Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 10


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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 10

  1. 1. 10 The Endocrine System: The Body's Other Control Center
  2. 2. Endocrine System  Nervous system and endocrine system Nervous system and endocrine system are totally interconnected and always are totally interconnected and always monitor each other's activities monitor each other's activities
  3. 3. Endocrine System  Watch Video
  4. 4. Endocrine System  Endocrine system also collects Endocrine system also collects information and sends orders but information and sends orders but it is slower, more subtle it is slower, more subtle control system control system
  5. 5. Endocrine System  While it acts slowly, While it acts slowly, effects last longer than effects last longer than those of nervous system those of nervous system
  6. 6. Nervous vs. Endocrine 
  7. 7. Endocrine System   Endocrine system is series of organs and glands in body that secrete chemical messengers (hormones) into blood stream
  8. 8. Endocrine vs Exocrine   Exocrine glands/organs produce secretions that must exit a gland through a duct
  9. 9. Figure 10-1 The endocrine glands and their hormones.  •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Pineal Pineal Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary Pituitary Adrenal Adrenal Parathyroid Parathyroid Thyroid Thyroid Thymus Thymus Pancreas Pancreas Gonads Gonads
  10. 10. Table 10-1 Endocrine Organ Functions 
  11. 11. Hormones  Hormones: chemical messengers released by endocrine glands
  12. 12. Hormones  Hormones are released into bloodstream and travel all over body, some affecting millions of cells simultaneously
  13. 13. Endocrine System   Effects last for minutes or even hours or days  Many hormones are secreted constantly, with amount secreted changing as needed
  14. 14. Table 10-2 Comparison of Neurotransmitters and Hormones 
  15. 15. How Hormones Work  Hormones bind to receptor sites outside target cells or inside target cell
  16. 16. Hormones  If hormones bind to outside of cell, they can have several different effects, either changing cellular permeability or sending target cell a message that changes enzyme activity inside cell
  17. 17. How Hormones Work  OR
  18. 18. How Hormones Work STEROIDS  This special class This special class of hormones of hormones (steroids) is (steroids) is particularly particularly powerful because powerful because only small only small amounts needed amounts needed to perform their to perform their task task
  19. 19. How Hormones Work STEROIDS  Steroids are lipid Steroids are lipid molecules that can molecules that can pass easily through pass easily through target cell target cell membrane, membrane, allowing them to allowing them to interact directly interact directly with cell's DNA to with cell's DNA to change cell activity change cell activity
  20. 20. Control of Endocrine Activity   Amount of hormone secreted changes based on situational demands
  21. 21. Control of Endocrine Activity   Many endocrine organs secrete hormones continuously
  22. 22. Homeostasis  Many chemical and physical characteristics of Many chemical and physical characteristics of body have standard level (set point) that is body have standard level (set point) that is ideal for a particular value ideal for a particular value
  23. 23. Control Systems  Control systems (endocrine and nervous system) work to keep levels at or near ideal
  24. 24. Control Systems  The body can The body can measure, measure, store and store and correct for correct for ideal set ideal set points points Example: hypothalamus stores ideal set point for temperature
  25. 25. Figure 10-2 Homeostasis is similar to regulation of temperature via a thermostat. 
