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Chapters 5 8
 

Chapters 5 8

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    Chapters 5 8 Chapters 5 8 Presentation Transcript

    • Purposes and Payoffs of Listening
      • Learn
      • Relate
      • Influence
      • Play
      • Help
      Purposes Payoffs
    • Stages of Listening Process
      • Listening is not the same as hearing
        • Hearing is passive, listening is active
      • Five stages
        • Receiving
        • Understanding
        • Remembering
        • Evaluating
        • Responding
    • Stages of Listening - Receiving
      • Hearing and attending to verbal and nonverbal
        • Focus Attention on Speaker’s Verbal and Nonverbal Cues (volume, rate, expressions)
        • Avoid Distractions
        • Focus on Speaker, Not What You’ll Say Next
        • Avoid Interrupting—maintain your role
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      • Learning and deciphering meaning, thoughts and emotional tone expressed
        • Relate New Information to What You Know
        • See Speaker’s Point of View
        • Ask Questions for Clarification
        • Paraphrase Speaker’s Ideas
      Stages of Listening - Understanding
      • Remembering and Retaining
        • Needs to take place to have listening occur
        • Memory is reconstructive, not reproductive
        • Identify Central Ideas and Major Support
        • Summarize the Message
        • Repeat Names and Key Concepts
      Stages of Listening - Remembering Microsoft Image
      • Judging and criticizing
        • Evaluation of the message in some way
        • Resist Premature Evaluation
        • Give Speaker Benefit of the Doubt
        • Distinguish Facts from Inferences
        • Identify Speaker’s Biases and/or Prejudices
      Stages of Listening - Evaluating
      • Two Phases: during and after message
        • Support the Speaker with Back-Channeling
        • Express Support for Speaker
        • Respond Honestly Even in Disagreement
        • Own Your Responses
        • Provide a Supportive Atmosphere
      Stages of Listening - Responding
      • Listening is a Collection of Skills
      • All Five Stages Overlap
      • Listening is Never Perfect
      • Listening is Situational
      Implications of the Model of Listening Microsoft Image
    • Styles of Listening Empathic and Objective
      • Do you need to understand, identify with speaker or hold to real world objectives?
        • Punctuate from Speaker’s Point of View
          • See as speaker does
        • Engage in Equal, Two-Way Conversations
          • Eliminate barriers (physical and psychological)
        • Seek to Understand Thoughts and Feelings
        • Avoid “Offensive Listening”
          • Looking for bits and pieces to attack with
        • Strive to be Objective, look at context
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    • Styles of Listening Nonjudgmental and Critical
      • Keep Open Mind, suspend judgment
      • Avoid Filtering or Oversimplifying
        • Hear the entire message, not just the good parts
      • Recognize Own Biases
        • Don’t let your own thoughts, attitudes, culture interfere with taking it from speaker’s POV
      • Avoid Uncritical Listening
        • Listen to everything, ask for adequate info before judging
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    • Styles of Listening Nonjudgmental and Critical
      • Recognize Fallacies
      • Name-calling
      • Testimonials
      • Bandwagon
      • Agenda-setting
      • Attack
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    • Styles of Listening Surface and Depth
      • Surface: literal meaning
      • Depth: beyond surface
        • Focus on Verbal and Nonverbal
        • Listen for Content and Relational Messages
        • Note Statements that Refer Back to Speaker
        • Don’t Disregard Literal Meanings
    • Styles of Listening Active and Inactive
      • Active Listening
        • Checks for understanding, acknowledges speakers thoughts and feelings, and stimulates speaker to further explore
        • Do this by:
        • Paraphrase Speaker’s Meaning
        • Express Understanding of Speaker’s Feelings
        • Ask Questions
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    • Culture and Listening
      • Language and Speech
        • No two people speak exactly the same language
      • Nonverbal Behaviors
        • Display rules, each culture has own nonverbal vocab
      • Feedback
        • Some cultures value honesty, other value being positive over truthful
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    • Gender and Listening
      • Achieve Different Ends
        • Women listen to connect, men listen to gain respect and establish dominance
      • Demonstrate Listening Differently
        • Women engage in more eye contact and give more feedback
      • Time Spent Listening
        • Men listen to women less than women listen to men
      • Differences Changing Rapidly
        • Result of socialization; two different sets of learned behavior
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      • Accent
      • Complement
      • Contradict
      • Control
      • Repeat
      • And Substitute For…
      … Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication is Used to… Microsoft Image
    • When Communicating Electronically...
      • People Use Emoticons
        •  
      • Keyboard Nuances
      • Text substitutions
      :-) :-( * :- >- {} {{{***}}} ;-) <G>
    • Meaning Principles
      • Meanings are in People
        • You don’t receive meaning, you construct it
          • Based on your values, perception, experiences, etc.
