Survey of anatomy & physiology chap 5
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Survey of anatomy & physiology chap 5

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Survey of anatomy & physiology chap 5 Survey of anatomy & physiology chap 5 Presentation Transcript

  •  TISSUES FROM CELLSTISSUES FROM CELLS Cells are basic building blocks of the body Similar cells are organized into tissues that perform similar functions Cells are basic building blocks of the body Similar cells are organized into tissues that perform similar functionsCELLS TISSUES
  •  ORGANS FROM TISSUESORGANS FROM TISSUES A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ
  •  ORGANS INTO SYSTEMSORGANS INTO SYSTEMS Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems
  •  TISSUES-FOUR TYPESTISSUES-FOUR TYPES 1 2 3 4
  •  1-Epithelial Tissue1-Epithelial Tissue Covers and lines much of body and also covers many of the parts found in body Covers and lines much of body and also covers many of the parts found in body
  •  1-Epithelial Tissue1-Epithelial Tissue Cells are packed tightly together, forming a sheet that usually has no blood vessels in it Cells are packed tightly together, forming a sheet that usually has no blood vessels in it
  •  1-EPITHELIAL CELL1-EPITHELIAL CELL SHAPESSHAPES a b c d
  •  1-Epithelial Cell Shapes1-Epithelial Cell Shapes
  •  1-Epithelial Cell Shapes1-Epithelial Cell Shapes
  •  1-Epithelial Cell1-Epithelial Cell ArrangementArrangement a b c
  •  Figure 5-1 Types and locations of epithelial tissues.
  •  The PA/Instructor Asks: A. Stratified B. Simple C. Pseudo-stratified D. Columnar
  •  Membranes- “Special”Membranes- “Special” Epithelial CellsEpithelial Cells Sheet like structures found throughout body that perform special functions and can be classified as organs Sheet like structures found throughout body that perform special functions and can be classified as organs
  •  Membranes- “Special”Membranes- “Special” Epithelial CellsEpithelial Cells Epithelial membranes possess a top layer of epithelial tissue and bottom layer of specialized connective tissue Epithelial membranes possess a top layer of epithelial tissue and bottom layer of specialized connective tissue
  •  Membranes- “Special”Membranes- “Special” Epithelial CellsEpithelial Cells a b c
  •  Figure 5-2 Location of serous and mucous membranes.
  •  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue
  •  Figure 5-3 Types and locations of connective tissues. Most common of tissues; found scattered throughout body Holds things together; provides structure and support Most common of tissues; found scattered throughout body Holds things together; provides structure and support
  •  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Fine, delicate webs of loosely connected tissue or strong cordlike structures similar to wire cables Fine, delicate webs of loosely connected tissue or strong cordlike structures similar to wire cables
  •  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Necessary for proper functioning of the body Necessary for proper functioning of the body
  •  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Composed of DENSE connective tissue Composed of DENSE connective tissue
  •  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Composed of DENSE connective tissue to form a protective barrier Composed of DENSE connective tissue to form a protective barrier
  •  Figure 5-4 The synovial joint This fluid greatly reduces friction when joints move This fluid greatly reduces friction when joints move
  •  Synovial Membrane & Fluid Important membrane found in spaces between bone joints; produces slippery substance called synovial fluid Important membrane found in spaces between bone joints; produces slippery substance called synovial fluid
  •  3-Muscle Tissue3-Muscle Tissue Three types of tissue that provide means for movementThree types of tissue that provide means for movement
  •  3-Muscle Tissue3-Muscle Tissue This form of tissue has ability to shorten itself (contractility)This form of tissue has ability to shorten itself (contractility)
  •  3a-Skeletal Muscle3a-Skeletal Muscle Striped appearance or STRIATED and attached to bones Striped appearance or STRIATED and attached to bones
  •  3a-Skeletal Muscle3a-Skeletal Muscle Surrounds openings in body, such as mouth, where it controls size of opening Long, fiber-like cells with many nuclei in each cell Surrounds openings in body, such as mouth, where it controls size of opening Long, fiber-like cells with many nuclei in each cell
  •  3a-Skeletal Muscle3a-Skeletal Muscle Brain controls muscle contraction; because these muscles are controlled consciously, they are called voluntary muscles Brain controls muscle contraction; because these muscles are controlled consciously, they are called voluntary muscles
  •  3b-Cardiac Muscle3b-Cardiac Muscle Found in the walls of the heart with interlocking cells that makes for more efficient contraction Found in the walls of the heart with interlocking cells that makes for more efficient contraction
  •  3b-Cardiac Muscle3b-Cardiac Muscle Heart beats without our conscious control; muscle type considered involuntary muscle Heart beats without our conscious control; muscle type considered involuntary muscle
  •  3c-Smooth Muscles3c-Smooth Muscles Forms walls of hollow organs, such as in digestive system (often called visceral tissue) and blood vessels Forms walls of hollow organs, such as in digestive system (often called visceral tissue) and blood vessels
  •  3c-Smooth Muscles3c-Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles not controlled by conscious thoughts Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles not controlled by conscious thoughts
  •  Figure 5-5 Labeled diagram and flowchart of the three muscle tissue types
  •  4-Nervous Tissue4-Nervous Tissue Acts as rapid messenger service for body; messages can cause actions to occur Acts as rapid messenger service for body; messages can cause actions to occur
  •  4-Nervous Tissue4-Nervous Tissue Second type of nervous tissue cell that function as support and connection cells Second type of nervous tissue cell that function as support and connection cells
  •  Figure 5-6 The two main types of nerve cells.