  26. 26. Negative Feedback  If any of the body's homeostatic values become If any of the body's homeostatic values become seriously disrupted, control systems work to bring seriously disrupted, control systems work to bring them back to set point via negative feedback them back to set point via negative feedback
  27. 27. Negative Feedback 
  28. 28. Negative Feedback Hormones work Hormones work same way; if same way; if hormone levels hormone levels rise, negative rise, negative feedback will feedback will turn off turn off endocrine organ endocrine organ that is secreting that is secreting the hormone the hormone 
  29. 29. Positive Feedback  When a body When a body characteristic characteristic changes, changes, positive positive feedback feedback increases the increases the magnitude of a magnitude of a change change
  30. 30. Positive Feedback-Flow of Sodium Ions  More depolarized a More depolarized a neuron becomes, the neuron becomes, the more sodium flows more sodium flows in, and it becomes in, and it becomes more depolarized, so more depolarized, so more flows in until more flows in until action potential is action potential is complete complete
  31. 31. Positive Feedback  •• Hypothalamus Hypothalamus orders pituitary to orders pituitary to secrete oxytocin secrete oxytocin •• Oxytocin Oxytocin stimulates stimulates uterine uterine contractions contractions •• Pressure of Pressure of uterus stimulates uterus stimulates more oxytocin and more oxytocin and more contractions more contractions until pressure until pressure decreases decreases
  32. 32. Positive Feedback  Positive Positive feedback not a feedback not a way to way to regulate your regulate your body because it body because it increases a increases a change away change away from set point from set point
  33. 33. Control of Hormone Levels 
  34. 34. Sources of Control  Some hormones are directly controlled by nervous system
  35. 35. Example of Neural Control  When sympathetic nervous system activated it sends signals out to adrenal
  36. 36. Example of Neural Control  Adrenal glands release epinephrine and norephinephrine into bloodstream
  37. 37. Figure 10-4 Sympathetic control of adrenal gland.  Hormones Hormones prolong the prolong the effects of effects of sympathetic sympathetic activity activity
  38. 38. Hormonal Control  Hormones are Hormones are part of part of hierarchy of hierarchy of hormonal hormonal control control
  39. 39. Hormonal Control  One gland is One gland is controlled by release controlled by release of hormones from of hormones from another gland up another gland up the chain, which is the chain, which is controlled by another controlled by another gland's release of gland's release of hormones up the hormones up the chain chain
  40. 40. Hormonal Control  Orders are Orders are sent from sent from one organ one organ to another, to another, as in a relay as in a relay race race
  41. 41. Hormonal Control  One gland “orders” another to produce hormone and when enough produced the “ordering gland” STOPS sending orders
  42. 42. Hormonal Control-Stress or Hypoglycemia 
  43. 43. Figure 10-5 Hormonal control of adrenal gland  •• Adrenal gland produces Adrenal gland produces cortisol; when enough has cortisol; when enough has been produced, been produced, •• Hypothalamus detects Hypothalamus detects and stops sending orders and stops sending orders to pituitary which to pituitary which •• Stops sending orders to Stops sending orders to adrenal adrenal •• Adrenal stops making Adrenal stops making cortisol cortisol
  44. 44. Humoral Control  Some endocrine organs Some endocrine organs directly monitor body's directly monitor body's internal environment by internal environment by monitoring body fluids, monitoring body fluids, such as blood, and such as blood, and respond accordingly respond accordingly
  45. 45. Humoral Control  Pancreas secretes Pancreas secretes insulin in response insulin in response to rising blood to rising blood sugar levels sugar levels
  46. 46. Figure 10-6 Control of blood sugar levels  Necessary Necessary changes in changes in hormone hormone secretion are secretion are made made accordingly accordingly
  47. 47. PA/Instructor Asks:  A. B. C. D. Adrenal gland Stomach Pancreas Liver
  48. 48. PA/Instructor Asks:  A. B. C. D. Adrenal gland Stomach Pancreas Liver
  49. 49. Take A Break  FIVE MINUTES
  50. 50. Major Endocrine Glands  •• Important link Important link between two between two control control systems: systems: •• Link between the Link between the nervous and the nervous and the endocrine endocrine systems systems
  51. 51. Controls Physiology of the Body 
  52. 52. Commander-in-Chief  Also acts as Also acts as “commander-in“commander-inchief” of endocrine chief” of endocrine system; it controls system; it controls pituitary gland pituitary gland and most other and most other glands in glands in endocrine system endocrine system
  53. 53. Figure 10-7 The hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary glands, and their targets and associated hormones.  PAGE 259
  54. 54. Pituitary Gland  Commonly Commonly known as known as “master gland” “master gland” because of its because of its role in role in controlling controlling other other endocrine endocrine glands glands
  55. 55. Pituitary Gland  •• Really acts Really acts only under only under orders from orders from hypothalamus hypothalamus •• Split into two Split into two segments: segments: anterior and anterior and posterior posterior
