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Chapter 11 12 Feldman
 

Chapter 11 12 Feldman

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    Chapter 11 12 Feldman Chapter 11 12 Feldman Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Development Across the Life Span, 4/E Robert S. Feldman © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
    • Adolescence
      • Developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.
      • Beginning and ending ages are imprecise
    • Physical Maturation
      • Growth Spurt
        • Extreme changes in height and weight are common
        • Almost matches the growth rate of infancy
        • Average/year:
          • Boys grow 4.1 inches
          • Girls 3.5 inches.
        • Gender Differences:
          • Girls begin about 2 years earlier.
          • By age 13, boys catch up—are taller
    • Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation
      • PUBERTY
        • is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than for boys.
      • Pituitary gland (master gland) kicks it off
      • Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or 14.
    • What triggers puberty?
      • Environment
      • Cultural factors
      • MENARCHE
        • 1 st menstruation
        • varies in age beginning
          • SES, nutrition
          • Body fat to muscle ratio
          • Environmental Stress
          • Secular trend
      • PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS
        • involves organs and structures of the body related to reproduction.
      • SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS
        • involve visible signs of sexual maturity not involved with the sex organs directly.
      Process of Puberty
    • Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence
      • Involves adolescent's reactions to the physical changes.
      • Most tend to be happy with their development
      • Timing of puberty is key in adolescent reaction
    • The Timing of Puberty
      • Girls:
        • Early maturation is often difficult
        • Tend to be more popular (maybe too popular)
        • Reactions depend on cultural norms (country and community).
        • Late maturing girls the picture is complicated.
        • Can be overlooked
        • low social status at first
        • However, when they catch up their self-esteem is high.
    • The Timing of Puberty (continued)
      • Boys:
        • Early maturation is generally positive
        • Tend to be better at athletics
        • More popular
        • Positive self-esteem
        • Grow up to be more cooperative and responsible.
        • But also are more likely to have school difficulties and become more involved.
        • Late maturation is difficult for boys.
        • Smaller boys  less attractive
        • disadvantage in sports
        • Can lead to declines in self-concept which can extend into adulthood.
    • Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence
      • Growth spurt requires an increase in food (especially key nutrients such as calcium and iron).
      • Obesity is a common concern during adolescence.
        • 1 in 3 adolescents are overweight; 1 in 20 are obese (body weight 20 % above average)
      • Psychological consequences of body image
      • Potential health consequences
        • High blood pressure; diabetes; likely to be obese adults.
    • Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
      • ANOREXIA NERVOSA
        • severe eating disorder
        • individuals refuse to eat
        • Denial of behavior and appearance  “normal”
        • Primarily affects white women: Control
      • BULIMIA
        • Eating disorder
        • Characterized by binge and purge behavior
        • Vomiting or the use of laxatives
          • Leads to a chemical imbalance with serious effects, including heart failure.
    • Brain Development
      • Prefrontal cortex
        • involved in impulse control, thinking, planning, evaluating, making decisions
        • Completely developed in early 20s
        • May explain adolescent’s inability to control impulses and reckless behavior
    • Cognitive Development and Schooling
      • FORMAL OPERATIONS PERIOD
        • develop the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically.
        • Enter at about 12
      • Full capabilities unfold gradually throughout early adolescence (approximately ages 12 to 15)
      • Not everyone achieves formal operational skills
        • some studies estimate that 25 to 50 % of college students do not
    • Consequences of Using Formal Operations (continued)
      • Changes in everyday behavior (use thinking skills):
        • question parents and other authority figures
      • Become more argumentative
        • Poke holes in others explanations
        • Use critical thinking to challenge and see other perspectives
      • Can be challenging for parents
    • Egocentrism in Adolescent Thinking
      • ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM
        • stage of self-absorption where the world is seen only from one's own perspective
      • Characteristics of:
        • highly critical of authority figures
        • unwilling to accept criticism
        • quick to find fault with others.
      • Helps explain why teens often think they’re the focus of everyone’s attention.
      • IMAGINARY AUDIENCE
        • where adolescents think they are the focus of everyone else's attention.
      • PERSONAL FABLES
        • the belief that the adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else .
