Survey of anatomy & physiology chap 5

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  • Survey of anatomy & physiology chap 5

    1. 1.  TISSUES FROM CELLSTISSUES FROM CELLS Cells are basic building blocks of the body Similar cells are organized into tissues that perform similar functions Cells are basic building blocks of the body Similar cells are organized into tissues that perform similar functionsCELLS TISSUES
    2. 2.  ORGANS FROM TISSUESORGANS FROM TISSUES A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ
    3. 3.  ORGANS INTO SYSTEMSORGANS INTO SYSTEMS Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems
    4. 4.  TISSUES-FOUR TYPESTISSUES-FOUR TYPES 1 2 3 4
    5. 5.  1-Epithelial Tissue1-Epithelial Tissue Covers and lines much of body and also covers many of the parts found in body Covers and lines much of body and also covers many of the parts found in body
    6. 6.  1-Epithelial Tissue1-Epithelial Tissue Cells are packed tightly together, forming a sheet that usually has no blood vessels in it Cells are packed tightly together, forming a sheet that usually has no blood vessels in it
    7. 7.  1-EPITHELIAL CELL1-EPITHELIAL CELL SHAPESSHAPES a b c d
    8. 8.  1-Epithelial Cell Shapes1-Epithelial Cell Shapes
    9. 9.  1-Epithelial Cell Shapes1-Epithelial Cell Shapes
    10. 10.  1-Epithelial Cell1-Epithelial Cell ArrangementArrangement a b c
    11. 11.  Figure 5-1 Types and locations of epithelial tissues.
    12. 12.  The PA/Instructor Asks: A. Stratified B. Simple C. Pseudo-stratified D. Columnar
    13. 13.  Membranes- “Special”Membranes- “Special” Epithelial CellsEpithelial Cells Sheet like structures found throughout body that perform special functions and can be classified as organs Sheet like structures found throughout body that perform special functions and can be classified as organs
    14. 14.  Membranes- “Special”Membranes- “Special” Epithelial CellsEpithelial Cells Epithelial membranes possess a top layer of epithelial tissue and bottom layer of specialized connective tissue Epithelial membranes possess a top layer of epithelial tissue and bottom layer of specialized connective tissue
    15. 15.  Membranes- “Special”Membranes- “Special” Epithelial CellsEpithelial Cells a b c
    16. 16.  Figure 5-2 Location of serous and mucous membranes.
    17. 17.  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue
    18. 18.  Figure 5-3 Types and locations of connective tissues. Most common of tissues; found scattered throughout body Holds things together; provides structure and support Most common of tissues; found scattered throughout body Holds things together; provides structure and support
    19. 19.  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Fine, delicate webs of loosely connected tissue or strong cordlike structures similar to wire cables Fine, delicate webs of loosely connected tissue or strong cordlike structures similar to wire cables
    20. 20.  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Necessary for proper functioning of the body Necessary for proper functioning of the body
    21. 21.  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Composed of DENSE connective tissue Composed of DENSE connective tissue
    22. 22.  2-Connective Tissue2-Connective Tissue Composed of DENSE connective tissue to form a protective barrier Composed of DENSE connective tissue to form a protective barrier
    23. 23.  Figure 5-4 The synovial joint This fluid greatly reduces friction when joints move This fluid greatly reduces friction when joints move
    24. 24.  Synovial Membrane & Fluid Important membrane found in spaces between bone joints; produces slippery substance called synovial fluid Important membrane found in spaces between bone joints; produces slippery substance called synovial fluid
    25. 25.  3-Muscle Tissue3-Muscle Tissue Three types of tissue that provide means for movementThree types of tissue that provide means for movement
    26. 26.  3-Muscle Tissue3-Muscle Tissue This form of tissue has ability to shorten itself (contractility)This form of tissue has ability to shorten itself (contractility)
    27. 27.  3a-Skeletal Muscle3a-Skeletal Muscle Striped appearance or STRIATED and attached to bones Striped appearance or STRIATED and attached to bones
    28. 28.  3a-Skeletal Muscle3a-Skeletal Muscle Surrounds openings in body, such as mouth, where it controls size of opening Long, fiber-like cells with many nuclei in each cell Surrounds openings in body, such as mouth, where it controls size of opening Long, fiber-like cells with many nuclei in each cell
    29. 29.  3a-Skeletal Muscle3a-Skeletal Muscle Brain controls muscle contraction; because these muscles are controlled consciously, they are called voluntary muscles Brain controls muscle contraction; because these muscles are controlled consciously, they are called voluntary muscles
    30. 30.  3b-Cardiac Muscle3b-Cardiac Muscle Found in the walls of the heart with interlocking cells that makes for more efficient contraction Found in the walls of the heart with interlocking cells that makes for more efficient contraction
    31. 31.  3b-Cardiac Muscle3b-Cardiac Muscle Heart beats without our conscious control; muscle type considered involuntary muscle Heart beats without our conscious control; muscle type considered involuntary muscle
    32. 32.  3c-Smooth Muscles3c-Smooth Muscles Forms walls of hollow organs, such as in digestive system (often called visceral tissue) and blood vessels Forms walls of hollow organs, such as in digestive system (often called visceral tissue) and blood vessels
    33. 33.  3c-Smooth Muscles3c-Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles not controlled by conscious thoughts Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles not controlled by conscious thoughts
    34. 34.  Figure 5-5 Labeled diagram and flowchart of the three muscle tissue types
    35. 35.  4-Nervous Tissue4-Nervous Tissue Acts as rapid messenger service for body; messages can cause actions to occur Acts as rapid messenger service for body; messages can cause actions to occur
    36. 36.  4-Nervous Tissue4-Nervous Tissue Second type of nervous tissue cell that function as support and connection cells Second type of nervous tissue cell that function as support and connection cells
    37. 37.  Figure 5-6 The two main types of nerve cells.