  56. 56. Posterior Pituitary  Hypothalamic Hypothalamic neurons, specialized neurons, specialized to secrete to secrete hormones instead hormones instead of of neurotransmitters neurotransmitters extend their axons extend their axons through stalk in through stalk in posterior pituitary posterior pituitary
  57. 57. Posterior Pituitary  As name suggests As name suggests antidiuretic antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hormone (ADH) decreases decreases urination, which urination, which decreases fluid decreases fluid lost, increasing lost, increasing body fluid body fluid volume volume
  58. 58. Posterior Pituitary  Circulates Circulates through through bloodstream bloodstream and targets and targets kidneys kidneys specifically, specifically, causing them causing them to absorb to absorb more water more water
  59. 59. Posterior Pituitary  Important in Important in long-term long-term control of control of blood blood pressure, pressure, especially especially during during dehydration dehydration
  60. 60. Posterior Pituitary  Important in Important in maintaining maintaining uterine uterine contractions contractions during labor during labor Involved in milk Involved in milk production in production in nursing mothers nursing mothers *Function in *Function in males is males is unknown unknown
  61. 61. Anterior Pituitary  Hypothalamus Hypothalamus secretes hormone secretes hormone that controls that controls hormone hormone secretion by secretion by anterior pituitary anterior pituitary
  62. 62. Anterior Pituitary  Usually Usually controls controls secretion of secretion of hormones by hormones by another another endocrine endocrine gland gland
  63. 63. Anterior Pituitary  Hormone levels Hormone levels are controlled are controlled by negative by negative feedback to feedback to both pituitary both pituitary and and hypothalamus hypothalamus
  64. 64. Anterior Pituitary 
  65. 65. Thyroid Gland  Thyroid Gland Thyroid Gland located in located in anterior anterior portion of neck portion of neck and is butterfly and is butterfly shaped shaped
  66. 66. Thyroid Gland  Secretes Secretes hormones hormones triiodothyronine triiodothyronine (T33) and (T ) and thyroxine (T44) thyroxine (T ) under pituitary under pituitary orders orders
  67. 67. Thyroid Gland  Control cell Control cell metabolism metabolism and growth and growth Referred to Referred to as “thyroid as “thyroid hormones” hormones”
  68. 68. Thyroid Gland  Table salt contains Table salt contains added iodine to added iodine to ensure people get ensure people get enough iodine in their enough iodine in their diets to make thyroid diets to make thyroid hormones hormones
  69. 69. Thyroid Gland  Level of these Level of these hormones essential in hormones essential in controlling growth controlling growth and metabolism of and metabolism of body tissues, body tissues, particularly in particularly in nervous system nervous system
  70. 70. PA/Instructor Asks:  A. B. C. D. Weight gain Muscle pain Feeling hot Fatigue
  71. 71. Figure 10-9 Comparison of the signs and symptoms of abnormal thyroid function 
  72. 72. Calcitonin from Thyroid  Thyroid gland Thyroid gland secretes third secretes third hormone, hormone, calcitonin; calcitonin; decreases blood decreases blood calcium by calcium by stimulating bonestimulating bonebuilding cells* building cells*
  73. 73. Parathyroid Glands  Two small pairs Two small pairs of glands of glands embedded in embedded in the posterior the posterior surface of the surface of the thyroid thyroid
  74. 74. Parathyroid Glands  Increases the Increases the level of calcium in level of calcium in the bloodstream by the bloodstream by stimulating bone stimulating bone dissolving cells* by dissolving cells* by releasing PTH releasing PTH (parathyroid (parathyroid hormone) hormone)
  75. 75. Figure 10-8 The thyroid and parathyroid glands.  Calcitonin from thyroid decreases level of Calcitonin from thyroid decreases level of calcium and PTH increases level of calcium in calcium and PTH increases level of calcium in the blood the blood
  76. 76. Thymus Gland  Both endocrine gland Both endocrine gland and lymphatic organ and lymphatic organ Located in upper thorax Located in upper thorax Produces hormone called Produces hormone called thymosin; helps with thymosin; helps with maturation of white maturation of white blood cells to fight blood cells to fight infection infection
  77. 77. Pineal Gland  Tiny gland found Tiny gland found in brain in brain Shown to Shown to produce produce hormone hormone melatonin, which melatonin, which rises and falls rises and falls during waking and during waking and sleeping hours sleeping hours
  78. 78. Pancreas-Exocrine  Accessory Accessory organ of organ of digestive digestive system system Located in Located in upper upper abdomen, abdomen, near near stomach stomach
  79. 79. Pancreas-Exocrine  Part of pancreas Part of pancreas acts as exocrine acts as exocrine organ organ This part produces This part produces and secretes and secretes digestive digestive enzymes that help enzymes that help to break down to break down starches, fats, and starches, fats, and proteins proteins
  80. 80. Pancreas-Endocrine  Other part of Other part of pancreas acts as pancreas acts as endocrine endocrine organ organ Produces Produces hormones that hormones that regulate blood regulate blood sugar sugar
