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Chapters 6 12
 

Chapters 6 12

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    Chapters 6 12 Chapters 6 12 Presentation Transcript

      • Accent
      • Complement
      • Contradict
      • Control
      • Repeat
      • And Substitute For…
      … Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication is Used to… Microsoft Image
    • When Communicating Electronically...
      • People Use Emoticons
        •  
      • Keyboard Nuances
      • Text substitutions
      :-) :-( * :- >- {} {{{***}}} ;-) <G>
    • Meaning Principles
      • Meanings are in People
        • You don’t receive meaning, you construct it
          • Based on your values, perception, experiences, etc.
      • Meanings are More Than Words and Gestures
        • You can only approximate what the other person means
      • Meanings are Unique
          • No two people ever derive the exact same meaning
      • Meanings are Context-Based
        • Some words have different meanings in different situations
          • Fat/phat, cool/cool, hoe/ho, etc
      Microsoft Image
    • Message Principles
      • Messages are Packaged
        • Nonverbal and verbal are packaged together
          • Look for a match between the two, or re-evaluate
        • Messages are Rule-Governed
          • Norms about what is appropriate, grammar
      • Messages Vary in Abstraction
        • General or abstract, some confusion can arise
      Microsoft Image
    • Messages Vary in Politeness
      • Desirable Trait Across Most Cultures
      • Gender Differences
        • Women’s speech is more polite than men’s
      • Strangers vs. intimates or friends
    • Messages and Netiquette
      • Read the FAQs
      • Don’t Shout—ALL CAPS
      • Lurk Before Speaking or Contributing
      • Don’t Contribute to Traffic Jams
      • Be Brief
      • No Commercial Communication
      • Treat Newbies Kindly
      • Don’t Spam
      • Don’t Flame
      • Don’t Use Offensive Language
      Microsoft Image
    • Messages Vary…
      • In Inclusion
        • Excluding Talk –
          • Language & Topics Not Shared
            • Another language, hushed tone, stop talking upon entrance
        • Inclusive Talk - Seeking Others’ Perspective, Providing Unfamiliar Details, Confirming Responses
      • In Assertiveness
        • Nonassertiveness
          • Lack of assertiveness in all or some communication
          • “ You Win, I lose”
        • Aggressiveness
          • Care about self and not the other
          • “ I Win, You Lose”
        • Assertiveness
          • Act in best interest without infringing on the other person
          • “ I Win, You Win”
    • Messages Vary in Directness
      • Advantages of Indirect Messages
        • Express Desire without Offending
        • Seeking Compliments
      • Disadvantages of Indirect Messages
        • Win-lose situations more likely
        • Create Problems with Understanding
      • Gender and Cultural Differences
        • Men are more indirect when going against the masculine stereotype
        • Some cultures prefer indirect to direct language
    • Assertive Communication
      • Analyze Assertive Communication
      • Rehearse Assertive Communication
      • How to:
        • Describe the Problem
        • State How it Affects You
        • Propose Solutions
        • Confirm Understanding
    •  
    • Language Symbolizes Reality
      • Intensional Orientation
        • Labels First, Actual Second
          • Buy it for the label
      • Extensional Orientation
        • Actual First, Label Second
          • Meet someone and then classify them
      • Cultural Identifiers
        • Boy, Girl, Gay, Lesbian, African American, White, Hispanic, Chicano, Etc.
