Purposes and Payoffs of Listening <ul><li>Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Relate </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Pla...
Stages of Listening Process <ul><li>Listening is not the same as hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing is passive, listeni...
Stages of Listening - Receiving <ul><li>Hearing and attending to verbal and nonverbal  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Attenti...
<ul><li>Learning and deciphering meaning, thoughts and emotional tone expressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate New Informati...
<ul><li>Remembering and Retaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to take place to have listening occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Judging and criticizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the message  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist Prematu...
<ul><li>Two Phases:  during and after message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the Speaker with Back-Channeling </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Listening is a Collection of Skills </li></ul><ul><li>All Five Stages Overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is Never...
Styles of Listening  Empathic and Objective <ul><li>Do you need to understand, identify with speaker or hold to real world...
Styles of Listening Nonjudgmental and Critical <ul><li>Keep Open Mind, suspend judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Filtering ...
Styles of Listening Nonjudgmental and Critical <ul><li>Recognize Fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>Name-calling </li></ul><ul><l...
Styles of Listening  Surface and Depth <ul><li>Surface:  literal meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Depth:  beyond surface </li></u...
Styles of Listening  Active and Inactive <ul><li>Active Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks for understanding, acknowle...
Culture and Listening <ul><li>Language and Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No two people speak exactly the same language </li...
Gender and Listening <ul><li>Achieve Different Ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women listen to connect, men listen to gain resp...
<ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Contradict </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Repea...
When Communicating Electronically... <ul><li>People Use Emoticons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>      </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key...
Meaning Principles <ul><li>Meanings are in People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t receive meaning, you construct it </li><...
Messages and Meanings  (continued) <ul><li>Meanings are Unique </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No two people ever derive the exa...
Message Principles <ul><li>Messages are Packaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal and verbal are packaged together </li></u...
Messages Vary in Politeness  <ul><li>Desirable Trait Across Most Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><...
Messages and Netiquette <ul><li>Read the FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Shout—ALL CAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Lurk Before Speakin...
Messages and Netiquette  (continued) <ul><li>No Commercial Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Treat Newbies Kindly </li></ul>...
 
Messages Vary in Inclusion <ul><li>Excluding Talk - Language & Topics Not Shared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another language, h...
Messages Vary in Directness <ul><li>Advantages of Indirect Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express Desire without Offending...
Messages Vary in Assertiveness <ul><li>Nonassertiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of assertiveness in all or some communi...
 
Principles for Increasing Assertive Communication <ul><li>Analyze Assertive Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse Asser...
Communicate Assertively <ul><li>Describe the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>State How it Affects You </li></ul><ul><li>Propose ...
Language Symbolizes Reality <ul><li>Intensional Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels First, Actual Second </li></ul></...
Language Symbolizes Reality  (continued) <ul><li>Cultural Identifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boy, Girl, Gay, Lesbian, Afric...
Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Fact-Inference Confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as though an infer...
Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Made Only After Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to What Has Been Observed </li></ul><ul...
Language Expresses Both Denotation and Connotation <ul><li>Denotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary/literal </li></ul><...
Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Providing Honest Appraisal   </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the Truth </li></ul><ul><li>...
Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Offering Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Event not Personality </li></ul><u...
Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Giving Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Use I-Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Make Sure Affec...
Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Indiscrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of stereotyping </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Polarization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either/or fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication pattern that acknowledges and acc...
 
Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic He and...
Functions of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Impression Management </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body size, skin color, dress,...
Body Communication <ul><li>Body Gestures </li></ul>
Body Communication <ul><li>Body Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress, skin color, hair color, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Facial Communication <ul><li>Signal Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Contemp...
Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exaggerate </li></ul></ul...
Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Feedback Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Exp...
Eye Communication:  Eye Contact   <ul><li>Monitor Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ what do you think?”, signals attent...
Eye Communication <ul><li>Eye Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Inatt...
Touch Communication <ul><li>Meanings of Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Paralanguage <ul><li>What is Paralanguage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul...
Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time to Think </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt Others </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Anxiety </li></ul><...
Spatial Messages Proxemic Distances
Spatial Messages Theories About Space <ul><li>Protection Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer zone around you, “your sp...