          • No one understands me
          • Risk taking behavior
      Distortions due to Adolescent Egocentrism
    • Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being
      • Illegal drug use:
        • Very prevalent and rising
      • In 1990's drug use rose, after decline in the 1980's.
      • Marijuana
        • 20 % of 8 th graders; 40 % of seniors said smoked at least once in the last year.
      • 50%+ seniors have used an illegal drug at least once
    • Illegal Drugs
      • Why do teens use illegal drugs?
        • Perceived pleasurable experience.
        • Escape from daily pressures.
        • The thrill of doing something illegal.
        • A number of role-models use drugs.
        • Peer pressure.
      • Smoking
        • declined, but still substantial
      • Reasons why:
        • Messages from society—advertisements
        • Biological and psychological dependency (10  habit)
        • Pleasant emotional state
        • Modeling: Parents’ and peer smoking increases
      • Will prematurely kill 200 million children & teens (worldwide)
      Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking
    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
      • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
        • Sexually transmitted disease
        • Produced by the HIV virus
        • No cure; ultimately causes death
        • Transmission: exchange of bodily fluids (usually sexual contact)
      • AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among young people.
    • AIDS and Adolescent Behavior
      • Difficult to motivate adolescents to practice safe sex and change their sexual behavior.
        • Feelings of invulnerability
        • Embarrassment
        • Sense of privacy
        • Forgetfulness
    • STD Statistics
      • How many will get an STD in one year?
      • Of those sexually active:
        • 3 million teens
        • About 1 person in 8 aged 13-19
        • About 1 in 4
    • 3 million teens, about 1 person in 8 aged 13-19 & about 1 in 4 of those who have had sexual intercourse acquire an STD every year. Among the most common: Chlamydia: More common among teens than older adults. 10-29% of sexually active teens & 10% of all teen boys. Genital Herpes: A viral disease that is incurable, indicated by small blisters /sores around the genitals. Trichomoniasis: An infection of the vagina or penis, caused by a parasite. Gonorrhea: Teens aged 15-19 have higher rates than older adults. Syphilis: Infection rates more than doubled between 1986 & 1990 among women aged 15-19.
      • Abstinence is the only certain way to avoid STDs
      • Adolescents need to be encouraged to practice safer sex
        • Use condoms.
        • Avoid high risk behaviors.
        • Know your partner’s sexual history.
        • Consider abstinence.
    •  
    • Chapter 12 Social and Personality Development in Adolescence Development Across the Life Span, 4/E Robert S. Feldman © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
    • Identity: Asking "Who Am I?"
      • Self consciousness takes center stage
      • Focus on “Who am I?” and “Where do I belong in the world?”
      • WHY?
        • Teens become more like adults intellectually and physically
    • Self Concept: What Am I Like?
      • Broadens to include both self assessment and others' views.
        • View becomes more organized and coherent
        • Able to see multiple aspects of themselves (which can be confusing at first).
    • Identity Formation: Crisis or Change?
      • Erik Erikson
        • Possible psychological difficulties in their search for identity
        • “ the adolescent identity crisis”
      • IDENTITY-VERSUS-IDENTITY-CONFUSION STAGE
        • Adolescents seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves.
    • Erikson's IDENTITY-VERSUS-IDENTITY-CONFUSION STAGE
      • If no identity is found:
        • Sense of self is "diffuse".
        • Social pressure to achieve a secure identity
          • Parents, teachers, etc.
        • Think of the questions high school seniors get asked:
          • Which job track to follow?
          • Attend college? Which one?
    • Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development
      • James Marcia suggests four categories within which either:
        • A crisis
          • a process of consciously choosing between various alternatives and makes decisions
        • A commitment
          • a psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology takes place.
    • Marcia’s categories of adolescent identity
      • IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT –
        • adolescents consider and explore various alternatives
        • Commitment to one
      • IDENTITY FORECLOSURE –
        • Inadequate or no exploration
        • Commitment made (usually following others' directives).
    • Marcia’s categories of adolescent identity (continued)
      • IDENTITY DIFFUSION –
        • adolescents explore various options
        • never commit to one
      • MORATORIUM –
        • adolescents explore
        • no commitment made
        • creates anxiety and conflict
    • Marcia’s Categories (continued)
      • Although adolescents are not stuck in one category, research indicates that identity gels by the age of 18.