  81. 81. Pancreas-Endocrine  Responsible for Responsible for maintaining maintaining blood sugar blood sugar (glucose) levels (glucose) levels at or near set at or near set point point Normal range for Normal range for blood glucose blood glucose levels: 70 to 100 levels: 70 to 100 mg/dL mg/dL
  82. 82. Pancreas & Blood Glucose 
  83. 83. Pancreas-Two Hormones Makes two Makes two hormones that hormones that control blood control blood glucose: insulin glucose: insulin and glucagon and glucagon Produced by cells in Produced by cells in pancreatic tissue pancreatic tissue called islets of called islets of Langerhans Langerhans 
  84. 84. Pancreas-Two Hormones 
  85. 85. Pancreas-Two Hormones  Alpha Alpha Cells Cells Beta Beta Cells Cells
  86. 86. PA/Instructor Asks:  With increased glucose (solute) in blood (solvent), more water is drawn across the cell membrane from a lower to a higher concentration to balance fluid concentrations on both sides and thereby dehydrating the cell
  87. 87. Figure 10-11 The role of glucagon to raise blood sugar  In between eating, blood glucose levels decrease and then the pancreas secretes glucagon into blood. One of two things happens: 1) Adipose breaks down fat and releases glucose or 2) liver breaks down glycogen
  88. 88. Adrenal Glands  Located as a pair, Located as a pair, one on top of each one on top of each of the kidneys of the kidneys Contain two Contain two regions: regions: Adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex (outside) and (outside) and medulla (inside) medulla (inside)
  89. 89. Adrenal Glands  Adrenal medulla Adrenal medulla releases two hormones: releases two hormones: •• Epinephrine Epinephrine (adrenalin) (adrenalin) •• Norephinephrine Norephinephrine (noradrenalin) (noradrenalin) which is both a which is both a hormone and a hormone and a neurotransmitter neurotransmitter
  90. 90. Adrenal Glands  These hormones These hormones increase duration increase duration of effects of of effects of sympathetic sympathetic nervous system; nervous system; effects last longer effects last longer than than neurotransmitter neurotransmitter
  91. 91. Adrenal Glands  Effects: Effects: increased heart increased heart rate, blood rate, blood pressure, pressure, respiration respiration rate, sweaty rate, sweaty palms, and dry palms, and dry mouth mouth
  92. 92. Adrenal Glands  Cortex makes dozens of Cortex makes dozens of steroid hormones, steroid hormones, known collectively as known collectively as adrenocorticosteroids adrenocorticosteroids Released by stimulation from anterior pituitary gland
  93. 93. Adrenal Glands  Many of these hormones Many of these hormones are so important that are so important that decrease in production decrease in production could be fatal quickly could be fatal quickly Released by stimulation from anterior pituitary gland
  94. 94. Adrenocorticoids  Adrenal cortex makes dozens of steroids or Adrenal cortex makes dozens of steroids or “-corticoids” including glucocorticoids and “-corticoids” including glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids mineralcorticoids
  95. 95. Adrenal Glands  Others “cortex” hormones responsible for regulation Others “cortex” hormones responsible for regulation of reproduction and secondary sexual of reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics characteristics
  96. 96. PA/Instructor Asks:  A. B. C. D. Increased appetite Low blood pressure (hypotension) Anxiety and depression High blood pressure (hypertension)
  97. 97. PA/Instructor Asks:  A. B. C. D. Increased appetite Low blood pressure (hypotension) Anxiety and depression High blood pressure (hypertension)
  98. 98. Diabetes Mellitus 
  99. 99. Diabetes Mellitus 
  100. 100. Table 10-4 Comparison of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes 
  101. 101. Figure 10-12 Various effects of diabetes mellitus  Page 269 in your text
  102. 102. PA/Instructor Asks:  You’ve just been given one of the essay questions on your exam which may include one or more of the above separate questions. The answer(s) are in your text and this power point slide presentation
  103. 103. GONADS  Include testes and Include testes and ovaries and function ovaries and function to produce and store to produce and store the eggs (ovaries) the eggs (ovaries) and sperm (testes) and sperm (testes) Also produce number of sex Also produce number of sex hormones (testosterone hormones (testosterone and estrogen & and estrogen & progesterone) which progesterone) which control reproduction control reproduction
  104. 104. Case Study Maria's Story  She is a 35-year-old insulindependent diabetic who currently takes good care of herself. She did not take good care of herself as a teenager. She is on an insulin pump to try to control her blood sugar, but has recently passed out in public several times.
  105. 105. Case Study Maria's Story   What condition causes her to pass out? (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia)  Why does this condition develop?  What is the appropriate treatment for the early stages of this condition?
  106. 106. Upcoming Exam  on Chapters 9,10 and 11 will Test be Nov 12, 2013 and cover: •PPP for Chapter 9 only; •Structure of the eye for Chap 11 and steps in “How Hearing Occurs” including structures •Chap 10 Power Point & Worksheet answers •Essay on blood glucose maintained by pancreas •Extra credit on “Concussion” page 226