Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 12 Part One


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  • Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 12 Part One

    1. 1. 12 The Cardiovascular System: Transport and Supply Part One
    2. 2. Cardiovascular System  Cardiovascular system transports nutrients and oxygen to cells in body while carbon dioxide and waste products of cells' metabolism are removed
    3. 3. Cardiovascular System  Pump that circulates the transport medium (blood) is the heart
    4. 4. System Overview  The circulatory The circulatory system uses the system uses the heart as a heart as a pump and pump and transports transports through blood through blood vessels to vessels to organs and the organs and the smallest smallest tissues and tissues and cell cell
    5. 5. Cardiovascular System 
    6. 6. Cardiovascular System   Veins differ from arteries because they carry blood toward heart, have valves, and have thinner walls; they are more numerous and have larger capacity
    7. 7. Figure 12-1 Four Functions of the Cardiovascular system.  FOUR FUNCTIONS
    8. 8. How the Heart Works 
    9. 9. The Heart  The size of your fist and located slightly left of center of chest. Base is proximal to your head while apex is distal
    10. 10. The Heart  Pericardium includes the parietal and visceral layers with potential cavity
    11. 11. The Heart  3 layers to heart: •Outer: Epicardium •Middle: Myocardium •Inner endocardium
    12. 12. The Heart  Although heart is one single organ, it is easier to understand if you think of it as two pumps working together .
    13. 13. The Heart  Right side collects blood from body and sends it to lungs; left side collects blood from lungs and sends it to rest of body .
    14. 14. Chambers of the Heart  Four chambers in heart Two chambers on left side are separated from two chambers on right side by wall called septum
    15. 15. Septums of the Heart  Wall between upper, smaller chambers (atria) is interatrial septum Wall between two larger chambers (ventricles) is interventricular septum
    16. 16. Figure 12-2 The anatomy of the heart 
    17. 17. Flow of blood through the Heart   Two large veins that return blood from the body to right atrium are superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cava
    18. 18. Flow of blood through the Heart   Right atrium (RAtr) (locations are based on patient’s perspective) is collecting chamber where blood is returned to heart after trip around the body FIRST
    19. 19. Flow of blood through the Heart   Blood travels from right atrium, through one-way atrioventricular valve called tricuspid valve (TCVa) , and into right ventricle (RVe)
    20. 20. Flow of blood through the Heart   When right ventricle is full of blood, heart contracts; tricuspid valve prevents backflow and so blood flows through pulmonary valve (PVa) to pulmonary arteries (PA) Second
    21. 21. Flow of blood through the Heart   Right pulmonary artery (PA)* goes to right lung, left pulmonary artery (PA) goes to left lung *Remember: Arteries go AWAY from the heart THIRD
    22. 22. Flow of blood through the Heart  Vessels then get smaller and smaller, eventually ending in capillaries around each air sac (alveolus);
    23. 23. Flow of blood through the Heart  Blood then returns to heart via left (LPV) and right pulmonary (RPV) veins* *Remember: Veins go TOWARD the heart
    24. 24. Flow of blood through the Heart  Pulmonary veins return blood to left atrium (LAtr). Blood flows through atrioventricular valve, called mitral valve (MiVa) , and into left ventricle (LVe) Fourth
    25. 25. Flow of blood through the Heart  Ventricular pressure increases as it fills, and heart contracts forcing mitral valve closed, blood is ejected through aortic valve (Ava) to aorta, and then out to rest of body Fifth
    26. 26. Figure 12-3 The functioning of heart valves and blood flow. 
    27. 27. Flow of Blood through the Heart  Blood is ejected during systole, or contraction (of ventricles) phase
    28. 28. Flow of Blood through the Heart  Both atria fill at same time, both ventricles fill at same time, and both ventricles eject blood at same time when heart contracts
    29. 29. Flow of Blood through the Heart  After blood is ejected from ventricles, heart enters resting period called diastole During diastole, ventricles fill with blood
    30. 30. Flow of Blood through the Heart  Contraction begins at apex and travels upward
    31. 31. Flow of Blood through the Heart  Valve located at exit to each chamber because the circulatory system is a pressurized system and valves prevent any ejected blood from flowing backwards
    32. 32. Measuring Heart Rate  Heart rate is measured by counting rhythmic expansion and contraction of arteries due to opening & closing of the aortic semilunar valves
    33. 33. Measuring Heart Rate 
    34. 34. The Heart  Atrial walls are thinner than ventricular walls Higher pressures are generated in ventricles to move blood throughout entire body THIN WALL THICK WALL
    35. 35. Coronary Arteries  Portion of newly oxygen-enriched blood leaving heart is diverted from aorta by right and left coronary arteries
    36. 36. Figure 12-4 Coronary circulation.  Regular aerobic exercise improves the ability of the heart to increase the density (number of vessels in one area) of blood vessels that branch from the main coronary arteries.
    37. 37. Coronary Circulation  By increasing the density of blood vessels that branch off the main arteries, there will be alternate routes for blood to travel in case of a blockage and decrease risk of myocardial infarction
    38. 38. Figure 12-6 Atherosclerosis.  Fatty deposits called plaque develop on the inside of the blood vessels and restrict flow Mainly the aorta, coronary arteries and cerebral arteries are effected Why do you think this is?