      • Allness
        • Six Blind Men and the Elephant
      Microsoft Image
    • Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences
      • Fact-Inference Confusion
        • Act as though an inference is a factual statement
          • Ex) acting on what you think, not know
      • Pragmatic Implications
        • Puts together factual conclusions to make an inference
          • Ex) sales manager gets fired
      Microsoft Image
    • Facts and Inferences
      • Made Only After Observation
      • Limited to What Has Been Observed
      • Made Only by Observer
      • About Past or Present
      • Approach Certainty
      • Subject to Verifiable Standards
      • Made At Any Time
      • Go Beyond What is Observed
      • Made by Anyone
      • May Be About Past, Present, or Future
      • Vary in Probability
      • Not Subject to Verifiable Standards
      Microsoft Image
    • Language Can…
      • Express Denotation and Connotation
        • Denotation: Dictionary/literal
        • Connotation: Snarl or Purr Words
      • Criticize or Praise
        • Providing Honest Appraisal
          • Tell the Truth
          • Consider How You Phrase Negative Appraisal
      Microsoft Image
    • Language Can Criticize and Praise
      • Offering Criticism
        • Focus on Event not Personality
        • State Criticism Positively
        • Own Your Thoughts and Feelings
        • Be Clear
        • Avoid Ordering Change
        • Consider the Context
      • Giving Praise
        • Use I-Messages
        • Make Sure Affect Communicates Feelings
        • Name the Behavior You’re Praising
        • Take Culture Into Consideration
    • Language Can Obscure Distinctions
      • Indiscrimination
        • Form of stereotyping
        • Focus on classes as opposed to individuals
      • Ethnocentrism
        • Evaluate your own culture as better than other cultures
      Microsoft Image
    • Language Can Obscure Distinctions
      • Polarization
        • Either/or fallacy
        • Describe the world in extremes
      • Static Evaluation
        • Retain an evaluation despite changes in that person or thing
    • Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm
      • Confirmation
        • Communication pattern that acknowledges and accepts a person
      • Disconfirmation
        • Communication pattern that ignores a person’s presence
      • Talking with the Grief Stricken
        • Encourage them to share feelings, but don’t force
        • Avoid forcing them to think of the bright side
      Microsoft Image
    • Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm
      • Sexism
        • Generic Man
        • Generic He and His
        • Sex-role Stereotyping
      • Other “ism’s” that disconfirm
        • Heterosexism
        • Racism
        • Ageism
        • Racist/Sexist/Heterosexist Listening
          • Listening is influenced by the ‘isms’ too
      Microsoft Image
    • Functions of Nonverbal Communication
      • Impression Management
          • Body size, skin color, dress, etc
      • Forming and Defining Relationships
          • Communicate closeness
          • Signal dominance
      • Structuring Conversation and Social Interaction
          • Turn-taking cues
      • Influence
          • Signals truth or deception
      • Emotional Expression
          • Revealing emotions through nonverbals
      Microsoft Image
    • Body Communication
      • Body Gestures
    • Body Communication
      • Body Appearance
        • Dress, skin color, hair color, etc
        • Halloween costume 
      Microsoft Image
    • Facial Communication
      • Signal Emotions
      • Sadness
      • Disgust
      • Contempt
      • Interest
      • Happiness
      • Surprise
      • Fear
      • Anger
    • Facial Communication
      • Facial Management
      • Intensify: exaggerate
      • Deintensify: Cover up feelings for benefit of others
      • Neutralize: Cover so others are not affected
      • Mask: Hide feelings
      • Simulate: Fake it
      • Facial Feedback Hypothesis
        • Facial Expressions Influence Physiological Arousal
          • Feeling and expressing increases arousal
          • Influences what others think of you
      Microsoft Image
    • Eye Communication: Eye Contact
      • Monitor Feedback
          • “ what do you think?”, signals attention
      • Secure Attention and Interest
          • Increasing eye contact to get more attention/interest
      • Regulate or Control Conversation
        • Signals turn-taking, initiates a new speaker
      • Signal Nature of Relationship
        • Positive or negative, “gaydar”
      • Signal Status and Aggression
        • Visual dominance, stare down
      • Compensate for Distance
        • Can overcome distances, express closeness
    • Eye Communication
      • Eye Avoidance
          • Privacy
          • Civil Inattention
            • Turn attention away from public argument, PDA
      • Pupil Dilation
        • What happens to the pupil of the eye
            • Interest Level: enlarged pupil with higher interest level
            • Attraction: enlarged pupil with more attraction
      Microsoft Image
    • Touch Communication
      • Meanings of Touch
        • Positive Emotions
            • Trust, similarity, informality
        • Playfulness
            • Deemphasizes emotions, lightens interaction
        • Control
            • Behaviors, thoughts, feelings of another
        • Ritualistic
            • Greetings/departures
        • Task-Related
            • Associated with a task
      • Touch Avoidance
          • Avoid touch in certain circumstances/from people
      Microsoft Image
    • Paralanguage
      • What is Paralanguage?
        • Rate
        • Volume
        • Pitch
      • People Perception and Paralanguage
      • Persuasion and Paralanguage
      Microsoft Image
    • Functions of Silence
      • Time to Think
      • Hurt Others
      • Response to Anxiety
      • Prevent Communication
      • Communicate Emotional Responses
      • Achieve Specific Effects
      • Nothing to Say
      Microsoft Image
    • Spatial Messages Theories About Space
      • Protection Theory
        • Buffer zone around you, “your space”
      • Equilibrium Theory
        • Greater the intimacy, closer the distance
      • Expectancy Violations Theory
        • increase/decrease distances with someone who you are not intimate with
    • Spatial Messages Territoriality/Markers
      • Primary Territories
          • Your own: room, office, desk
      • Secondary Territories
          • Don’t belong to you, but you occupy: table at the cafeteria, seat in class
      • Public Territories
          • Open to all: restaurant, movie theater
      • Markers
        • Central Markers
          • Reserves your place: drink at the bar, books on your desk
        • Boundary Markers
          • Divide your territory from another’s: checkout separator, arm rests
        • Ear Markers
          • Indicate possession: trademarks, nameplates, monograms
      • Territorial Encroachment
          • Higher status people can invade the territory of a lower status person, but not vice versa
      Microsoft Image
    • Artifactual Communication and Olfactory Communication
      • Space Decoration
      • Color Communication
      • Clothing/Body Adornment
      • Attractants
      • Taste Enhancers
      • Memory Aids
      • Sources of Identification
      Microsoft Image
    • Temporal Communication
      • Psychological Time
      • Past, Present, or Future Orientation
      • Future Income Related to Future Time Orientation
      Microsoft Image
    • Characteristics of Interpersonal Relationships
      • Psychological Data
      • Impersonal vs. Personal
      • Group vs. Individual
      • Explanatory Knowledge
      • Describe
      • Predict
      • Explain
      • Personally Established Rules
      • Social Norms
      • Rules Established with Familiarity
      • Move from Social Categories to Individuals
      Microsoft Image
      • Perceptual
          • 1 st impression
          • What you see, smell, etc.
