King1 Ppt Ch04 6

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  • King1 Ppt Ch04 6

    1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development </li></ul>
    2. 2. Development <ul><li>The pattern of continuity and change that occurs throughout the lifespan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioemotional processes </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Nature and Nurture <ul><li>Nature – Biological Inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture – Environmental Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal experiences – Individuals take active roles in their own development </li></ul><ul><li>Early Experience versus Later Experience </li></ul>
    4. 4. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Conception: Fertilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygote – fertilized egg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germinal Period: Weeks 1-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic Period: Weeks 3-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal Period: Months 2-9 </li></ul>
    5. 6. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Parental Age </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogens: Agents that cause birth defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalidomide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of teratogens depend on… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postnatal environment </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Physical Development <ul><li>Reflexes – genetically wired behaviors that are crucial for survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stepping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Few reflexes persist throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for neurological diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Most replaced by voluntary control over their behavior. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Physical Development <ul><li>Perceptual and Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing, vision, touch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans Infants and Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Preferential Looking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give “choice” and measure preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habituation – Decrease in responding to a stimulus after repeated presentations </li></ul>
    8. 9. Brain Development <ul><li>Myelination continues after birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual pathways: 6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory pathways: 4-5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase in synaptic connections </li></ul>
    9. 10. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Jean Piaget (1896-1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children actively construct their cognitive world using… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schemas – concepts or frameworks that organize information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation – incorporate new info into existing schemas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accomodation – adjust existing schemas to incorporate new information </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Piaget’s Theory <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage: Birth - 2 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate sensations with movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preoperational Stage: 2 - 7 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic thinking/Intuitive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentrism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operational Stage: 7 – 11 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational thinking (e.g., conservation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical thinking in concrete contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal Operational Stage: 11-15 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts through adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract and idealistic thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical-deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Evaluating Piaget’s Theory <ul><li>Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized stages and ignored individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and environment also influence development </li></ul>
    12. 13. Socioemotional Development <ul><li>Erik Erikson (1902-1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory emphasizes lifelong development </li></ul><ul><li>Eight stages, each with a developmental task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis that must be resolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal competence or weakness </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>First 4 Stages: Childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust versus mistrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy versus shame and doubt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative versus guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry versus inferiority </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Erikson’s Theory
    15. 16. Evaluating Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>Development is a lifelong challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents more than just sexual beings </li></ul><ul><li>Primary focus on case-study research </li></ul><ul><li>Omitted important developmental tasks </li></ul>
    16. 17. Infant Attachment <ul><li>The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Typically develops during first year of life </li></ul><ul><li>May provide important foundation for subsequent development </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment intensifies at 6-7 months </li></ul>
    17. 18. Infant Attachment <ul><li>Harry Harlow – Infant rhesus monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>What matters? Nourishment or contact </li></ul><ul><li>Choose between two surrogate “mothers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold wire mother versus warm cloth mother </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants preferred cloth mother across situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact comfort is critical to attachment </li></ul>
    18. 19. Infant Attachment <ul><li>Mary Ainsworth – Strange Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: Caregivers leave infant alone with stranger, then return </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidant, ambivilient, disorganized </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Temperament <ul><li>An individual’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding </li></ul><ul><li>Three clusters of temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents are controlling and punitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated with lack of initiative, poor communication skills, social incompetence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents encourage independence with limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated with social competence, social responsibility, and self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents are controlling and punitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated with lack of initiative, poor communication skills, social incompetence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents encourage independence with limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated with social competence, social responsibility, and self-control </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Moral Development <ul><li>Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) presented moral dilemmas and analyzed responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconventional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior guided by punishments and rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards learned from parents and society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postconventional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of society and abstract principles (personal moral code) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Evaluating Kohlberg’s Theory <ul><li>Moral Reasoning ≠ Moral Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we say and do are not always consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women generally score lower than men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice perspective (men) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the rights of the individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care perspective (women) – Carol Gilligan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on interpersonal communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness with other people </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Gender Development <ul><li>Gender influenced by nature and nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Influences (Nature) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens – primary male sex hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens – primary female sex hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Role View (Nurture) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Roles – Expectations for how males and females should think, feel, and act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do social experiences and culture influence gender development? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional male and females gender roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender: Nature or Nurture? </li></ul>