      • Meanings are More Than Words and Gestures
        • You can only approximate what the other person means
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    • Messages and Meanings (continued)
      • Meanings are Unique
          • No two people ever derive the exact same meaning
      • Meanings are Context-Based
        • Some words have different meanings in different situations
          • Fat/phat, cool/cool, hoe/ho, etc
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    • Message Principles
      • Messages are Packaged
        • Nonverbal and verbal are packaged together
          • Look for a match between the two, or re-evaluate
        • Messages are Rule-Governed
          • Norms about what is appropriate, grammar
      • Messages Vary in Abstraction
        • General or abstract, some confusion can arise
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    • Messages Vary in Politeness
      • Desirable Trait Across Most Cultures
      • Gender Differences
        • Women’s speech is more polite than men’s
      • How we treat strangers vs. how we treat intimates or friends
    • Messages and Netiquette
      • Read the FAQs
      • Don’t Shout—ALL CAPS
      • Lurk Before Speaking or Contributing
      • Don’t Contribute to Traffic Jams
      • Be Brief
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    • Messages and Netiquette (continued)
      • No Commercial Communication
      • Treat Newbies Kindly
      • Don’t Spam
      • Don’t Flame
      • Don’t Use Offensive Language
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    •  
    • Messages Vary in Inclusion
      • Excluding Talk - Language & Topics Not Shared
        • Another language, hushed tone, stop talking upon entrance
      • Inclusive Talk - Seeking Others’ Perspective, Providing Unfamiliar Details, Confirming Responses
    • Messages Vary in Directness
      • Advantages of Indirect Messages
        • Express Desire without Offending
        • Seeking Compliments
      • Disadvantages of Indirect Messages
        • Win-lose situations more likely
        • Create Problems with Understanding
      • Gender and Cultural Differences
        • Men are more indirect when going against the masculine stereotype
        • Some cultures prefer indirect to direct language
    • Messages Vary in Assertiveness
      • Nonassertiveness
        • Lack of assertiveness in all or some communication
        • “ You Win, I lose”
      • Aggressiveness
        • Care about self and not the other
        • “ I Win, You Lose”
      • Assertiveness
        • Act in best interest without infringing on the other person
        • “ I Win, You Win”
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    •  
    • Principles for Increasing Assertive Communication
      • Analyze Assertive Communication
      • Rehearse Assertive Communication
    • Communicate Assertively
      • Describe the Problem
      • State How it Affects You
      • Propose Solutions
      • Confirm Understanding
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    • Language Symbolizes Reality
      • Intensional Orientation
        • Labels First, Actual Second
          • Buy it for the label
      • Extensional Orientation
        • Actual First, Label Second
          • Meet someone and then classify them
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    • Language Symbolizes Reality (continued)
      • Cultural Identifiers
        • Boy, Girl, Gay, Lesbian, African American, White, Hispanic, Chicano, Etc.
      • Allness
        • Six Blind Men and the Elephant
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    • Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences
      • Fact-Inference Confusion
        • Act as though an inference is a factual statement
          • Ex) acting on what you think, not know
      • Pragmatic Implications
        • Puts together factual conclusions to make an inference
          • Ex) sales manager gets fired
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    • Facts and Inferences—Facts
      • Made Only After Observation
      • Limited to What Has Been Observed
      • Made Only by Observer
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    • Facts and Inferences—Facts (continued)
      • About Past or Present
      • Approach Certainty
      • Subject to Verifiable Standards
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    • Facts and Inferences—Inferences
      • Made At Any Time
      • Go Beyond What is Observed
      • Made by Anyone
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    • Facts and Inferences—Inferences (continued)
      • May Be About Past, Present, or Future
      • Vary in Probability
      • Not Subject to Verifiable Standards
    • Language Expresses Both Denotation and Connotation
      • Denotation
        • Dictionary/literal
      • Connotation
        • Snarl Words
        • Purr Words
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    • Language Can Criticize and Praise
      • Providing Honest Appraisal
      • Tell the Truth
      • Consider How You Phrase Negative Appraisal
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    • Language Can Criticize and Praise
      • Offering Criticism
      • Focus on Event not Personality
      • State Criticism Positively
      • Own Your Thoughts and Feelings
      • Be Clear
      • Avoid Ordering Change
      • Consider the Context
    • Language Can Criticize and Praise
      • Giving Praise
      • Use I-Messages
      • Make Sure Affect Communicates Feelings
      • Name the Behavior You’re Praising
      • Take Culture Into Consideration
    • Language Can Obscure Distinctions
      • Indiscrimination
        • Form of stereotyping
        • Focus on classes as opposed to individuals
      • Ethnocentrism
        • Evaluate your own culture as better than other cultures
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    •  
    • Language Can Obscure Distinctions
      • Polarization
        • Either/or fallacy
        • Describe the world in extremes
      • Static Evaluation
        • Retain an evaluation despite changes in that person or thing
    • Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm
      • Confirmation
        • Communication pattern that acknowledges and accepts a person
      • Disconfirmation
        • Communication pattern that ignores a person’s presence
