Senses

The brain
interprets the
information and
makes the
appropriate
motor (efferent)
response
Special Senses &
General Senses


+
See, Hear, Smell
and Taste
Receptors of Skin
and Deep Organs

Cutaneous

Visceral

Touch

Nausea

Heat and
Cold

Hunger/
Thirst

Pain

Eliminate
Sense of Sight

THE EYE IS SIMILAR TO A CAMERA:
• Light rays pass through small opening
(pupil)
• Through transparent len...
Sense of Sight

THE EYE IS SIMILAR TO A CAMERA:
• Camera case is like external structures
that help protect eye from inju...
External Structures

•
•
•
•
•
•

Eyeball
Eyelids
Eyelashes
Conjunctiva
Lacrimal apparatus
Lacrimal gland
External Structures


• A one inch sphere.
The orbital is a cone
shaped cavity
padded with fatty
tissue that cushions
and...
External Structures


• Movable folds of
skin which contain
eyelashes to help
keep large particles
from entering and
prev...
External Structures

Protective
membrane lines
the inner eye,
covers eyeball
Pink Eye-Infection of
Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of
conjunctival
membrane caused
by bacteria, virus or
allergies/chemic...
External Structures
 • Produces and
•

•
•

stores tears and
includes lacrimal
gland with its ducts
Exocrine glands
neede...
Internal Structures

• Aqueous &
Vitreous Humors
• Sclera, choroid &
retina
• Cornea
• Iris
• Pupil
• Lens
• Ciliary musc...
HUMORS
Fluids of the Eye



Eyeball separated into
two chambers of fluid
that helps to protect the
eye:
• Aqueous-watery ...
3 Layers of Eye


• Sclera-outermost layer
with tough fibrous tissue.
It is the WHITE OF THE
EYE
• Transparent cornea is
...
3 Layers of Eye

• Middle layer
• Highly vascularized
and pigmented
• Nourishes the eye
• Contains the iris and
the pupil...
IRIS AS SPHINCTER

• Iris is colored portion
of the eye and
controls the size of
the pupil
• It is a sphincter that
has i...
3 Layers of Eye

• Innermost layer
contains nerve
endings and receives
and interprets rays of
light
• The lens is behind ...
LENS & CILIARY
MUSCLES



Light is
refracted or
bent by the
lens with
shape altered
by ciliary
muscles
ACCOMODATION


Ciliary muscles
can alter the
shape of lens
making it thicker
and thinner to
change angle of
refraction to...
Anatomy of Eye

Watch the video
“Anatomy of the Eye”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RE1MvRmWg7I
Summarize how the eyes t...
PA/Instructor Asks:

The condition in which the lens loses its
flexibility and transparency and light
cannot easily pass ...
PA/Instructor Asks:

The condition in which the lens loses its
flexibility and transparency and light
cannot easily pass ...
Sense of Hearing


Ears are responsible for hearing and maintaining balance
Sense of Hearing


We hear by
receiving sound
vibrations via the
air and translating
them into sound
via the
vestibulococ...
3 Divisions of Ear

External Ear
Middle Ear (tympanic cavity)

Inner ear (labyrinth)
External Ear
 • Pinna (or auricle)

projects out and
collects and directs
sound into
• Auditory canal
(external auditory
...
Middle Ear
 • Contains 3 smallest

bones called
• Ossicles, joined to
amplify sound
received from
tympanic membrane
• Sou...
Middle Ear

• The stapes (stirrup)
connected to
membrane called
oval window
• Carries amplified
vibrations
• Amplified up...
Middle Ear
 • Connects the

pharynx to the
middle ear
• Equalizes pressure
on either side of
eardrum
• Eardrum then
vibra...
PA/Instructor Asks:

Why is it a good idea to chew gum or
swallow when you experience sudden
pressure change such as flyi...
Inner Ear


Oval window is portal to
inner ear with three
hollow bony spaces that
form maze of winding
and twisting chann...
LABYRINTH-3 PARTS

Cochlea
Vestibular Chamber
Semicircular Canals
LABYRINTH-3 PARTS

• Bony, snail shaped portion containing perilymph to
transmit sound to brain via
• ACOUSTIC nerve or V...
LABYRINTH-3 PARTS

Houses the inner ear
LABYRINTH-3 PARTS

3 canals
containing
endolymph
transmitting
positional changes
to tiny hair like
receptors
stimulated a...
HEARING

Watch the video on 3D Human Ear
6 STEPS IN HEARING

Sound waves enter the outer ear

Auricle
Sound waves vibrate the ear drum

Tympanic membrane
Vibratio...
6 STEPS IN HEARING
 stapes transfer to
Pressure waves created by

oval window causing cochlea fluid to vibrate

Cochlea c...
Sense of Taste

The tongue is
covered with tiny
bumps called
papillae
Taste receptors
are called taste
buds, found on
the...
Sense of Taste

