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Chapter 11 12 Feldman


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  • 1. Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Development Across the Life Span, 4/E Robert S. Feldman © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  • 2. Adolescence
    • Developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.
    • Beginning and ending ages are imprecise
  • 3. Physical Maturation
    • Growth Spurt
      • Extreme changes in height and weight are common
      • Almost matches the growth rate of infancy
      • Average/year:
        • Boys grow 4.1 inches
        • Girls 3.5 inches.
      • Gender Differences:
        • Girls begin about 2 years earlier.
        • By age 13, boys catch up—are taller
  • 4. Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation
      • is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than for boys.
    • Pituitary gland (master gland) kicks it off
    • Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or 14.
  • 5. What triggers puberty?
    • Environment
    • Cultural factors
      • 1 st menstruation
      • varies in age beginning
        • SES, nutrition
        • Body fat to muscle ratio
        • Environmental Stress
        • Secular trend
  • 6.
      • involves organs and structures of the body related to reproduction.
      • involve visible signs of sexual maturity not involved with the sex organs directly.
    Process of Puberty
  • 7. Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence
    • Involves adolescent's reactions to the physical changes.
    • Most tend to be happy with their development
    • Timing of puberty is key in adolescent reaction
  • 8. The Timing of Puberty
    • Girls:
      • Early maturation is often difficult
      • Tend to be more popular (maybe too popular)
      • Reactions depend on cultural norms (country and community).
      • Late maturing girls the picture is complicated.
      • Can be overlooked
      • low social status at first
      • However, when they catch up their self-esteem is high.
  • 9. The Timing of Puberty (continued)
    • Boys:
      • Early maturation is generally positive
      • Tend to be better at athletics
      • More popular
      • Positive self-esteem
      • Grow up to be more cooperative and responsible.
      • But also are more likely to have school difficulties and become more involved.
      • Late maturation is difficult for boys.
      • Smaller boys  less attractive
      • disadvantage in sports
      • Can lead to declines in self-concept which can extend into adulthood.
  • 10. Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence
    • Growth spurt requires an increase in food (especially key nutrients such as calcium and iron).
    • Obesity is a common concern during adolescence.
      • 1 in 3 adolescents are overweight; 1 in 20 are obese (body weight 20 % above average)
    • Psychological consequences of body image
    • Potential health consequences
      • High blood pressure; diabetes; likely to be obese adults.
  • 11. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
      • severe eating disorder
      • individuals refuse to eat
      • Denial of behavior and appearance  “normal”
      • Primarily affects white women: Control
      • Eating disorder
      • Characterized by binge and purge behavior
      • Vomiting or the use of laxatives
        • Leads to a chemical imbalance with serious effects, including heart failure.
  • 12. Brain Development
    • Prefrontal cortex
      • involved in impulse control, thinking, planning, evaluating, making decisions
      • Completely developed in early 20s
      • May explain adolescent’s inability to control impulses and reckless behavior
  • 13. Cognitive Development and Schooling
      • develop the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically.
      • Enter at about 12
    • Full capabilities unfold gradually throughout early adolescence (approximately ages 12 to 15)
    • Not everyone achieves formal operational skills
      • some studies estimate that 25 to 50 % of college students do not
  • 14. Consequences of Using Formal Operations (continued)
    • Changes in everyday behavior (use thinking skills):
      • question parents and other authority figures
    • Become more argumentative
      • Poke holes in others explanations
      • Use critical thinking to challenge and see other perspectives
    • Can be challenging for parents
  • 15. Egocentrism in Adolescent Thinking
      • stage of self-absorption where the world is seen only from one's own perspective
    • Characteristics of:
      • highly critical of authority figures
      • unwilling to accept criticism
      • quick to find fault with others.
    • Helps explain why teens often think they’re the focus of everyone’s attention.
  • 16.
      • where adolescents think they are the focus of everyone else's attention.
      • the belief that the adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else .
        • No one understands me
        • Risk taking behavior
    Distortions due to Adolescent Egocentrism
  • 17. Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being
    • Illegal drug use:
      • Very prevalent and rising
    • In 1990's drug use rose, after decline in the 1980's.