      • Talking with the Grief Stricken
        • Encourage them to share feelings, but don’t force
        • Avoid forcing them to think of the bright side
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    •  
    • Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm
      • Sexism
      • Generic Man
      • Generic He and His
      • Sex-role Stereotyping
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    • Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm
      • “ ism’s” that disconfirm
        • Heterosexism
        • Racism
        • Ageism
        • Racist/Sexist/Heterosexist Listening
          • Listening is influenced by the ‘isms’ too
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    • Functions of Nonverbal Communication
      • Impression Management
          • Body size, skin color, dress, etc
      • Forming and Defining Relationships
          • Communicate closeness
          • Signal dominance
      • Structuring Conversation and Social Interaction
          • Turn-taking cues
      • Influence
          • Signals truth or deception
      • Emotional Expression
          • Revealing emotions through nonverbals
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    • Body Communication
      • Body Gestures
    • Body Communication
      • Body Appearance
        • Dress, skin color, hair color, etc
        • Halloween costume 
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    • Facial Communication
      • Signal Emotions
      • Sadness
      • Disgust
      • Contempt
      • Interest
      • Happiness
      • Surprise
      • Fear
      • Anger
    • Facial Communication
      • Facial Management
      • Intensify
        • exaggerate
      • Deintensify
        • Cover up feelings for benefit of others
      • Neutralize
        • Cover so others are not affected
      • Mask
        • Hide feelings
      • Simulate
        • Fake it
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    • Facial Communication
      • Facial Feedback
      • Facial Feedback Hypothesis
        • Facial Expressions Influence Physiological Arousal
          • Feeling and expressing increases arousal
          • Influences what others think of you
    • Eye Communication Eye Contact
      • Monitor Feedback
          • “ what do you think?”, signals attention
      • Secure Attention and Interest
          • Increasing eye contact to get more attention/interest
      • Regulate or Control Conversation
        • Signals turn-taking, initiates a new speaker
      • Signal Nature of Relationship
        • Positive or negative, “gaydar”
      • Signal Status and Aggression
        • Visual dominance, stare down
      • Compensate for Distance
        • Can overcome distances, express closeness
    • Eye Communication
      • Eye Avoidance
          • Privacy
          • Civil Inattention
            • Turn attention away from public argument, PDA
      • Pupil Dilation
        • What happens to the pupil of the eye
            • Interest Level: enlarged pupil with higher interest level
            • Attraction: enlarged pupil with more attraction
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    • Touch Communication
      • Meanings of Touch
        • Positive Emotions
            • Trust, similarity, informality
        • Playfulness
            • Deemphasizes emotions, lightens interaction
        • Control
            • Behaviors, thoughts, feelings of another
        • Ritualistic
            • Greetings/departures
        • Task-Related
            • Associated with a task
      • Touch Avoidance
          • Avoid touch in certain circumstances/from people
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    • Paralanguage
      • What is Paralanguage?
        • Rate
        • Volume
        • Pitch
      • People Perception and Paralanguage
      • Persuasion and Paralanguage
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    • Functions of Silence
      • Time to Think
      • Hurt Others
      • Response to Anxiety
      • Prevent Communication
      • Communicate Emotional Responses
      • Achieve Specific Effects
      • Nothing to Say
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    • Spatial Messages Proxemic Distances
    • Spatial Messages Theories About Space
      • Protection Theory
          • Buffer zone around you, “your space”
      • Equilibrium Theory
          • Greater the intimacy, closer the distance
      • Expectancy Violations Theory
        • What happens as you increase/decrease distances wit someone who you are not intimate with
    • Spatial Messages Territoriality
      • Primary Territories
          • Your own: room, office, desk
      • Secondary Territories
          • Don’t belong to you, but you occupy: table at the cafeteria, seat in class
      • Public Territories
          • Open to all: restaurant, movie theater
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    • Spatial Messages Territoriality
      • Markers
        • Central Markers
          • Reserves your place: drink at the bar, books on your desk
        • Boundary Markers
          • Divide your territory from another’s: checkout separator, arm rests
        • Ear Markers
          • Indicate possession: trademarks, nameplates, monograms
      • Territorial Encroachment
          • Higher status people can invade the territory of a lower status person, but not vice versa
    • Artifactual Communication
      • Space Decoration
      • Color Communication
      • Clothing and Body Adornment
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    • Olfactory Communication
      • Attractants
      • Taste Enhancers
      • Memory Aids
      • Sources of Identification
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    • Temporal Communication
      • Psychological Time
      • Past, Present, or Future Orientation
      • Future Income Related to Future Time Orientation
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    • Nonverbal Communication and Culture
      • Culture and Facial Expression
      • Culture and Color
      • Culture and Touch
      • Culture, Paralanguage, and Silence
    • Nonverbal Communication and Culture
      • Culture and Time
      • Formal Time
      • Informal Time
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    • Nonverbal Communication and Culture
      • Monochronism and Polychronism