    24. 25. Resilient Children <ul><li>Resilience – A person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times </li></ul><ul><li>Resilient children become capable adults </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages possessed by resilient children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrafamilial factors </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Understanding Adolescence <ul><li>Transition from childhood to adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Balance positive and negative aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Marked by the search for identity </li></ul>
    26. 27. Physical Development <ul><li>Puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid skeletal and sexual maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs two years earlier for girls than for boys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testosterone (boys) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital development, height, voice changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estrogen (girls) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast, uterine, and skeletal development </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract, idealistic, and logical thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical-deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adolescent Egocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that others are as preoccupied with the adolescent as he or she is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of uniqueness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of invincibility  risky behaviors </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Socioemotional Development <ul><li>Erikson: Psychosocial Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Identity versus identity confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James Marcia’s Four Identity Statuses </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration and Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity foreclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity moratorium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity achievement </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Adult Development and Aging <ul><li>Emerging Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Five Key Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling in-between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The age of possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health and well-being generally improves </li></ul>
    30. 31. Physical Changes in Adulthood <ul><li>Early Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most reach the peak of physical development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lose height, many gain weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menopause for women (late 40s or early 50s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life expectancy has increased, life span has not </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Biological Theories of Aging <ul><li>Both look within our body’s cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular-Clock Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum # of cell divisions are possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicts human life span of about 120 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free-Radical Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable oxygen molecules within cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause DNA and cell damage </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>A progressive irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory, reasoning, language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease marked by pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangles (tied bundles of proteins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaques (deposits in brain’s blood vessels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine deficiency </li></ul>
    33. 34. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Early adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked by relative and reflective thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable variation influenced by education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence begins to decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our ability to reason abstractly </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies produce slightly different findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak performance for both types of intelligence may actually occur in middle adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of processing generally declines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memories fade and retrieval skills fail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom might actually increase in some individuals </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Socioemotional Development <ul><li>Erikson’s Theory: Last 4 Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity versus role confusion (adolescence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy versus isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity versus stagnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity versus despair </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Marriage and Parenting <ul><li>Women and men are marrying later </li></ul><ul><li>Principles for Successful Marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurturing fondness and admiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning toward each other as friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving up some power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving conflicts together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parenting can  Generativity (Erikson) </li></ul>
    37. 38. Socioemotional Development <ul><li>Midlife Crisis or Midlife Consciousness? </li></ul><ul><li>Research reveals that midlife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not particularly tumultuous, mostly positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is relatively low in experienced anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults show resilience and good coping skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings few illnesses, but poor physical fitness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness of gap between young and old </li></ul>
    38. 39. Socioemotional Development <ul><li>Activity  Satisfaction and Good Health </li></ul><ul><li>Value Emotional Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time with family and friends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrow Social Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict contact with less familiar individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology and Aging </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception </li></ul>
    40. 41. Basic Principles <ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy (action potential) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Sensory Thresholds <ul><li>Absolute Threshold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minimum amount of energy an organism can detect 50% of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subliminal stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noise – Irrelevant and competing stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Varies by individual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory abilities, age, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Sensory Thresholds <ul><li>Difference Thresholds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just Noticeable Difference (JND) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much stimulus change is necessary for detection? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weber’s Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large stimuli needs a greater change to be noticeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller stimuli needs less of a change to be noticeable </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Signal Detection Theory <ul><li>Decision making when uncertain involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation and costs/rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of a false detection vs. missing it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Factors Affecting Perception <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocktail party effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novelty, size, color, movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary vs. Everyday value </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Intersection: Ethnicity and Perception <ul><ul><li>Do expectations influence perception? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmless objects or deadly weapons? </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity and perceptual errors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions influenced not by personal prejudice but by knowledge of cultural stereotypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Does practice reduce ethnic bias? </li></ul>