  •  4-Nervous Tissue4-Nervous Tissue
  •  Test Your Knowledge
  •  ORGANS FROM TISSUESORGANS FROM TISSUES A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ
  •  OrgansOrgans Result of two or more types of tissues organizing in such a way as to accomplish a task that the tissues cannot do on their own Result of two or more types of tissues organizing in such a way as to accomplish a task that the tissues cannot do on their own
  •  OrgansOrgans Some occur singly and some in pairs Some occur singly and some in pairs
  •  The PA/Instructor Asks: A. Spleen B. Liver C. Heart D. Lungs
  •  ORGANS INTO SYSTEMSORGANS INTO SYSTEMS Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems
  •  SystemsSystems Each is interrelated, often depending on one another for proper functioning Each is interrelated, often depending on one another for proper functioning
  •  Systems of Human BodySystems of Human Body RespiratoryRespiratory Cardio- Vascular Cardio- Vascular Muscular Lymph & Immune IntegumentaryIntegumentary Nervous UrinaryUrinary Gastro Intestinal Gastro Intestinal ReproductiveReproductive Skeletal
  •  Five SensesFive Senses Smell TasteHearingHearing TouchTouch Sight
  •  TAKE A BREAK
  •   Functions:  Provides support and structure for body  Protects organs  Provides movement  Stores variety of minerals  Produces blood cells Skeletal SystemSkeletal System
  •  Skeletal SystemSkeletal System CartilageCartilage BonesBones JointsJoints LigamentsLigaments
  •  Figure 5-7 The skeletal system 206 Bones Total 80 Axial-bones of the torso and skull + 126 Appendicular- bones in the limbs and support bones 206 Bones Total 80 Axial-bones of the torso and skull + 126 Appendicular- bones in the limbs and support bones
  •  Specialties-Skeleton Orthopedics-study of skeleton joints, muscles, ligaments and muscles Rheumatology-study of inflammation, pain and stiffness in muscles and joints
  •  Muscular SystemMuscular System 3 kinds of Muscles 3 kinds of Muscles
  •  Muscular System-Muscular System- SkeletalSkeletal
  •  Muscular System-Muscular System- CardiacCardiac
  •  Muscular System-Muscular System- SmoothSmooth
  •  Specialties-Muscular Orthopedics-study of skeleton joints, muscles, ligaments and muscles Rheumatology-study of inflammation, pain and stiffness in muscles and joints
  •  Figure 5-8 The muscular system
  •  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem
  •  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Protects from pathogens and dehydration Protects from pathogens and dehydration
  •  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Regulates body temp- sweat, shiver, blood vessel diameter change Regulates body temp- sweat, shiver, blood vessel diameter change
  •  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Senses the outside world-heat, cold, pain and pressure Senses the outside world-heat, cold, pain and pressure
  •  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Glands lubricate and waterproof the skin & inhibit growth of unwanted bacteria Glands lubricate and waterproof the skin & inhibit growth of unwanted bacteria
  •  Figure 5-9 The integumentary system
  •  Specialties-Skin Dermatology-study of the skin
  •   Sends and receives messages, stimulated by body's internal and external environments, affecting how we perceive world and protecting us from harm  Sensations caused by stimulation of our sensory receptors Nervous SystemNervous System
  •  Nervous SystemNervous System
  •  Nervous SystemNervous System
  •  Nervous System-Nervous System- Sensory OrgansSensory Organs
  •  Nervous System-Nervous System- 3 functions3 functions
  •  Figure 5-10 The nervous system
  •  Nervous System-Nervous System- SpecialtiesSpecialties
  •  Endocrine SystemEndocrine System Acts as control center for virtually all of the body’s organs Acts as control center for virtually all of the body’s organs
  •  Endocrine SystemEndocrine System Endocrine glands release chemicals (hormones) that are circulated via the cardiovascular system, regulating the body’s metabolic processes and utilizing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth and production Endocrine glands release chemicals (hormones) that are circulated via the cardiovascular system, regulating the body’s metabolic processes and utilizing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth and production
  •  Endocrine SystemEndocrine System Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance Helps cope with stresses produced by infection and trauma Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance Helps cope with stresses produced by infection and trauma
