Maternal Health Care Availability In The Developing WorldPresentation Transcript
Maternal Health Care Availability in the Developing World By Caitlin Mabe 10th July 2009
Current Conditions “99 percent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries, with 84 percent concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.” Out of each pregnancy, “1 in 76 [in the developing world], compared with 1 in 8,000 in the industrialized world”, die during complications during birth. Source: http://www.unicef.org/media/media_45684.html
Millennium Development Goals Goal #5: Improve Maternal Health The target is a reduction of maternal mortality rates by 75% by the year 2015 The biggest challenge facing this goal is improving the need for family planning. Women must feel in control of their reproductive and sexual health. Antenatal care is on the rise everywhere contributing to better health outcomes of the mother and child. This goal integrally relates to all of the health related MDG’s because a healthy mother leads to healthy children, and antenatal care can help reduce the rates of HIV/AIDS that are spread from mother to child. Source: United Nations, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008
Conditions Limiting Access Cultural and traditional practices often prevent women from getting professional health care during pregnancy. Travel time to and from hospitals (Oxfam). Rural areas worse than urban. Waiting time needed to see a doctor (Oxfam). Number of doctor to patient ratio is very low. 77/100,000 in South Africa (IHI). Due to economic strains many women cannot take time out of work to see a doctor, must spend their time providing their families with money for essentials like food and shelter.
Urban vs. Rural Health Care An Essay by Magadi, Zulu, and Brockerhoff claims that the urban bias of the health care system may not be a large factor to who receives the most care. Those who are living in urban poverty often have just as high rates of maternal mortality as those in rural areas despite their close vicinity. Urban areas are growing quickly and have a higher number of women in reproductive age, but those in poverty have less means of receiving that access. Source: The Inequality of Maternal Health Care in Urban sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990’s. Population Studies 57.3 (2003): 347-366
Solving the Problem Human Rights must guide the way. Humans have a born right to autonomy and personal decision making. Without proper health, food, water, and shelter, an individual is deprived of their autonomy. Health care must be free of coercion and discrimination, affordable and accessible to all. Source: World Health Organization 2005
Needed Change To secure affordable and accessible access to all: More trained physicians and human resources must be brought in and offered safe working conditions. Health care must extend to the public in ways that are culturally and socially acceptable. Regulations needed to secure funding that is “consistent and equitable”(WHO). Mobilize political will, to create international support and investment. Source: World Health Organization 2005
Work Cited “IHI’s Work in Developing Countries”. A Resource for the Institute of Healthcare Improvement. 9 July 2009. <http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Programs/StrategicInitiatives/DevelopingCountries.htm?TabId=3> Magadi, Monica, Eliya Zulu and Martin Brockerhoff. “The Inequality of Maternal Health Care in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990’s”. Populations Studies 57.3 (2003): 347-366. Oxfam International. “The Reality of Health Care in Developing Countries”. Oxfam International (13 Feb 2009). 9 July 2009. <http://www.oxfam.org/en/video/2009/reality-healthcare-people-developing-countries> UNICEF. “Report Highlights Risk of Maternal Mortality in Developing World”. Press Centre (19 Sept 2008). 9 July 2009. <http://www.unicef.org/media/media_45684.html> World Health Organization. “Strategy to Accelerated Progress Toward the Attainment of International Development Goals and Targets Related to Reproductive Health”. Reproductive Health Matters 13.25 (2005): 11-18.