Maternal Health Care Availability In The Developing World
Maternal Health Care Availability in the Developing World<br />By Caitlin Mabe<br />10th July 2009<br />
Current Conditions<br />“99 percent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries, with 84 percent concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.” <br />Out of each pregnancy, “1 in 76 [in the developing world], compared with 1 in 8,000 in the industrialized world”, die during complications during birth. <br />Source: http://www.unicef.org/media/media_45684.html<br />
Millennium Development Goals<br />Goal #5: Improve Maternal Health<br />The target is a reduction of maternal mortality rates by 75% by the year 2015<br />The biggest challenge facing this goal is improving the need for family planning.<br />Women must feel in control of their reproductive and sexual health.<br />Antenatal care is on the rise everywhere contributing to better health outcomes of the mother and child.<br />This goal integrally relates to all of the health related MDG’s because a healthy mother leads to healthy children, and antenatal care can help reduce the rates of HIV/AIDS that are spread from mother to child.<br />Source: United Nations, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008<br />
Conditions Limiting Access<br />Cultural and traditional practices often prevent women from getting professional health care during pregnancy. <br />Travel time to and from hospitals (Oxfam).<br />Rural areas worse than urban.<br />Waiting time needed to see a doctor (Oxfam).<br />Number of doctor to patient ratio is very low.<br />77/100,000 in South Africa (IHI).<br />Due to economic strains many women cannot take time out of work to see a doctor, must spend their time providing their families with money for essentials like food and shelter. <br />
Urban vs. Rural Health Care<br />An Essay by Magadi, Zulu, and Brockerhoff claims that the urban bias of the health care system may not be a large factor to who receives the most care. <br />Those who are living in urban poverty often have just as high rates of maternal mortality as those in rural areas despite their close vicinity. <br />Urban areas are growing quickly and have a higher number of women in reproductive age, but those in poverty have less means of receiving that access. <br />Source: The Inequality of Maternal Health Care in Urban sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990’s. Population Studies 57.3 (2003): 347-366<br />
Solving the Problem<br />Human Rights must guide the way.<br />Humans have a born right to autonomy and personal decision making.<br />Without proper health, food, water, and shelter, an individual is deprived of their autonomy. <br />Health care must be free of coercion and discrimination, affordable and accessible to all. <br />Source: World Health Organization 2005<br />
Needed Change<br />To secure affordable and accessible access to all:<br />More trained physicians and human resources must be brought in and offered safe working conditions. <br />Health care must extend to the public in ways that are culturally and socially acceptable.<br />Regulations needed to secure funding that is “consistent and equitable”(WHO). <br />Mobilize political will, to create international support and investment. <br />Source: World Health Organization 2005<br />
Work Cited<br />“IHI’s Work in Developing Countries”. A Resource for the Institute of Healthcare Improvement. 9 July 2009. <http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Programs/StrategicInitiatives/DevelopingCountries.htm?TabId=3><br />Magadi, Monica, Eliya Zulu and Martin Brockerhoff. “The Inequality of Maternal Health Care in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990’s”. Populations Studies 57.3 (2003): 347-366.<br />Oxfam International. “The Reality of Health Care in Developing Countries”. Oxfam International (13 Feb 2009). 9 July 2009. <http://www.oxfam.org/en/video/2009/reality-healthcare-people-developing-countries><br />UNICEF. “Report Highlights Risk of Maternal Mortality in Developing World”. Press Centre (19 Sept 2008). 9 July 2009. <http://www.unicef.org/media/media_45684.html><br />World Health Organization. “Strategy to Accelerated Progress Toward the Attainment of International Development Goals and Targets Related to Reproductive Health”. Reproductive Health Matters 13.25 (2005): 11-18.<br />
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