      • Interactional
          • Exchange superficial info
          • 4 minutes: pursue or not
      Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Contact
    • Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Involvement
      • Testing Ex) Relationship
          • Direct: Ask questions
          • Indirect: joke about
          • Public presentation: drop label
          • Separation: take break
          • Third party: ask someone else
      • Intensifying
    • Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Intimacy
      • Commitment
          • Interpersonal
            • Private
      • Social Bonding
          • Public
          • announce
    • Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Intimacy
      • Risk
        • fear
          • Fewer friends
          • less chance of relationship
          • Less sociable
        • Breadth vs. Depth
    • Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Deterioration
      • Dissatisfaction
          • Personal
          • See future as more neg
          • Become unhappy
      • Deterioration
          • Withdraw, grow further apart
          • Awkward silences
      • Optional stage
        • Intrapersonal Repair
          • Analyze
          • Consider solutions
        • Interpersonal Repair
          • Share ideas with partner
          • Negotiation stage
      Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Repair
    • Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Dissolution
      • Interpersonal Separation
        • Trial separation
        • Between the couple
      • Social/Public Separation
        • Made public
          • Divorce, become single
      • Advantages
        • Safe
        • Inner Qualities Communicated First
        • Number of People Available is Vast
      • Disadvantages
        • Can’t See the Person
        • Possible Deception
        • Can Become All Consuming
        • No Face or Voice
      Relationships and Technology: Online Relationships Microsoft Image
    • Relationship Development
      • Uncertainty Reduction Theory
        • Higher uncertainty = lower intimacy
        • Lower uncertainty = higher intimacy
      • Social Penetration Theory
        • How a relationship progresses in depth and breadth
      • Relationship Dialectics Theory
        • Describes relationship as existing within a series of opposites
      • Rules Theory
        • Relationship follows rules and is maintained when rules are followed
      Microsoft Image
    • Attraction Theory
      • Attractiveness
        • Appearance
        • Personality
      • Proximity
        • Mere exposure theory
      • Similarity
        • Matching Hypothesis
        • Complementarity
      • Affinity Seeking Strategies
      Microsoft Image
    • Social Exchange vs. Equity Theories
      • Economic
        • Profits
        • Rewards
        • Costs
      • Expectations for Profits in Relationship
      • Comparison Level for Alternatives
        • Profits from Another Relationship
      • Ratio of Rewards and Costs Equal to Partner’s
      • Underbenefited = resent
      • Overbenefited = guilt
        • Inequity
          • Leads to affairs
          • US vs. other countries
      Microsoft Image
    • Relationship Maintenance Behaviors
      • Keep Relationship Intact
      • Keep Relationship at Present Stage
      • Keep Relationship Satisfying
      • Reasons for:
        • Some good, some not
        • Emotional Attachment
          • Love each other
        • Convenience
          • Easier
        • Children
          • Sake of children
        • Fear
          • Afraid of being alone
        • Inertia
          • Stuck in non-motion
        • Commitment
          • Strong commitment to another
    • Communication for Maintaining Relationships
      • Be Nice
      • Communicate
      • Be Open
      • Give Assurances
      • Share Joint Activities
      • Be Positive
      • Focus on Improving Yourself
      • Causes of Deterioration
      Microsoft Image
    • Effects of Relationship Deterioration
      • Loss of Benefits or Rewards
      • Loss of Self-Esteem
      • Financial Implications
      • Not all Breakups are Bad
      Microsoft Image
    • Communication in Deterioration
      • Results in Communication:
        • Withdrawal
        • Decline in Self-Disclosure
        • Deception
        • Positive and Negative Messages
    • Relationship Repair
      • Interpersonal Repair
      • Recognize Problem
      • Engage in Productive Communication/Conflict Resolution
      • Pose Possible Solutions
      • Affirm Each Other
      • Integrate Solutions
      • Risk
    • Intrapersonal Repair
      • Recognize Communication is Circular
      • Realize the Interactions are Punctuated
      • Stimulation and Response
      • Can Break Unproductive Circle
    • Strategies for Disengagement and Dealing with a Break up
      • Use Positive Tone to Preserve Relationship
      • Negative Identity Management