      • For some, identity formation takes place beyond the adolescent period.
    • Teen Depression
      • Depression has several causes, including biological, environmental, and social factors.
        • Genetic predisposition
        • Death of loved one
        • Depressed parent
        • Unpopular
        • Few close friends
        • Experiencing rejection
      • Girls have higher incidences of depression than boys but the cause is not clear.
        • More stresses on the female gender role?
        • Reactions to stress?
        • Possible that hormones are a factor.
    • Adolescent Suicide
      • Rates have tripled in the last 30 years
      • 3rd most common cause of death
      • Currently, 1 teenage suicide every 90 minutes
      • Gender Differences:
        • More girls attempt suicide
        • More boys succeed
      • Estimated: 200 attempts for every successful suicide.
    • Adolescent Suicide
      • Other factors in adolescent suicide:
      • Depression
      • Family conflicts
      • History of abuse and/or neglect
      • Drug and alcohol abuse
    • Warning Signs
      • Direct or indirect talk
        • I wish I were dead.”
        • “ Don’t worry, I’ll be out of your hair soon.”
      • School difficulties
        • Missed classes, drop in grades
      • Writing a will
      • Changes in eating habits
      • General depression
        • Sleep habits, lack of energy, uncommunicative
      • Dramatic behavior changes
      • Preoccupation with death
        • Art, music, conversation
    • Relationships: Family and Friends
      • Family relationships change
        • adolescents begin to question, and sometimes rebel, against their parents' views.
      • Role shift: quest for adulthood and autonomy
      • Adolescents feel obligated to family duties and support.
    • Conflicts with Parents
        • Conflicts likely in early adolescence
        • Parents try to discern appropriate conduct
          • Adolescence become argumentative and assertive
        • With trust more, combativeness declines
        • Most family relationships are stable, but about 20% have a rough time
    • Relationships with Peers: The Importance of Belonging
      • More critical to adolescents than any other time of life.
      • Provide opportunity for social comparison
      • REFERENCE GROUP, a group of people with whom one compares oneself.
      • Present a set of norms or standards, against which adolescents judge their social success.
    • Cliques and Crowds
      • CLIQUES
        • 2 to 12 people who have frequent interaction
      • CROWDS
        • larger groups where people share some characteristic
        • often don't interact with each other
      • Membership determined by degree of similarity with members in a group
        • Stereotypes: jocks, brains, druggies.
        • Expectations that people behave in specific ways.
    • Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence
      • Some highly susceptible to peer pressure
        • Does not rise in adolescence
        • Conformity decreases as adolescents increase their own autonomy
            • Grow in confidence and more able to make decisions
      • Failure to resist conformation can mean trouble
    • Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Teen Pregnancy
          • “Hooking Up”
            • Varied meaning: kissing to sexual intercourse
          • Dating serves developmental functions:
            • Learning how to establish intimacy
            • Learning how to engage in entertainment
            • Contributes to an identity in progress
          • Cultural influences effect dating patterns
    • Sexual Relationships
      • Puberty creates a new world of relationship issues and possibilities for teens
      • Research shows that teens think about sex a substantial amount of time each day
    • Sexual Relationships
      • For most, initiation into sexuality begins with masturbation (self stimulation).
      • Masturbation often produces feelings of shame and guilt in the American culture.
      • Experts view masturbation as normal and harmless.
    • Sexual Intercourse
      • Ages for sexual intercourse have been declining
      • 1 in 5 teens have had sex before the age of 15
      • 80 percent have had sex before the age of 20
      • Premarital intercourse is viewed as acceptable
        • Males and females, no more “double standard.”
    • Adolescents & Sexual Activity
    • Teen Pregnancy
      • Teen pregnancy rate is declining
      • Still higher rates in U.S. than in other industrialized countries
      • Teenage mothers do not fare well:
        • Poor health
        • Poor school performance
        • Their children more likely to be teen parents themselves.
    • Teen Pregnancy
        • As the U.S. is relatively intolerant of premarital sex, there are not enough education programs.
        • Key factors in preventing/breaking the poverty-pregnancy cycle are:
        • Completing high school
        • Postponing future births
        • Require education, supportive family, and increase in social programs.