  •  Endocrine System-Endocrine System- main componentsmain components
  •  Figure 5-11 The endocrine system
  •  CardiovascularCardiovascular SystemSystem Also called the circulatory system-main transport system to each cell of our body Also called the circulatory system-main transport system to each cell of our body
  •  CardiovascularCardiovascular SystemSystem Water, oxygen, and a variety of nutrients and other substances necessary for life are transported to cells, while waste products removed from cells Water, oxygen, and a variety of nutrients and other substances necessary for life are transported to cells, while waste products removed from cells
  •  CardiovascularCardiovascular SystemSystem
  •  Figure 5-12 The cardiovascular system.
  •  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Supplies cells with fresh oxygen and removes carbon dioxide without conscious effort Supplies cells with fresh oxygen and removes carbon dioxide without conscious effort
  •  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Filters, warms and moistens air we breathe and inhale Filters, warms and moistens air we breathe and inhale
  •  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Mucous lining of the airway helps trap foreign particles and germs Mucous lining of the airway helps trap foreign particles and germs
  •  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System System helps maintain proper acid base balance of blood System helps maintain proper acid base balance of blood
  •  Figure 5-13 The respiratory system
  •  Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System Responsible for helping the body to maintain proper fluid balance and protect it from infection Responsible for helping the body to maintain proper fluid balance and protect it from infection
  •  Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System Special structures, called lymph nodes, act as filters to capture unwanted infectious agents Special structures, called lymph nodes, act as filters to capture unwanted infectious agents
  •  Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System Produces specialized infection-fighting white blood cells called lymphocytes
  •  Figure 5-14 The lymphatic system Major parts of system: lymph vessels, lymph ducts, lymph nodes, thymus gland, tonsils, and spleen
  •  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal (Digestive)System(Digestive)System Often called GI system; breaks down raw materials (food), both mechanically and chemically, into usable substances Often called GI system; breaks down raw materials (food), both mechanically and chemically, into usable substances
  •  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal (Digestive)System(Digestive)System Absorbs substances for transportationAbsorbs substances for transportation
  •  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal SystemSystem Transports waste (produced by unused materials) out of the body
  •  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal System-Main PartsSystem-Main Parts
  •  Figure 5-15 The digestive system. Includes the liver, gallbladder, pancreas and salivary glands
  •  Figure 5-16 This is an example of an individual with a body image problem in which her self-perception is of being overweight. Distorted Body ImageDistorted Body Image
  •   Plays important role in elimination of waste products, electrolytes, drugs, and other toxins, as well as excessive water Urinary SystemUrinary System
  •  Urinary SystemUrinary System Water regulation, blood pressure regulation, regulation of red blood cells, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance Water regulation, blood pressure regulation, regulation of red blood cells, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance
  •  Urinary SystemUrinary System
  •  Figure 5-17 The male and female urinary systems
  •   Often combined with urinary system to make genitourinary system, or GU system  Purpose is to make new humans Reproductive SystemReproductive System
  •  Figure 5-18 The male and female reproductive systems. Main female parts of system: ovaries, eggs, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina Main male parts of system: testes, sperm, and penis Main female parts of system: ovaries, eggs, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina Main male parts of system: testes, sperm, and penis
  •  Test Your Knowledge
  •  Case Study
  •  Anatomy Quiz