Survey of Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 11
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  • 1. Chapter 11 The Senses: The Sights and Sounds
  • 2. The Senses  Senses enable us to experience ALL aspect of our life
  • 3. The Senses  Our senses monitor and detect changes in the environment and send information away from the receptor (afferent) to the brain
  • 4. The Senses  The brain interprets the information and makes the appropriate motor (efferent) response
  • 5. Special Senses & General Senses  + See, Hear, Smell and Taste
  • 6. Receptors of Skin and Deep Organs  Cutaneous Visceral Touch Nausea Heat and Cold Hunger/ Thirst Pain Eliminate
  • 7. Sense of Sight  THE EYE IS SIMILAR TO A CAMERA: • Light rays pass through small opening (pupil) • Through transparent lens (lens of eye) • Rays are focused on photoreceptive film (retina) • The shutter (iris) must allow just the right amount of light to enter
  • 8. Sense of Sight  THE EYE IS SIMILAR TO A CAMERA: • Camera case is like external structures that help protect eye from injury • Lens cleaner for camera is like lacrimal glands secrete tears to clean eye
  • 9. External Structures  • • • • • • Eyeball Eyelids Eyelashes Conjunctiva Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland
  • 10. External Structures  • A one inch sphere. The orbital is a cone shaped cavity padded with fatty tissue that cushions and protects eyeball from injury • Contains several openings for nerves and blood vessels
  • 11. External Structures  • Movable folds of skin which contain eyelashes to help keep large particles from entering and prevent injury • Contain sebaceous glands to secrete sebum to keep them soft & trap particles
  • 12. External Structures  Protective membrane lines the inner eye, covers eyeball
  • 13. Pink Eye-Infection of Conjunctivitis  Inflammation of conjunctival membrane caused by bacteria, virus or allergies/chemicals
  • 14. External Structures  • Produces and • • • stores tears and includes lacrimal gland with its ducts Exocrine glands needed for cleansing and lubrication Drain in nasal cavity Tears are antiseptic
  • 15. Internal Structures  • Aqueous & Vitreous Humors • Sclera, choroid & retina • Cornea • Iris • Pupil • Lens • Ciliary muscles
  • 16. HUMORS Fluids of the Eye  Eyeball separated into two chambers of fluid that helps to protect the eye: • Aqueous-watery and fill area in front of eye • Vitreous is clear, jellylike fluid behind the eye-maintains eye shape and refracts light rays
  • 17. 3 Layers of Eye  • Sclera-outermost layer with tough fibrous tissue. It is the WHITE OF THE EYE • Transparent cornea is specialized portion and allows light in and bends the rays to focus them on retina. • Muscles responsible for moving eye are attached to the sclera
  • 18. 3 Layers of Eye  • Middle layer • Highly vascularized and pigmented • Nourishes the eye • Contains the iris and the pupil where light passes into the eye
  • 19. IRIS AS SPHINCTER  • Iris is colored portion of the eye and controls the size of the pupil • It is a sphincter that has intrinsic muscles that relax and contract depending on light conditions
  • 20. 3 Layers of Eye  • Innermost layer contains nerve endings and receives and interprets rays of light • The lens is behind the iris and pupil; elastic and disc shaped with biconvex crystalline structure
  • 21. LENS & CILIARY MUSCLES  Light is refracted or bent by the lens with shape altered by ciliary muscles
  • 22. ACCOMODATION  Ciliary muscles can alter the shape of lens making it thicker and thinner to change angle of refraction to focus incoming light rays on the retinal area
  • 23. Anatomy of Eye  Watch the video “Anatomy of the Eye” Summarize how the eyes take what we see and carry it to the brain for the interpretation we call vision
  • 24. PA/Instructor Asks:  The condition in which the lens loses its flexibility and transparency and light cannot easily pass through a clouded lens is called: A. Glaucoma B. Amblyopia C. Strabismus D. Cataract
  • 25. PA/Instructor Asks:  The condition in which the lens loses its flexibility and transparency and light cannot easily pass through a clouded lens is called: A. Glaucoma B. Amblyopia C. Strabismus D. Cataract
