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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 9 Part One


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  • 1. 9 The Nervous System: The Body's Control Center
  • 2. Part One 
  • 3. Introduction   Nervous system is complex and important to body's control system  Nervous system monitors conditions and takes corrective action when necessary, to keep everything running smoothly
  • 4. Central Nervous   Brain and spinal cord are the central nervous system (CNS) which controls the total nervous system
  • 5. Peripheral Nervous   Everything outside brain and spinal cord is part of peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • 6. Figure 9-1 Organization of the nervous system.  Peripheral (PNS) further branched into somatic which controls voluntary (skeletal) muscles and autonomic which control involuntary muscles
  • 7. CNS & PNS  Sensory-in motor box
  • 8. Introduction 
  • 9. Autonomic Nervous   Autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, along with several glands
  • 10. Autonomic NervousTwo  Parts  Autonomic system is divided into TWO PARTS parasympathetic system that deals with normal body functioning and maintenance of homeostasis and…
  • 11. Spinal Cord   Spinal cord is hollow tube running inside vertebral column from foramen magnum to the second lumbar (L2) vertebrae
  • 12. Spinal Cord   Spinal cord is like a sophisticated neural information superhighway
  • 13. 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves  NOTE: There are EIGHT cervical spinal nerves, even though there are only SEVEN vertebrae
  • 14. Meninges   Meninges are protective covering of both brain and spinal cord  Meninges help to set up layers that act as cushioning and shock absorbers
  • 15. Three Layers of Meninges  Protect the CNS Protect the CNS from injury from injury
  • 16. Three Layers of Meninges   There are three distinct layers of meninges:  Outer layer is thick, fibrous tissue called dura mater  Middle layer is wispy, delicate layer resembling spider web called arachnoid mater, mater acting as shock absorber, and transporting dissolved gases and nutrients as well as chemical messengers and waste products  Third, innermost layer, fused to neural tissue, is pia mater, containing blood vessels that mater serve brain and spinal cord
  • 17. Spaces Between Meninges   Series of spaces associated with meninges  Between dura and vertebral column is space filled with fat and blood vessels called epidural space
  • 18. Spaces Between Meninges   The anesthetic agents that are infused through the small catheter block spinal nerve roots in the epidural space and the sympathetic nerve fibers adjacent to them Used for: pain Used for: pain associated with chest, associated with chest, abdominal, and lower abdominal, and lower extremity surgery. extremity surgery.
  • 19. Spaces Between Meninges   Series of spaces associated with meninges  Between dura mater and arachnoid mater is subdural space filled with tiny bit of fluid Tiny veins between the Tiny veins between the surface of the brain and surface of the brain and its outer covering (the its outer covering (the dura) stretch and tear, dura) stretch and tear, allowing blood to collect allowing blood to collect
  • 20. Figure 9-8 The meninges of the brain and spinal cord.  •• •• •• Dura Mater Dura Mater Arachnoid mater Arachnoid mater Pia Mater Pia Mater
  • 21. Spinal Nerves   Nerves are part of peripheral nervous system  All nerves consist of bundles of axon, blood vessels, and connective tissue Nerves are connection between Nerves are connection between CNS and outside world CNS and outside world
  • 22. Spinal Nerves   Nerves connected to spinal cord are called spinal nerves, each named for spinal cord segment to which they are attached
  • 23. Spinal Nerves   Nerves run between CNS and organs or tissues, carrying tissues information into and out of CNS
  • 24. Reflexes   Simplest form of motor output you can make  Generally protective, keeping you from harm
  • 25. Reflexes   Involuntary and usually response gets bigger as stimulus gets bigger
  • 26. Reflexes   Amazing thing about reflexes is that they can often occur without brain being involved, involving involved only spinal cord
  • 27. Reflexes  *See page 221 for details
  • 28. The Brain and Cranial Nerves   Brain acts as main processor and director of nervous system
  • 29.  12 Cranial Nerves  These nerves go to specific body areas, where they receive info and send it back to brain (sensory); brain sends back instructions to move (motor)
  • 30. Table 9-5 Cranial Nerves and Functions 
  • 31. 12 Cranial Nerves-A Mnemonic   Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Vintage Green Velvet, Simply Heaven Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Vagus Spinal Accessory Hypoglossal
  • 32. The Brain   Brain can be divided into several anatomical and functional sections
  • 33. The Brain   Cerebrum is largest part of brain  Divided into right and left hemispheres by longitudinal fissure Surface is not smooth, but broken by ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) collectively known as convolutions
  • 34. The Brain   Convolutions serve very important purpose by increasing surface area of brain, so you can pack more brain in smaller space
  • 35. The Brain   Lobes named for skull bones that cover them and occur in pairs, one in each hemisphere
  • 36. Lobes of the Brain 
  • 37. The Brain Info is Contralateral   Much of information coming into brain is contralateral, meaning the right side of body is controlled by left side of cerebral cortex and left side of body is controlled by right side of cerebral cortex
  • 38. Figure 9-12 External brain anatomy and lobes. 