    38. 38.  4-Nervous Tissue4-Nervous Tissue
    39. 39.  Test Your Knowledge
    40. 40.  ORGANS FROM TISSUESORGANS FROM TISSUES A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ A combination of tissues designed to perform a specific function or several functions is called an organ
    41. 41.  OrgansOrgans Result of two or more types of tissues organizing in such a way as to accomplish a task that the tissues cannot do on their own Result of two or more types of tissues organizing in such a way as to accomplish a task that the tissues cannot do on their own
    42. 42.  OrgansOrgans Some occur singly and some in pairs Some occur singly and some in pairs
    43. 43.  The PA/Instructor Asks: A. Spleen B. Liver C. Heart D. Lungs
    44. 44.  ORGANS INTO SYSTEMSORGANS INTO SYSTEMS Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems Organs that work together to perform specific activities, often with help of accessory structures, form systems
    45. 45.  SystemsSystems Each is interrelated, often depending on one another for proper functioning Each is interrelated, often depending on one another for proper functioning
    46. 46.  Systems of Human BodySystems of Human Body RespiratoryRespiratory Cardio- Vascular Cardio- Vascular Muscular Lymph & Immune IntegumentaryIntegumentary Nervous UrinaryUrinary Gastro Intestinal Gastro Intestinal ReproductiveReproductive Skeletal
    47. 47.  Five SensesFive Senses Smell TasteHearingHearing TouchTouch Sight
    48. 48.  TAKE A BREAK
    49. 49.   Functions:  Provides support and structure for body  Protects organs  Provides movement  Stores variety of minerals  Produces blood cells Skeletal SystemSkeletal System
    50. 50.  Skeletal SystemSkeletal System CartilageCartilage BonesBones JointsJoints LigamentsLigaments
    51. 51.  Figure 5-7 The skeletal system 206 Bones Total 80 Axial-bones of the torso and skull + 126 Appendicular- bones in the limbs and support bones 206 Bones Total 80 Axial-bones of the torso and skull + 126 Appendicular- bones in the limbs and support bones
    52. 52.  Specialties-Skeleton Orthopedics-study of skeleton joints, muscles, ligaments and muscles Rheumatology-study of inflammation, pain and stiffness in muscles and joints
    53. 53.  Muscular SystemMuscular System 3 kinds of Muscles 3 kinds of Muscles
    54. 54.  Muscular System-Muscular System- SkeletalSkeletal
    55. 55.  Muscular System-Muscular System- CardiacCardiac
    56. 56.  Muscular System-Muscular System- SmoothSmooth
    57. 57.  Specialties-Muscular Orthopedics-study of skeleton joints, muscles, ligaments and muscles Rheumatology-study of inflammation, pain and stiffness in muscles and joints
    58. 58.  Figure 5-8 The muscular system
    59. 59.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem
    60. 60.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Protects from pathogens and dehydration Protects from pathogens and dehydration
    61. 61.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Regulates body temp- sweat, shiver, blood vessel diameter change Regulates body temp- sweat, shiver, blood vessel diameter change
    62. 62.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Senses the outside world-heat, cold, pain and pressure Senses the outside world-heat, cold, pain and pressure
    63. 63.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary SystemSystem Glands lubricate and waterproof the skin & inhibit growth of unwanted bacteria Glands lubricate and waterproof the skin & inhibit growth of unwanted bacteria
    64. 64.  Figure 5-9 The integumentary system
    65. 65.  Specialties-Skin Dermatology-study of the skin
    66. 66.   Sends and receives messages, stimulated by body's internal and external environments, affecting how we perceive world and protecting us from harm  Sensations caused by stimulation of our sensory receptors Nervous SystemNervous System
    67. 67.  Nervous SystemNervous System
    68. 68.  Nervous SystemNervous System
    69. 69.  Nervous System-Nervous System- Sensory OrgansSensory Organs
    70. 70.  Nervous System-Nervous System- 3 functions3 functions
    71. 71.  Figure 5-10 The nervous system
    72. 72.  Nervous System-Nervous System- SpecialtiesSpecialties
    73. 73.  Endocrine SystemEndocrine System Acts as control center for virtually all of the body’s organs Acts as control center for virtually all of the body’s organs
    74. 74.  Endocrine SystemEndocrine System Endocrine glands release chemicals (hormones) that are circulated via the cardiovascular system, regulating the body’s metabolic processes and utilizing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth and production Endocrine glands release chemicals (hormones) that are circulated via the cardiovascular system, regulating the body’s metabolic processes and utilizing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth and production