    46. 47. Visual Perception <ul><li>Organizing and interpreting visual signals </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shape: Figure-ground relationship </li></ul>
    47. 48. Visual Perception: Shape <ul><li>Gestalt Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions are naturally organized according to certain patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole is different from the sum of the parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestalt Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure-ground relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Visual Perception: Shape
    49. 50. Visual Perception: Motion <ul><li>Humans have specialized motion detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent Movement – Phi Phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Stroboscopic Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Movement Aftereffects </li></ul>
    50. 51. Visual Perception: Constancy <ul><li>Perceptual Constancies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition that objects do not physically change despite changes in sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size, Shape, and Brightness Constancies </li></ul>
    51. 52. Visual Perception: Illusions <ul><li>Discrepancy between reality and perception </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect, but not abnormal perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Müller-Lyer illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal-vertical illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Ponzo illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Moon illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Devil’s tuning fork </li></ul>
    52. 53. Müller-Lyer Illusion
    53. 54. Horizontal-Vertical Illusion
    54. 55. Ponzo Illusion
    55. 56. Moon Illusion
    56. 57. <ul><li>Chapter 6: States of Consciousness </li></ul>
    57. 58. The Nature of Consciousness <ul><li>What is consciousness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our awareness of external events and internal sensations which occurs under conditions of arousal </li></ul></ul>
    58. 59. Levels of Awareness
    59. 60. Levels of Awareness <ul><li>Higher-Level Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower-Level Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daydreaming </li></ul></ul>
    60. 61. Levels of Awareness <ul><li>Subconscious Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep and Dreams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious thought (Freud) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-conscious processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subconscious Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep and Dreams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious thought (Freud) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-conscious processes </li></ul></ul>
    61. 62. Sleep: Biological Rhythms <ul><li>Rhythms controlled by biological clocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual or seasonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28-day cycles/24-hour cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circadian Rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desynchronizing the clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jet lag </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shift-work problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resetting the clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bright light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melatonin </li></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 63. Why Do We Sleep? <ul><li>Benefits of Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for physical and mental functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restorative Function </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Evolutionary Function </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
    63. 64. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Chronic sleep deprivation results in… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased alertness and cognitive performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to sustain attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less complex brain activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse effects on decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research indicates we should get at least 8 hours of sleep each night! </li></ul>
    64. 65. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>EEG measures electrical activity in the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: light sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2: light sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep spindles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3: deep sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4: deep sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to wake sleepers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REM sleep </li></ul></ul>
    65. 66. Stages of Sleep
    66. 67. REM Sleep <ul><li>Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep = REM sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid eye movement; dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 1-4: Non-REM Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of rapid eye movement; little dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dreams: Non-REM versus REM Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Changes in REM Sleep </li></ul>
    67. 68. Sleep Cycles <ul><li>90-100 minutes per cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep patterns change during the night. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical night </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% - Stages 1 & 2 sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% - Stages 3 & 4 sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% - REM sleep </li></ul></ul>
    68. 69. Sleep Cycles
    69. 70. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepwalking, Sleep Talking, Sleep Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares versus Night Terrors </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul>
    70. 71. Theories of Dreaming <ul><li>Historical, Personal, Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theory of Dreaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information processing and problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticisms? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activation-Synthesis Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain makes “sense” out of random activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticisms? </li></ul></ul>
    71. 72. Hypnosis <ul><li>Hypnosis marked by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered attention and awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual receptiveness to suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Steps in Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractions are minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told to concentrate on something specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told what to expect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest events or feelings sure to occur </li></ul></ul>
    72. 73. Explaining Hypnosis <ul><li>Susceptibility to Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is hypnosis dangerous? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divided State of Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Social Cognitive Behavior View </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of Hypnosis </li></ul>
    73. 74. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Various substances alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people take drugs? </li></ul><ul><li>Continued use can lead to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical dependence and withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addiction </li></ul></ul>
    74. 75. Drugs and the Brain <ul><li>The Brain’s Reward Pathway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral tegmental area (VTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus accumbens (NAc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefrontal cortex and limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These drugs increase DA transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antagonist </li></ul></ul>
    75. 76. Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Tranquilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Opiates </li></ul>
    76. 77. Depressants
    77. 78. Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants <ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalants </li></ul>
    78. 79. Stimulants
    79. 80. Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens <ul><li>Marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>Ecstasy (MDMA) </li></ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul>
    80. 81. Hallucinogens
    81. 82. Critical Controversy <ul><li>Medicinal uses for psychedelic drugs? </li></ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>Psychedelic Drugs, Insight, and Creativity </li></ul>

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