    • Marijuana
      • 20 % of 8 th graders; 40 % of seniors said smoked at least once in the last year.
    • 50%+ seniors have used an illegal drug at least once
  • 18. Illegal Drugs
    • Why do teens use illegal drugs?
      • Perceived pleasurable experience.
      • Escape from daily pressures.
      • The thrill of doing something illegal.
      • A number of role-models use drugs.
      • Peer pressure.
  • 19.
    • Smoking
      • declined, but still substantial
    • Reasons why:
      • Messages from society—advertisements
      • Biological and psychological dependency (10  habit)
      • Pleasant emotional state
      • Modeling: Parents’ and peer smoking increases
    • Will prematurely kill 200 million children & teens (worldwide)
    Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking
  • 20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
      • Sexually transmitted disease
      • Produced by the HIV virus
      • No cure; ultimately causes death
      • Transmission: exchange of bodily fluids (usually sexual contact)
    • AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among young people.
  • 21. AIDS and Adolescent Behavior
    • Difficult to motivate adolescents to practice safe sex and change their sexual behavior.
      • Feelings of invulnerability
      • Embarrassment
      • Sense of privacy
      • Forgetfulness
  • 22. STD Statistics
    • How many will get an STD in one year?
    • Of those sexually active:
      • 3 million teens
      • About 1 person in 8 aged 13-19
      • About 1 in 4
  • 23. 3 million teens, about 1 person in 8 aged 13-19 & about 1 in 4 of those who have had sexual intercourse acquire an STD every year. Among the most common: Chlamydia: More common among teens than older adults. 10-29% of sexually active teens & 10% of all teen boys. Genital Herpes: A viral disease that is incurable, indicated by small blisters /sores around the genitals. Trichomoniasis: An infection of the vagina or penis, caused by a parasite. Gonorrhea: Teens aged 15-19 have higher rates than older adults. Syphilis: Infection rates more than doubled between 1986 & 1990 among women aged 15-19.
  • 24.
    • Abstinence is the only certain way to avoid STDs
    • Adolescents need to be encouraged to practice safer sex
      • Use condoms.
      • Avoid high risk behaviors.
      • Know your partner’s sexual history.
      • Consider abstinence.
  • 25.  
  • 26. Chapter 12 Social and Personality Development in Adolescence Development Across the Life Span, 4/E Robert S. Feldman © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  • 27. Identity: Asking "Who Am I?"
    • Self consciousness takes center stage
    • Focus on “Who am I?” and “Where do I belong in the world?”
    • WHY?
      • Teens become more like adults intellectually and physically
  • 28. Self Concept: What Am I Like?
    • Broadens to include both self assessment and others' views.
      • View becomes more organized and coherent
      • Able to see multiple aspects of themselves (which can be confusing at first).
  • 29. Identity Formation: Crisis or Change?
    • Erik Erikson
      • Possible psychological difficulties in their search for identity
      • “ the adolescent identity crisis”
      • Adolescents seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves.
    • If no identity is found:
      • Sense of self is "diffuse".
      • Social pressure to achieve a secure identity
        • Parents, teachers, etc.
      • Think of the questions high school seniors get asked:
        • Which job track to follow?
        • Attend college? Which one?
  • 31. Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development
    • James Marcia suggests four categories within which either:
      • A crisis
        • a process of consciously choosing between various alternatives and makes decisions
      • A commitment
        • a psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology takes place.
  • 32. Marcia’s categories of adolescent identity
      • adolescents consider and explore various alternatives
      • Commitment to one
      • Inadequate or no exploration
      • Commitment made (usually following others' directives).
  • 33. Marcia’s categories of adolescent identity (continued)
      • adolescents explore various options
      • never commit to one
      • adolescents explore
      • no commitment made
      • creates anxiety and conflict
  • 34. Marcia’s Categories (continued)
    • Although adolescents are not stuck in one category, research indicates that identity gels by the age of 18.
    • For some, identity formation takes place beyond the adolescent period.
  • 35. Teen Depression
    • Depression has several causes, including biological, environmental, and social factors.
