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  • 1. Visual Perception
  • 2. Sensation & Perception
    • What is sensation?
    • The detection or awareness of the presence of a stimulus.
    • What is perception?
    • The process by which we make sense of the sensations.
  • 3. Object Agnosia
  • 4. The visual perception system
    • The network of physiological structures involved in vision, that includes:
    • * The eyes,
    • * The nervous system pathways that connect the eyes and the brain, and,
    • * The areas of the brain that process visual information.
  • 5. Quick Quiz!
    • Name as many parts of the eye as you can…
    • How does light enter the eye??
  • 6. The Eye
    • Sense organ for vision
    • Major parts include:
    • * Cornea
    • * Pupil
    • * Iris
    • * Lens
    • * Retina
  • 7. How Light Enters the eye
  • 8. Anatomy of the Eye
  • 9. Cornea
    • The transparent coating which covers the iris and the pupil.
    • Together with the help of the lens, the cornea refracts the light onto the retina.
  • 10. Pupil
    • The black hole in the centre of the eye (not an actual structure!).
    • The size of the pupil is controlled by the iris.
    • When it is very bright, the pupil is small,
    • When it’s dark, the pupil grows bigger to allow more light in.
  • 11. Iris
    • The coloured part of the eye.
    • Tiny muscles inside the iris control the amount of light that enters the eye, through the pupil.
  • 12. Lens
    • Focuses light onto the retina.
    • Ciliary muscles attached to each side of the lens, help change the shape of the lens, according to the distance of the object being viewed.
    • Once the light has been refracted onto the retina, the image which hits the retina is upside down!
  • 13. Retina
    • The retina contains millions of photoreceptors – known as rods and cones, that convert light into electrical impulse which are sent along the optic nerve to the brain.
  • 14. Activity
    • Cut out ‘The Eye’ and label each of the major components.
    • Include the definition of each of the components.
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • So, light reflected off objects travels in a straight line into the eye through the cornea and the pupil…
    • …the light travels through the lens, which focuses it on the back of the eye, projecting an upside-down image onto the retina…
  • 17.
    • …photoreceptors in the retina translate the image into electrical impulses which travel along the optic nerve and into the brain…
    • …the brain makes sense of the signals, and tells us what we can see!
  • 18. Stages of the Visual Perception System
      • Reception - Structures of the eye capture the light and project it onto the retina
      • It is at this stage, the photoreceptors detect and respond to light.
      • The two types of photoreceptors are called: Rods and Cones.
      • The stage where visual information is received.
  • 19. Rods and Cones
    • Rods are important for night vision
    • Rods are also important for peripheral vision
    • Cones are important for daylight vision, visual acuity and colour.
  • 20.
      • Transduction - Photoreceptors (rods and cones) convert electromagnetic energy (‘light’) into electrochemical energy (‘signals’).
      • You can remember transduction as the process by which light energy is translated into signals the brain can understand.
    • Transmission - Neural information is sent down the optic nerve towards the primary visual cortex.
  • 21.
      • Selection - Visual discrimination occurs which breaks down the visual stimulus into different features. This occurs in the photoreceptors and visual cortex (feature detectors)
      • Organisation and Interpretation - This is the reassembling of features which is then organised and given meaning by the brain.