Sweet

Sour
Salty
Bitter
Umami-glutamate
Sense of Smell

Receptors
located in
OLFACTORY
region of nasal
cavity
Sense of Smell

Olfactory
epithelium has
specialized nerve
cell receptors
Sense of Smell

Inflammation of
the mucous
membranes that
line nasal
passage
Release of Histamine

Histamine is a
molecule
released during
an immune
response
Senses of Touch

Tactile
corpuscles
located in the
skin and
concentrated in
the fingertips
are the bodies
touch receptors
Senses of Touch
 The body has

Cold & Heat

separate heat
and cold
receptors
Adaptation
occurs with
continued
stimulation
Senses of Touch

Pain receptors
are branches of
nerve fibers
called
nociceptors (free
nerve endings)
Types of Pain

Referred pain
originates in
an internal
organ and felt
in another
region
Sense Your Body

Your body’s
orientation
sense that
allows you to
locate a body
part with your
eye closed
Sense Your Body

Found in
muscles,
tendons, joints
and the inner
ear where they
help with
equilibrium
PA/Instructor Asks:

Motion sickness, such as sea sickness or
car sickness, occurs because of excessive
stimulation of eq...
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Survey of Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 11

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Transcript of "Survey of Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 11"

  1. 1. Chapter 11 The Senses: The Sights and Sounds
  2. 2. The Senses  Senses enable us to experience ALL aspect of our life
  3. 3. The Senses  Our senses monitor and detect changes in the environment and send information away from the receptor (afferent) to the brain
  4. 4. The Senses  The brain interprets the information and makes the appropriate motor (efferent) response
  5. 5. Special Senses & General Senses  + See, Hear, Smell and Taste
  6. 6. Receptors of Skin and Deep Organs  Cutaneous Visceral Touch Nausea Heat and Cold Hunger/ Thirst Pain Eliminate
  7. 7. Sense of Sight  THE EYE IS SIMILAR TO A CAMERA: • Light rays pass through small opening (pupil) • Through transparent lens (lens of eye) • Rays are focused on photoreceptive film (retina) • The shutter (iris) must allow just the right amount of light to enter
  8. 8. Sense of Sight  THE EYE IS SIMILAR TO A CAMERA: • Camera case is like external structures that help protect eye from injury • Lens cleaner for camera is like lacrimal glands secrete tears to clean eye
  9. 9. External Structures  • • • • • • Eyeball Eyelids Eyelashes Conjunctiva Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland
  10. 10. External Structures  • A one inch sphere. The orbital is a cone shaped cavity padded with fatty tissue that cushions and protects eyeball from injury • Contains several openings for nerves and blood vessels
  11. 11. External Structures  • Movable folds of skin which contain eyelashes to help keep large particles from entering and prevent injury • Contain sebaceous glands to secrete sebum to keep them soft & trap particles
  12. 12. External Structures  Protective membrane lines the inner eye, covers eyeball
  13. 13. Pink Eye-Infection of Conjunctivitis  Inflammation of conjunctival membrane caused by bacteria, virus or allergies/chemicals
  14. 14. External Structures  • Produces and • • • stores tears and includes lacrimal gland with its ducts Exocrine glands needed for cleansing and lubrication Drain in nasal cavity Tears are antiseptic
  15. 15. Internal Structures  • Aqueous & Vitreous Humors • Sclera, choroid & retina • Cornea • Iris • Pupil • Lens • Ciliary muscles
  16. 16. HUMORS Fluids of the Eye  Eyeball separated into two chambers of fluid that helps to protect the eye: • Aqueous-watery and fill area in front of eye • Vitreous is clear, jellylike fluid behind the eye-maintains eye shape and refracts light rays
  17. 17. 3 Layers of Eye  • Sclera-outermost layer with tough fibrous tissue. It is the WHITE OF THE EYE • Transparent cornea is specialized portion and allows light in and bends the rays to focus them on retina. • Muscles responsible for moving eye are attached to the sclera
  18. 18. 3 Layers of Eye  • Middle layer • Highly vascularized and pigmented • Nourishes the eye • Contains the iris and the pupil where light passes into the eye
  19. 19. IRIS AS SPHINCTER  • Iris is colored portion of the eye and controls the size of the pupil • It is a sphincter that has intrinsic muscles that relax and contract depending on light conditions
  20. 20. 3 Layers of Eye  • Innermost layer contains nerve endings and receives and interprets rays of light • The lens is behind the iris and pupil; elastic and disc shaped with biconvex crystalline structure
  21. 21. LENS & CILIARY MUSCLES  Light is refracted or bent by the lens with shape altered by ciliary muscles
  22. 22. ACCOMODATION  Ciliary muscles can alter the shape of lens making it thicker and thinner to change angle of refraction to focus incoming light rays on the retinal area
