Blood: The average person has about 5 liters of blood circulating through their body. Blood is crucial in humans because it not only transports oxygen from the lungs to body tissues, but it also carries carbon dioxide from body tissues back to the lungs. It does this through the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. The blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and platelets. Blood Types: Every person has a specific blood type. Someone can be type A, type B, type AB, or type O. Someone who is type A can donate their blood to someone who is type A or type AB. Someone who is type B can donate to another type B or AB. Someone who is AB can only donate to type AB. People who are type O are considered universal donors because they can donate their blood to all types.
The human heart is composed of 4 chambers: Right Atrium: The right atrium is the chamber located in the upper right corner of the heart. It transports the deoxygenated blood from the body to the right ventricle. Right Ventricle: The right ventricle is the chamber located in the lower right corner of the heart. It transports the blood from the right atrium to the lungs where it will collect oxygen. Left Atrium: After the blood has collected oxygen in the lungs, it goes through the left atrium which is located in the upper left corner of the heart. From here the blood is transported to the left ventricle. Left Ventricle: The left ventricle is the chamber located in the lower left corner of the heart and is responsible for sending oxygen rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body so that body tissues are able to absorb the oxygen and nutrients.
Arteries: Arteries are small blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood Away from the heart to the rest of the body. Arteries lead to arterioles which are even smaller blood vessels. Arterioles then lead to capillaries. Pulmonary artery: the pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood. It carries the blood from the rest of the body to the lungs where it will collect oxygen for re-circulation. Veins: Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart. Veins lead to venules which lead to capillaries. It is here where cells are able to absorb the oxygen. Pulmonary vein: pulmonary veins are the only veins that carry oxygen rich blood, and they do so from the lungs to the heart. There are 4 pulmonary veins.
The Blood Cycle in the Heart: The right atrium pumps blood through to the right ventricle. The right ventricle then pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery is the only artery in our system that carries deoxygenated blood. Once it has gone through the pulmonary artery, blood then goes through the lungs to collect oxygen. From there, the now oxygenated blood goes through the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium. The pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries oxygenated blood; all other veins carry deoxygenated blood. The blood then travels from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The left ventricle is then responsible for pumping the blood throughout the rest of the body (using the aorta and other arteries) until it returns to the right atrium. For a visual depiction of this cycle, refer to class handout .
Lungs: Your lungs are located in your chest area. These two organs are protected by your rib cage. Your lungs allow oxygen to come into your body (inhale), and also allow carbon dioxide to leave your body (exhale). The main components of your lungs include: the trachea, bronchus, alveoli, bronchioles, and your diaphragm. Trachea: Your trachea, also known as your windpipe, is what allows fresh air to reach down to your lungs. Diaphragm: A dome-shaped muscle that works with your lungs in helping you breathe in and out (inhaling and exhaling). Alveoli: These tiny air sacs are the site for gas exchange in the lungs. Your lungs consist of about 600 million alveoli!
Resources: The Heart: An Online Exploration: http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/index.html Kid’s Health: http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/heart.html Virtual Body: http://www.medtropolis.com/VBody.asp Brain Pop: http://www.brainpop.com/health/
California Content Standard: This presentation was designed to address the content standard for 5 th grade students in the domain of life sciences. It specifically addresses standard 2(B): students know how blood circulates through the heart chambers, lungs, and body and how carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged in the lungs and tissues. For more information about ca content standards, please visit the California dept. of education homepage. http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/