    39. 39. PA/Instructor Asks:  The material that deposits in the arteries is made up mainly of: A. Glucose B. Calcium C. Cholesterol D. Protein
    40. 40. PA/Instructor Asks:  The material that deposits in the arteries is made up mainly of: A. Glucose B. Calcium C. Cholesterol D. Protein
    41. 41. Electrical System of the Heart  Cardiac muscle is auto rhythmic, meaning it can contract without nerve impulses or hormones
    42. 42. Electrical System of the Heart  There are specialized cardiac cells that create and distribute electrical current that causes controlled and directed contraction of heart
    43. 43. Electrical System of the Heart  Nodal cells, or pacemaker cells, are specialized cells that not only create electrical impulse, but create impulses at regular interval
    44. 44. Electrical System of theHeart
    45. 45. The Electric Pathway  Sino atrial node sends impulse to atrio ventricular node before AV node can send signal
    46. 46. The Electric Pathway  However, atrio ventricular node acts as backup if sinoatrial node fails to fire, resulting in slower heartbeat due to reduced firing rate
    47. 47. Figure 12-9 Conduction system of the heart.  •• SA node causes SA node causes atria to contract atria to contract •• Stimulus arrives Stimulus arrives at AV node at AV node •• Follows AV Follows AV bundle and bundle and travels through travels through apex branches apex branches •• Purkinjie fibers Purkinjie fibers stimulate stimulate ventricles to ventricles to contract contract
    48. 48. Factors Affecting Heart Rate 
    49. 49. Factors Affecting Heart Rate  Low potassium can lead to weak heartbeat, while high calcium can prolong heart muscle contractions to point where heart can stop beating
    50. 50. Factors that Affect Heart Rate 
    51. 51. EKG & Electrical Activity  EKG represents Normal •P wave-impulse generated by SA node, atria contract •QRS wave-Depolarization of ventricles right before ventricles contract •T wave-repolarization of ventricles when they are at rest before next beat
    52. 52. Figure 12-10 Typical ECG tracing. 
    53. 53. Take A Break 
    54. 54. Problems with the Pump 
    55. 55. Problems with the Pump 
    56. 56. Problems with the Pump 
    57. 57. Problems with the Pump 
    58. 58. Figure 12-20 The multisystem effects of heart failure.  • • • • • • • Page 336 Page 336 Neurologic Respiratory Cardiovascular Gastrointestinal Genitourinary Musculoskeletal Metabolic Processes
    59. 59. Heart Attack & CPR  CPR consists of artificial blood circulation & artificial respirations. It’s purpose is to maintain a flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and heart Watch video on “Myocardial Infarction”
    60. 60. Ventricular Assist Devicea bridge to transplant 
    61. 61. Blood Vessels  Blood leaves heart through aorta, which branches into large vessels called arteries Arteries divide into smaller and smaller vessels, smallest of which are called arterioles
    62. 62. Blood Vessels  Arterioles feed into capillaries that form capillary beds in body's tissues, allowing oxygen and nutrients to infuse into cells and picking up carbon dioxide and waste products for removal
    63. 63. Blood Vessels  Diameter of only 0.008 mm (slightly larger than diameter of single red blood cell) Allow easy movement of oxygen and nutrients through wall, while carbon dioxide and wastes can move into blood
    64. 64. Blood Vessels  Blood then makes its return trip to the heart by draining into tiny venules, which combine into veins which eventually become great veins (SVC and IVC) that return to heart
    65. 65. Figure 12-15 B. Locations of major arteries. C. Locations of the major veins. 
    66. 66. Blood Vessel Structure  Function &
    67. 67. Blood Vessel Structure  Function &
    68. 68. Figure 12-16 Blood pressure measurement.  Done with a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer an inflatable cuff placed around the arm, so that when it is inflated, it squeezes brachial artery shut
    69. 69. Figure 12-16 Blood pressure measurement.  Stethoscope placed over artery near elbow and cuff inflated until 30 mm Hg past the point that pulse no longer heard. Open release valve slightly
    70. 70. Figure 12-16 Blood pressure measurement.  Listen for sound of blood coming through artery, which is the peak systolic pressure (top number) Cuff pressure decreases until sound is not heard. The last sound is diastolic pressure (lower number)
    71. 71. Elevated Blood Pressure  Desirable blood pressure is: •Systolic - from 90 to 119 •Diastolic - from 60 to 79 Prehypertension is: •Systolic-from 120 to 139 •Diastolic- from 80- 89 Hypertension is: •Systolic over 140 •Diastolic over 90
    72. 72. Plugging the “Leaks” of Blood Vessels  CV system is closed and pressurized system If break or leak in system couldn't be stopped, you would lose large amount of blood Several substances in blood plug leaks Fibrin traps blood cells and platelets to form blood clot
    73. 73. Plugging the “Leaks” of Blood Vessels  When inner wall of vessel is damaged, underlying collagen fiber becomes exposed Platelets floating in blood begin to attach to that rough damaged site
    74. 74. Plugging the “Leaks” of Blood Vessels  Attached platelets release several chemicals that draw more platelets, creating platelet plug
    75. 75. Clotting Process  Platelets secrete serotonin, which causes blood vessels to spasm, decreasing blood flow to that area
    76. 76. Clotting Process  Fibrin forms netlike patch at site of injury, snagging more blood cells and platelets; within 3 to 6 minutes a clot is created Fibrin traps blood cells and platelets to form blood clot
    77. 77. Clotting Process Once clot is formed, it begins to retract and pulls edges of damaged tissue together allowing edges to regenerate necessary epithelial cells to make permanent repair over time 
    78. 78. Figure 12-18 The clotting process. 
    79. 79. WEAR YOUR ASSIGNED COLOR  Meet here at Room 108 on Thursday and we’ll go to room over in AAR building for exercise Complete Handout “Heart Activity” as you will need to hand that in at the end of Thursday’s class for credit
    80. 80. “The Heart Activity”  Work on the handout “The Heart Activity” Read through the first two pages on the Blood Flow Sequence. The third page shows structure of the heart. Complete the 15 questions on back page