      • Justification for Breakup
      • Behavioral De-escalation
      • De-escalate to Reduce Exclusivity
      • Break the Loneliness-Depression Cycle
      • Take Time Out
      • Bolster Self-Esteem
      • Remove or Avoid Uncomfortable Symbols
      • Seek Support
      • Avoid Repeating Negative Patterns
    • Nature of Friendship
      • Interpersonal Relationship
      • Between Two People
      • Mutually Productive
      • Mutual Positive Regard
      • Closer Friends More Interdependent
      • Matter of Choice
      Microsoft Image
    • Friendship Types
      • Friendships of Reciprocity
          • Ideal
          • Loyalty, mutual affection, and generosity
      • Friendships of Receptivity
          • Imbalance: Primary give/taker
      • Friendships of Association
          • Transient: co-workers/classmates
      Microsoft Image
    • Needs Friendships Serve
      • Utility
          • Serve a purpose: study buddy
      • Affirmation
          • Recognize attributes: become better athlete
      • Ego-Support
          • Build your ego: pay complements
      • Stimulation
          • Introduces new ideas: colleague
      • Security
          • Protect you or does no harm
      Microsoft Image
    • Friendship and Communication
      • Depth of Communication Increases
      • Breadth of Communication Increases
      • Dynamic Tension Around Revealing Information about Self
      • Regressions May Pull Friendship Back
    • Types of Friendships
      • Initial Contact and Acquaintanceship
        • Meeting, guarded (not open), viewed as temporary, politeness
      • Casual Friendship
        • Dyadic consciousness (we-ness), participate as a unit, more open/disclosure, communicate with confidence
      • Close and Intimate Friendship
        • Exclusive unit, able to predict other’s behavior, exchange messages of affection, other oriented, equality
      Microsoft Image
    • Love Types
      • Eros - Beauty and Sexuality
      • Ludus - Entertainment and Excitement
      • Storge - Peaceful and Slow
      • Pragma - Practical and Traditional
      • Mania - Elation and Depression
      • Agape - Compassionate and Selfless
    • Love
      • Is a Combination of the Six Types
      • Changes Across Stages
      • Different for Different Personality Types
    • Love in Stages
      • 1 st - Eros,Mania and Ludis
      • 2 nd - Storge
      • 3 rd - Pragma
      Microsoft Image
    • Love and Communication
      • Exaggerate Beloved’s Virtues/Minimize Faults
      • Share Emotions and Experiences
      • Share Secrets
      • Create Personal Idioms
      • Engage in Significant Self-disclosure
      • Nonverbally Communicate Love
        • More Eye Contact
        • Longer Periods of Silence
        • Become More Aware of Physical Self
        • Eliminate Taboo Adaptors
        • More and More Intimate Touch
    • Family Defined
      • Definition is Complex and Changing
      • Primary Relationship (Two Principal Parties)
      • Family Denotes Broader Constellation
      Microsoft Image
    • Characteristics of Families
      • Defined Roles
      • Recognition of Responsibilities
      • Shared History and Future
      • Shared Living Space
      • Established Rules
      Microsoft Image
    • Family Types - Primary Relationships
      • Traditionals
        • Share belief system/life philosophy, blending of individuals into a couple, mutual sharing, traditional sex roles, permanent, responsive communication
      • Independents
        • Individual identity over relationship, responsive communication, conflict openly without fear, disclosures are extensive and high risk
      • Separates
        • Convenience dictates living together, little desire to be together, physical and psychological space, relatively traditional sex roles, see as individual, not we
      Microsoft Image
    • Family and Communication
      • The Equality Pattern
          • Equal share in communication, open, honest, no power plays, equal decision making power, no leader/follower
      • The Balanced Split Patter
          • Equality relationship, but each has own domain of authority, conflict is non-threatening (each has area of expertise)
      • The Unbalanced Split Pattern
          • One person dominates in more than half of communication, the less attractive/powerful partner gives in
      • The Monopoly Pattern
          • One person has authority, lectures not communicates, arguments rare, except when authority is challenged
    • Workplace Relationships
      • Romantic Relationships
        • Often Frowned Upon
        • Often Entail Problems
        • Would Not Arise in Other Contexts
      • Mentoring Relationships
        • Train someone less experienced
        • Ideal learning environment, benefits mentor and mentee
      • Networking Relationships
        • Can help: get job, solve problems, offer new insight
        • Informal or formal, people you know, strangers, try to make it mutually beneficial
      Microsoft Image