      • Genetic predisposition
      • Death of loved one
      • Depressed parent
      • Unpopular
      • Few close friends
      • Experiencing rejection
  • 36.
    • Girls have higher incidences of depression than boys but the cause is not clear.
      • More stresses on the female gender role?
      • Reactions to stress?
      • Possible that hormones are a factor.
  • 37. Adolescent Suicide
    • Rates have tripled in the last 30 years
    • 3rd most common cause of death
    • Currently, 1 teenage suicide every 90 minutes
    • Gender Differences:
      • More girls attempt suicide
      • More boys succeed
    • Estimated: 200 attempts for every successful suicide.
  • 38. Adolescent Suicide
    • Other factors in adolescent suicide:
    • Depression
    • Family conflicts
    • History of abuse and/or neglect
    • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • 39. Warning Signs
    • Direct or indirect talk
      • I wish I were dead.”
      • “ Don’t worry, I’ll be out of your hair soon.”
    • School difficulties
      • Missed classes, drop in grades
    • Writing a will
    • Changes in eating habits
    • General depression
      • Sleep habits, lack of energy, uncommunicative
    • Dramatic behavior changes
    • Preoccupation with death
      • Art, music, conversation
  • 40. Relationships: Family and Friends
    • Family relationships change
      • adolescents begin to question, and sometimes rebel, against their parents' views.
    • Role shift: quest for adulthood and autonomy
    • Adolescents feel obligated to family duties and support.
  • 41. Conflicts with Parents
      • Conflicts likely in early adolescence
      • Parents try to discern appropriate conduct
        • Adolescence become argumentative and assertive
      • With trust more, combativeness declines
      • Most family relationships are stable, but about 20% have a rough time
  • 42. Relationships with Peers: The Importance of Belonging
    • More critical to adolescents than any other time of life.
    • Provide opportunity for social comparison
    • REFERENCE GROUP, a group of people with whom one compares oneself.
    • Present a set of norms or standards, against which adolescents judge their social success.
  • 43. Cliques and Crowds
      • 2 to 12 people who have frequent interaction
    • CROWDS
      • larger groups where people share some characteristic
      • often don't interact with each other
    • Membership determined by degree of similarity with members in a group
      • Stereotypes: jocks, brains, druggies.
      • Expectations that people behave in specific ways.
  • 44. Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence
    • Some highly susceptible to peer pressure
      • Does not rise in adolescence
      • Conformity decreases as adolescents increase their own autonomy
          • Grow in confidence and more able to make decisions
    • Failure to resist conformation can mean trouble
  • 45. Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Teen Pregnancy
        • “Hooking Up”
          • Varied meaning: kissing to sexual intercourse
        • Dating serves developmental functions:
          • Learning how to establish intimacy
          • Learning how to engage in entertainment
          • Contributes to an identity in progress
        • Cultural influences effect dating patterns
  • 46. Sexual Relationships
    • Puberty creates a new world of relationship issues and possibilities for teens
    • Research shows that teens think about sex a substantial amount of time each day
  • 47. Sexual Relationships
    • For most, initiation into sexuality begins with masturbation (self stimulation).
    • Masturbation often produces feelings of shame and guilt in the American culture.
    • Experts view masturbation as normal and harmless.
  • 48. Sexual Intercourse
    • Ages for sexual intercourse have been declining
    • 1 in 5 teens have had sex before the age of 15
    • 80 percent have had sex before the age of 20
    • Premarital intercourse is viewed as acceptable
      • Males and females, no more “double standard.”
  • 49. Adolescents & Sexual Activity
  • 50. Teen Pregnancy
    • Teen pregnancy rate is declining
    • Still higher rates in U.S. than in other industrialized countries
    • Teenage mothers do not fare well:
      • Poor health
      • Poor school performance
      • Their children more likely to be teen parents themselves.
  • 51. Teen Pregnancy
      • As the U.S. is relatively intolerant of premarital sex, there are not enough education programs.
      • Key factors in preventing/breaking the poverty-pregnancy cycle are:
      • Completing high school
      • Postponing future births
      • Require education, supportive family, and increase in social programs.