  23. 23. Anatomy of Eye  Watch the video “Anatomy of the Eye” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RE1MvRmWg7I Summarize how the eyes take what we see and carry it to the brain for the interpretation we call vision
  24. 24. PA/Instructor Asks:  The condition in which the lens loses its flexibility and transparency and light cannot easily pass through a clouded lens is called: A. Glaucoma B. Amblyopia C. Strabismus D. Cataract
  25. 25. PA/Instructor Asks:  The condition in which the lens loses its flexibility and transparency and light cannot easily pass through a clouded lens is called: A. Glaucoma B. Amblyopia C. Strabismus D. Cataract
  26. 26. Sense of Hearing  Ears are responsible for hearing and maintaining balance
  27. 27. Sense of Hearing  We hear by receiving sound vibrations via the air and translating them into sound via the vestibulocochlear nerve
  28. 28. 3 Divisions of Ear  External Ear Middle Ear (tympanic cavity) Inner ear (labyrinth)
  29. 29. External Ear  • Pinna (or auricle) projects out and collects and directs sound into • Auditory canal (external auditory meatus) • Canal contains cerumen to lubricate and protect ear • Eardrum (tympanic membrane) at end
  30. 30. Middle Ear  • Contains 3 smallest bones called • Ossicles, joined to amplify sound received from tympanic membrane • Sound waves transmitted to fluid in internal ear
  31. 31. Middle Ear  • The stapes (stirrup) connected to membrane called oval window • Carries amplified vibrations • Amplified up to 22 times as original level
  32. 32. Middle Ear  • Connects the pharynx to the middle ear • Equalizes pressure on either side of eardrum • Eardrum then vibrates freely with incoming sound waves
  33. 33. PA/Instructor Asks:  Why is it a good idea to chew gum or swallow when you experience sudden pressure change such as flying in an airplane? So the inner ear can better sense and adjust to the rapidly changing outside atmosphere via the eustachian tubes
  34. 34. Inner Ear  Oval window is portal to inner ear with three hollow bony spaces that form maze of winding and twisting channels
  35. 35. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  Cochlea Vestibular Chamber Semicircular Canals
  36. 36. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  • Bony, snail shaped portion containing perilymph to transmit sound to brain via • ACOUSTIC nerve or VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE
  37. 37. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  Houses the inner ear
  38. 38. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  3 canals containing endolymph transmitting positional changes to tiny hair like receptors stimulated and conduct signal to brain to maintain balance
  39. 39. HEARING  Watch the video on 3D Human Ear
  40. 40. 6 STEPS IN HEARING  Sound waves enter the outer ear Auricle Sound waves vibrate the ear drum Tympanic membrane Vibrations now vibrate auditory ossicles Hammer Anvil & Stirrup
  41. 41. 6 STEPS IN HEARING  stapes transfer to Pressure waves created by oval window causing cochlea fluid to vibrate Cochlea contains perilymph Vibrations travel through the cochlear duct To the semicircular canals with endolymph Signals travel to auditory center via 8th cranial Vestibulocochlear Hairlike receptors
  42. 42. Sense of Taste  The tongue is covered with tiny bumps called papillae Taste receptors are called taste buds, found on the tongue, soft palate and back of the throat
  43. 43. Sense of Taste  Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami-glutamate
  44. 44. Sense of Smell  Receptors located in OLFACTORY region of nasal cavity
  45. 45. Sense of Smell  Olfactory epithelium has specialized nerve cell receptors
  46. 46. Sense of Smell  Inflammation of the mucous membranes that line nasal passage
  47. 47. Release of Histamine  Histamine is a molecule released during an immune response
  48. 48. Senses of Touch  Tactile corpuscles located in the skin and concentrated in the fingertips are the bodies touch receptors
  49. 49. Senses of Touch  The body has Cold & Heat separate heat and cold receptors Adaptation occurs with continued stimulation
  50. 50. Senses of Touch  Pain receptors are branches of nerve fibers called nociceptors (free nerve endings)
  51. 51. Types of Pain  Referred pain originates in an internal organ and felt in another region
  52. 52. Sense Your Body  Your body’s orientation sense that allows you to locate a body part with your eye closed
  53. 53. Sense Your Body  Found in muscles, tendons, joints and the inner ear where they help with equilibrium
  54. 54. PA/Instructor Asks:  Motion sickness, such as sea sickness or car sickness, occurs because of excessive stimulation of equilibrium centers in what part of the body? A. Eye B. Ear C. Nose D. Stomach
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