    75. 75.  Endocrine SystemEndocrine System Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance Helps cope with stresses produced by infection and trauma Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance Helps cope with stresses produced by infection and trauma
    76. 76.  Endocrine System-Endocrine System- main componentsmain components
    77. 77.  Figure 5-11 The endocrine system
    78. 78.  CardiovascularCardiovascular SystemSystem Also called the circulatory system-main transport system to each cell of our body Also called the circulatory system-main transport system to each cell of our body
    79. 79.  CardiovascularCardiovascular SystemSystem Water, oxygen, and a variety of nutrients and other substances necessary for life are transported to cells, while waste products removed from cells Water, oxygen, and a variety of nutrients and other substances necessary for life are transported to cells, while waste products removed from cells
    80. 80.  CardiovascularCardiovascular SystemSystem
    81. 81.  Figure 5-12 The cardiovascular system.
    82. 82.  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Supplies cells with fresh oxygen and removes carbon dioxide without conscious effort Supplies cells with fresh oxygen and removes carbon dioxide without conscious effort
    83. 83.  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Filters, warms and moistens air we breathe and inhale Filters, warms and moistens air we breathe and inhale
    84. 84.  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System Mucous lining of the airway helps trap foreign particles and germs Mucous lining of the airway helps trap foreign particles and germs
    85. 85.  Respiratory SystemRespiratory System System helps maintain proper acid base balance of blood System helps maintain proper acid base balance of blood
    86. 86.  Figure 5-13 The respiratory system
    87. 87.  Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System Responsible for helping the body to maintain proper fluid balance and protect it from infection Responsible for helping the body to maintain proper fluid balance and protect it from infection
    88. 88.  Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System Special structures, called lymph nodes, act as filters to capture unwanted infectious agents Special structures, called lymph nodes, act as filters to capture unwanted infectious agents
    89. 89.  Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System Produces specialized infection-fighting white blood cells called lymphocytes
    90. 90.  Figure 5-14 The lymphatic system Major parts of system: lymph vessels, lymph ducts, lymph nodes, thymus gland, tonsils, and spleen
    91. 91.  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal (Digestive)System(Digestive)System Often called GI system; breaks down raw materials (food), both mechanically and chemically, into usable substances Often called GI system; breaks down raw materials (food), both mechanically and chemically, into usable substances
    92. 92.  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal (Digestive)System(Digestive)System Absorbs substances for transportationAbsorbs substances for transportation
    93. 93.  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal SystemSystem Transports waste (produced by unused materials) out of the body
    94. 94.  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal System-Main PartsSystem-Main Parts
    95. 95.  Figure 5-15 The digestive system. Includes the liver, gallbladder, pancreas and salivary glands
    96. 96.  Figure 5-16 This is an example of an individual with a body image problem in which her self-perception is of being overweight. Distorted Body ImageDistorted Body Image
    97. 97.   Plays important role in elimination of waste products, electrolytes, drugs, and other toxins, as well as excessive water Urinary SystemUrinary System
    98. 98.  Urinary SystemUrinary System Water regulation, blood pressure regulation, regulation of red blood cells, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance Water regulation, blood pressure regulation, regulation of red blood cells, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance
    99. 99.  Urinary SystemUrinary System
    100. 100.  Figure 5-17 The male and female urinary systems
    101. 101.   Often combined with urinary system to make genitourinary system, or GU system  Purpose is to make new humans Reproductive SystemReproductive System
    102. 102.  Figure 5-18 The male and female reproductive systems. Main female parts of system: ovaries, eggs, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina Main male parts of system: testes, sperm, and penis Main female parts of system: ovaries, eggs, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina Main male parts of system: testes, sperm, and penis
    103. 103.  Test Your Knowledge
    104. 104.  Case Study
    105. 105.  Anatomy Quiz

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