  • 39. Cerebellum   Cerebellum is posterior to cerebrum  Involved in sensory collection, motor coordination, and balance
  • 40. Brainstem   Brain stem is stalklike structure inferior to, and partially covered by, cerebrum  Divided into three sections
  • 41. Brainstem-3 Sections   Medulla oblongata: continuous with spinal cord, responsible for impulses that control heartbeat, respirations, and blood vessel diameter
  • 42. Brainstem-3 Sections   Pons: just superior to medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with the upper portions of the brain
  • 43. Brainstem-3 Sections   Midbrain: most superior portion of the brain stem, controls visual and auditory systems and controls body movement
  • 44. Brainstem-3 Sections   Brain stem receives sensory information and contains control systems for vital processes such as blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing
  • 45. Figure 9-14 A. Embolus traveling to the brain and B. cross-section of brain showing cerebrovascular accident (CVA).  Read pages 226 to 227 Read pages 226 to 227 Extra credit question on Extra credit question on test will cover “Brain test will cover “Brain Injury” Injury”
  • 46. Corpus Callosum   Corpus callosum  Connection allows for crosscommunication between right and left sides of brain  Many day-to-day activities, like walking or driving, require both sides of body, and therefore both sides of brain, to be well coordinated
  • 47. Take a Break  FIVE MINUTE BREAK
  • 48. Peripheral Nervous System   Peripheral Nervous System divided into TWO systems, SOMATIC which controls voluntary muscles and the AUTONOMIC nervous system which controls involuntary muscles is divided into:  Sympathetic branch which controls the “fight or flight” reaction; to expend energy.  Parasympathetic branch which is responsible for maintenance of everyday activities and brings you back down to normal from a sympathetic response.
  • 49. CNS & PNS  sensory motor
  • 50. Peripheral Nervous 
  • 51. Peripheral Nervous System 
  • 52. Figure 9-21 Nervous system flowchart 
  • 53. Somatic Nervous System   Somatic nervous system provides sensory input for the nervous system to feel the world around you and after interpretation by the brain is sent with motor output to the voluntary skeletal muscles
  • 54. Autonomic Nervous System   Autonomic system controls involuntary physiological processes of smooth and cardiac muscles such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate rate, digestion, and digestion sweating
  • 55. PNS: Compare Somatic VS. Autonomic  Somatic Autonomic Conscious or voluntary regulation Functions without conscious awareness (involuntary) Fibers do not synapse after they leave the CNS (single neuron from CNS to effector organ) ONE NERVE FIBER Innervates skeletal muscle fibers, always excitatory Fibers synapse again at a ganglion after they leave the CNS (TWO NERVE FIBERS). Secretes neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) Ach Secretes Ach (acetylcholine) and (norepinephrine) Ne Innervates smooth muscle, cardiac and glands; either excitatory or inhibitory
  • 56. PNS: Compare Somatic VS. Autonomic  Information from Information from internal internal environment environment interpreted by brain interpreted by brain stimulates cardiac stimulates cardiac or smooth muscles or smooth muscles Information from Information from external external environment environment interpreted by interpreted by brain stimulates brain stimulates skeletal muscles skeletal muscles
  • 57. PNS: Compare Somatic VS. Autonomic  Make synapse in ganglion outside CNS called pre-synaptic junction, then second motor neuron, called postganglionic neuron, connects to smooth muscle or gland
  • 58. PNS: Compare Somatic VS. Autonomic  Unlike somatic motor neurons, autonomic neurons do not connect directly to muscles
  • 59. Autonomic Nervous System 
  • 60. Autonomic Nervous   Autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, along with several glands
  • 61. Autonomic NervousTwo  Parts  Autonomic system is divided into TWO PARTS parasympathetic system that deals with normal body functioning and maintenance of homeostasis and…
  • 62. Autonomic NervousTwo  Parts  While sympathetic nervous system controls “fightor-flight” response system
  • 63. Actions of Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Sympathetic  Parasympathetic Increases alertness, heart rate and dilates bronchial tubes to increase air flow to lungs Constricts bronchial tubes to decrease air flow to lungs; stimulates secretion of salivary mucus Stimulates sweat glands; causes “fight or flight” response Stimulates adrenal medulla(adrenals are above kidneys) to secrete epinephrine A.K.A “ADRENALIN” Inhibits intestinal motility; dilates blood vessels of skeletal muscles to increase blood flow Has a calming effect and causes the “resting and digesting” state; stimulates intestinal motility and secretion to promote digestion; has NO effect on sweat glands; Stimulates the bladder wall to contract and the internal sphincter to relax to cause urination
  • 64. Fight or Flight  The term "fight or flight" describes a mechanism in the body that enables humans and animals to mobilize a lot of energy rapidly in order to cope with threats to survival.
  • 65. Fight or Flight Movie 
  • 66. Effect of Stress on Your Body 
  • 67. Figure 9-24 A comparison of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.  Review Review Page 242 in Page 242 in your text your text
  • 68. In Class WORKSHEET  Worksheet in class includes Comparing Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System and identifying two divisions of Autonomic Nervous System, Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Text page 240-242 and charts on slide 55 and 63
  • 69. For Next Class  • Review Power Point Presentation Part Two • Watch Videos linked from Canvas “How Neurons Work” and “How Synapses Work” • Read pages 208 to 212 • Take notes on these and bring to class • You will have an IN CLASS worksheet to complete on “Neuron Structure and Function” • You will be able to use ONLY your notes, no textbook