Spatial Messages Territoriality <ul><li>Primary Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your own: room, office, desk </li></...
Spatial Messages Territoriality <ul><li>Markers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reser...
Artifactual Communication <ul><li>Space Decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Color Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing and Bo...
Olfactory Communication <ul><li>Attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Taste Enhancers </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Aids </li></ul><ul>...
Temporal Communication <ul><li>Psychological Time </li></ul><ul><li>Past, Present, or Future Orientation </li></ul><ul><li...
Nonverbal Communication and Culture <ul><li>Culture and Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Color </li></ul><u...
Nonverbal Communication and Culture <ul><li>Culture and Time </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Time </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Time...
Nonverbal Communication and Culture <ul><li>Monochronism and Polychronism </li></ul>
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Chapters 5 8

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Chapters 5 8

  1. 1. Purposes and Payoffs of Listening <ul><li>Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Relate </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul>Purposes Payoffs
  2. 2. Stages of Listening Process <ul><li>Listening is not the same as hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing is passive, listening is active </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Stages of Listening - Receiving <ul><li>Hearing and attending to verbal and nonverbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Attention on Speaker’s Verbal and Nonverbal Cues (volume, rate, expressions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Distractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Speaker, Not What You’ll Say Next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Interrupting—maintain your role </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  4. 4. <ul><li>Learning and deciphering meaning, thoughts and emotional tone expressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate New Information to What You Know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Speaker’s Point of View </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask Questions for Clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase Speaker’s Ideas </li></ul></ul>Stages of Listening - Understanding
  5. 5. <ul><li>Remembering and Retaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to take place to have listening occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory is reconstructive, not reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Central Ideas and Major Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the Message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat Names and Key Concepts </li></ul></ul>Stages of Listening - Remembering Microsoft Image
  6. 6. <ul><li>Judging and criticizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist Premature Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give Speaker Benefit of the Doubt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish Facts from Inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Speaker’s Biases and/or Prejudices </li></ul></ul>Stages of Listening - Evaluating
  7. 7. <ul><li>Two Phases: during and after message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the Speaker with Back-Channeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express Support for Speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond Honestly Even in Disagreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own Your Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a Supportive Atmosphere </li></ul></ul>Stages of Listening - Responding
  8. 8. <ul><li>Listening is a Collection of Skills </li></ul><ul><li>All Five Stages Overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is Never Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is Situational </li></ul>Implications of the Model of Listening Microsoft Image
  9. 9. Styles of Listening Empathic and Objective <ul><li>Do you need to understand, identify with speaker or hold to real world objectives? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctuate from Speaker’s Point of View </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See as speaker does </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in Equal, Two-Way Conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate barriers (physical and psychological) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek to Understand Thoughts and Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid “Offensive Listening” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for bits and pieces to attack with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to be Objective, look at context </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  10. 10. Styles of Listening Nonjudgmental and Critical <ul><li>Keep Open Mind, suspend judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Filtering or Oversimplifying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear the entire message, not just the good parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognize Own Biases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t let your own thoughts, attitudes, culture interfere with taking it from speaker’s POV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid Uncritical Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to everything, ask for adequate info before judging </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  11. 11. Styles of Listening Nonjudgmental and Critical <ul><li>Recognize Fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>Name-calling </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda-setting </li></ul><ul><li>Attack </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  12. 12. Styles of Listening Surface and Depth <ul><li>Surface: literal meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Depth: beyond surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen for Content and Relational Messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note Statements that Refer Back to Speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t Disregard Literal Meanings </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Styles of Listening Active and Inactive <ul><li>Active Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks for understanding, acknowledges speakers thoughts and feelings, and stimulates speaker to further explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do this by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase Speaker’s Meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express Understanding of Speaker’s Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask Questions </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  14. 14. Culture and Listening <ul><li>Language and Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No two people speak exactly the same language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display rules, each culture has own nonverbal vocab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cultures value honesty, other value being positive over truthful </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  15. 15. Gender and Listening <ul><li>Achieve Different Ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women listen to connect, men listen to gain respect and establish dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate Listening Differently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women engage in more eye contact and give more feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Spent Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men listen to women less than women listen to men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences Changing Rapidly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of socialization; two different sets of learned behavior </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  16. 16. <ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Contradict </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>And Substitute For… </li></ul>… Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication is Used to… Microsoft Image
  17. 17. When Communicating Electronically... <ul><li>People Use Emoticons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keyboard Nuances </li></ul><ul><li>Text substitutions </li></ul>:-) :-( * :- >- {} {{{***}}} ;-) <G>