  • 26. Sense of Hearing  Ears are responsible for hearing and maintaining balance
  • 27. Sense of Hearing  We hear by receiving sound vibrations via the air and translating them into sound via the vestibulocochlear nerve
  • 28. 3 Divisions of Ear  External Ear Middle Ear (tympanic cavity) Inner ear (labyrinth)
  • 29. External Ear  • Pinna (or auricle) projects out and collects and directs sound into • Auditory canal (external auditory meatus) • Canal contains cerumen to lubricate and protect ear • Eardrum (tympanic membrane) at end
  • 30. Middle Ear  • Contains 3 smallest bones called • Ossicles, joined to amplify sound received from tympanic membrane • Sound waves transmitted to fluid in internal ear
  • 31. Middle Ear  • The stapes (stirrup) connected to membrane called oval window • Carries amplified vibrations • Amplified up to 22 times as original level
  • 32. Middle Ear  • Connects the pharynx to the middle ear • Equalizes pressure on either side of eardrum • Eardrum then vibrates freely with incoming sound waves
  • 33. PA/Instructor Asks:  Why is it a good idea to chew gum or swallow when you experience sudden pressure change such as flying in an airplane? So the inner ear can better sense and adjust to the rapidly changing outside atmosphere via the eustachian tubes
  • 34. Inner Ear  Oval window is portal to inner ear with three hollow bony spaces that form maze of winding and twisting channels
  • 35. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  Cochlea Vestibular Chamber Semicircular Canals
  • 36. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  • Bony, snail shaped portion containing perilymph to transmit sound to brain via • ACOUSTIC nerve or VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE
  • 37. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  Houses the inner ear
  • 38. LABYRINTH-3 PARTS  3 canals containing endolymph transmitting positional changes to tiny hair like receptors stimulated and conduct signal to brain to maintain balance
  • 39. HEARING  Watch the video on 3D Human Ear
  • 40. 6 STEPS IN HEARING  Sound waves enter the outer ear Auricle Sound waves vibrate the ear drum Tympanic membrane Vibrations now vibrate auditory ossicles Hammer Anvil & Stirrup
  • 41. 6 STEPS IN HEARING  stapes transfer to Pressure waves created by oval window causing cochlea fluid to vibrate Cochlea contains perilymph Vibrations travel through the cochlear duct To the semicircular canals with endolymph Signals travel to auditory center via 8th cranial Vestibulocochlear Hairlike receptors
  • 42. Sense of Taste  The tongue is covered with tiny bumps called papillae Taste receptors are called taste buds, found on the tongue, soft palate and back of the throat
  • 43. Sense of Taste  Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami-glutamate
  • 44. Sense of Smell  Receptors located in OLFACTORY region of nasal cavity
  • 45. Sense of Smell  Olfactory epithelium has specialized nerve cell receptors
  • 46. Sense of Smell  Inflammation of the mucous membranes that line nasal passage
  • 47. Release of Histamine  Histamine is a molecule released during an immune response
  • 48. Senses of Touch  Tactile corpuscles located in the skin and concentrated in the fingertips are the bodies touch receptors
  • 49. Senses of Touch  The body has Cold & Heat separate heat and cold receptors Adaptation occurs with continued stimulation
  • 50. Senses of Touch  Pain receptors are branches of nerve fibers called nociceptors (free nerve endings)
  • 51. Types of Pain  Referred pain originates in an internal organ and felt in another region
  • 52. Sense Your Body  Your body’s orientation sense that allows you to locate a body part with your eye closed
  • 53. Sense Your Body  Found in muscles, tendons, joints and the inner ear where they help with equilibrium
  • 54. PA/Instructor Asks:  Motion sickness, such as sea sickness or car sickness, occurs because of excessive stimulation of equilibrium centers in what part of the body? A. Eye B. Ear C. Nose D. Stomach