  18. 18. Meaning Principles <ul><li>Meanings are in People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t receive meaning, you construct it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on your values, perception, experiences, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanings are More Than Words and Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can only approximate what the other person means </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  19. 19. Messages and Meanings (continued) <ul><li>Meanings are Unique </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No two people ever derive the exact same meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanings are Context-Based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some words have different meanings in different situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat/phat, cool/cool, hoe/ho, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  20. 20. Message Principles <ul><li>Messages are Packaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal and verbal are packaged together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for a match between the two, or re-evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages are Rule-Governed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norms about what is appropriate, grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Messages Vary in Abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General or abstract, some confusion can arise </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  21. 21. Messages Vary in Politeness <ul><li>Desirable Trait Across Most Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s speech is more polite than men’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How we treat strangers vs. how we treat intimates or friends </li></ul>
  22. 22. Messages and Netiquette <ul><li>Read the FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Shout—ALL CAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Lurk Before Speaking or Contributing </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Contribute to Traffic Jams </li></ul><ul><li>Be Brief </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  23. 23. Messages and Netiquette (continued) <ul><li>No Commercial Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Treat Newbies Kindly </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Spam </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Flame </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Use Offensive Language </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  24. 25. Messages Vary in Inclusion <ul><li>Excluding Talk - Language & Topics Not Shared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another language, hushed tone, stop talking upon entrance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inclusive Talk - Seeking Others’ Perspective, Providing Unfamiliar Details, Confirming Responses </li></ul>
  25. 26. Messages Vary in Directness <ul><li>Advantages of Indirect Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express Desire without Offending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking Compliments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of Indirect Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-lose situations more likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Problems with Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender and Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are more indirect when going against the masculine stereotype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cultures prefer indirect to direct language </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Messages Vary in Assertiveness <ul><li>Nonassertiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of assertiveness in all or some communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You Win, I lose” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Care about self and not the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I Win, You Lose” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act in best interest without infringing on the other person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I Win, You Win” </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  27. 29. Principles for Increasing Assertive Communication <ul><li>Analyze Assertive Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse Assertive Communication </li></ul>
  28. 30. Communicate Assertively <ul><li>Describe the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>State How it Affects You </li></ul><ul><li>Propose Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm Understanding </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  29. 31. Language Symbolizes Reality <ul><li>Intensional Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels First, Actual Second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buy it for the label </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensional Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual First, Label Second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meet someone and then classify them </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  30. 32. Language Symbolizes Reality (continued) <ul><li>Cultural Identifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boy, Girl, Gay, Lesbian, African American, White, Hispanic, Chicano, Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Blind Men and the Elephant </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  31. 33. Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Fact-Inference Confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as though an inference is a factual statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) acting on what you think, not know </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts together factual conclusions to make an inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) sales manager gets fired </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  32. 34. Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Made Only After Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to What Has Been Observed </li></ul><ul><li>Made Only by Observer </li></ul><ul><li>About Past or Present </li></ul><ul><li>Approach Certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to Verifiable Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Made At Any Time </li></ul><ul><li>Go Beyond What is Observed </li></ul><ul><li>Made by Anyone </li></ul><ul><li>May Be About Past, Present, or Future </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in Probability </li></ul><ul><li>Not Subject to Verifiable Standards </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  33. 35. Language Expresses Both Denotation and Connotation <ul><li>Denotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary/literal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snarl Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purr Words </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  34. 36. Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Providing Honest Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Consider How You Phrase Negative Appraisal </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  35. 37. Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Offering Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Event not Personality </li></ul><ul><li>State Criticism Positively </li></ul><ul><li>Own Your Thoughts and Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Be Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Ordering Change </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the Context </li></ul>
  36. 38. Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Giving Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Use I-Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Make Sure Affect Communicates Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Name the Behavior You’re Praising </li></ul><ul><li>Take Culture Into Consideration </li></ul>
  37. 39. Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Indiscrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of stereotyping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on classes as opposed to individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate your own culture as better than other cultures </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  38. 41. Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Polarization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either/or fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the world in extremes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain an evaluation despite changes in that person or thing </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication pattern that acknowledges and accepts a person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disconfirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication pattern that ignores a person’s presence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talking with the Grief Stricken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage them to share feelings, but don’t force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid forcing them to think of the bright side </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  40. 44. Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic He and His </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-role Stereotyping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other “ism’s” that disconfirm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ageism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racist/Sexist/Heterosexist Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening is influenced by the ‘isms’ too </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  41. 45. Functions of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Impression Management </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body size, skin color, dress, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Forming and Defining Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate closeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal dominance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structuring Conversation and Social Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-taking cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signals truth or deception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revealing emotions through nonverbals </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  42. 46. Body Communication <ul><li>Body Gestures </li></ul>
  43. 47. Body Communication <ul><li>Body Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress, skin color, hair color, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halloween costume  </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  44. 48. Facial Communication <ul><li>Signal Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Contempt </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul>
  45. 49. Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exaggerate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deintensify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover up feelings for benefit of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutralize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover so others are not affected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hide feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fake it </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  46. 50. Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Feedback Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions Influence Physiological Arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling and expressing increases arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influences what others think of you </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 51. Eye Communication: Eye Contact <ul><li>Monitor Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ what do you think?”, signals attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secure Attention and Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing eye contact to get more attention/interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulate or Control Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals turn-taking, initiates a new speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal Nature of Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative, “gaydar” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal Status and Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual dominance, stare down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compensate for Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can overcome distances, express closeness </li></ul></ul>
  48. 52. Eye Communication <ul><li>Eye Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Inattention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn attention away from public argument, PDA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pupil Dilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens to the pupil of the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest Level: enlarged pupil with higher interest level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction: enlarged pupil with more attraction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  49. 53. Touch Communication <ul><li>Meanings of Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust, similarity, informality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deemphasizes emotions, lightens interaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors, thoughts, feelings of another </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greetings/departures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-Related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with a task </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid touch in certain circumstances/from people </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  50. 54. Paralanguage <ul><li>What is Paralanguage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People Perception and Paralanguage </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion and Paralanguage </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  51. 55. Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time to Think </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt Others </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Emotional Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve Specific Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing to Say </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  52. 56. Spatial Messages Proxemic Distances
  53. 57. Spatial Messages Theories About Space <ul><li>Protection Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer zone around you, “your space” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater the intimacy, closer the distance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Violations Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens as you increase/decrease distances wit someone who you are not intimate with </li></ul></ul>
  54. 58. Spatial Messages Territoriality <ul><li>Primary Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your own: room, office, desk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t belong to you, but you occupy: table at the cafeteria, seat in class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open to all: restaurant, movie theater </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  55. 59. Spatial Messages Territoriality <ul><li>Markers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reserves your place: drink at the bar, books on your desk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide your territory from another’s: checkout separator, arm rests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate possession: trademarks, nameplates, monograms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Territorial Encroachment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher status people can invade the territory of a lower status person, but not vice versa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 60. Artifactual Communication <ul><li>Space Decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Color Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing and Body Adornment </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  57. 61. Olfactory Communication <ul><li>Attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Taste Enhancers </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Identification </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  58. 62. Temporal Communication <ul><li>Psychological Time </li></ul><ul><li>Past, Present, or Future Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Future Income Related to Future Time Orientation </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  59. 63. Nonverbal Communication and Culture <ul><li>Culture and Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Color </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Culture, Paralanguage, and Silence </li></ul>
  60. 64. Nonverbal Communication and Culture <ul><li>Culture and Time </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Time </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Time </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  61. 65. Nonverbal Communication and Culture <ul><li>Monochronism and Polychronism </li></ul>
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