Developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.
Beginning and ending ages are imprecise
Extreme changes in height and weight are common
Almost matches the growth rate of infancy
Boys grow 4.1 inches
Girls 3.5 inches.
Girls begin about 2 years earlier.
By age 13, boys catch up—are taller
Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation
is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than for boys.
Pituitary gland (master gland) kicks it off
Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or 14.
What triggers puberty?
1 st menstruation
varies in age beginning
Body fat to muscle ratio
PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS
involves organs and structures of the body related to reproduction.
SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS
involve visible signs of sexual maturity not involved with the sex organs directly.
Process of Puberty
Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence
Involves adolescent's reactions to the physical changes.
Most tend to be happy with their development
Timing of puberty is key in adolescent reaction
The Timing of Puberty
Early maturation is often difficult
Tend to be more popular (maybe too popular)
Reactions depend on cultural norms (country and community).
Late maturing girls the picture is complicated.
Can be overlooked
low social status at first
However, when they catch up their self-esteem is high.
The Timing of Puberty (continued)
Early maturation is generally positive
Tend to be better at athletics
Grow up to be more cooperative and responsible.
But also are more likely to have school difficulties and become more involved.
Late maturation is difficult for boys.
Smaller boys less attractive
disadvantage in sports
Can lead to declines in self-concept which can extend into adulthood.
Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence
Growth spurt requires an increase in food (especially key nutrients such as calcium and iron).
Obesity is a common concern during adolescence.
1 in 3 adolescents are overweight; 1 in 20 are obese (body weight 20 % above average)
Psychological consequences of body image
Potential health consequences
High blood pressure; diabetes; likely to be obese adults.
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
severe eating disorder
individuals refuse to eat
Denial of behavior and appearance “normal”
Primarily affects white women: Control
Characterized by binge and purge behavior
Vomiting or the use of laxatives
Leads to a chemical imbalance with serious effects, including heart failure.
involved in impulse control, thinking, planning, evaluating, making decisions
Completely developed in early 20s
May explain adolescent’s inability to control impulses and reckless behavior
Cognitive Development and Schooling
FORMAL OPERATIONS PERIOD
develop the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically.
Enter at about 12
Full capabilities unfold gradually throughout early adolescence (approximately ages 12 to 15)
Not everyone achieves formal operational skills
some studies estimate that 25 to 50 % of college students do not
Consequences of Using Formal Operations (continued)
Changes in everyday behavior (use thinking skills):
question parents and other authority figures
Become more argumentative
Poke holes in others explanations
Use critical thinking to challenge and see other perspectives
Can be challenging for parents
Egocentrism in Adolescent Thinking
stage of self-absorption where the world is seen only from one's own perspective
highly critical of authority figures
unwilling to accept criticism
quick to find fault with others.
Helps explain why teens often think they’re the focus of everyone’s attention.
where adolescents think they are the focus of everyone else's attention.
the belief that the adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else .
No one understands me
Risk taking behavior
Distortions due to Adolescent Egocentrism
Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being
Illegal drug use:
Very prevalent and rising
In 1990's drug use rose, after decline in the 1980's.
20 % of 8 th graders; 40 % of seniors said smoked at least once in the last year.
50%+ seniors have used an illegal drug at least once
Why do teens use illegal drugs?
Perceived pleasurable experience.
Escape from daily pressures.
The thrill of doing something illegal.
A number of role-models use drugs.
declined, but still substantial
Messages from society—advertisements
Biological and psychological dependency (10 habit)
Pleasant emotional state
Modeling: Parents’ and peer smoking increases
Will prematurely kill 200 million children & teens (worldwide)
Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
Sexually transmitted disease
Produced by the HIV virus
No cure; ultimately causes death
Transmission: exchange of bodily fluids (usually sexual contact)
AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among young people.
AIDS and Adolescent Behavior
Difficult to motivate adolescents to practice safe sex and change their sexual behavior.
Feelings of invulnerability
Sense of privacy
How many will get an STD in one year?
Of those sexually active:
3 million teens
About 1 person in 8 aged 13-19
About 1 in 4
3 million teens, about 1 person in 8 aged 13-19 & about 1 in 4 of those who have had sexual intercourse acquire an STD every year. Among the most common: Chlamydia: More common among teens than older adults. 10-29% of sexually active teens & 10% of all teen boys. Genital Herpes: A viral disease that is incurable, indicated by small blisters /sores around the genitals. Trichomoniasis: An infection of the vagina or penis, caused by a parasite. Gonorrhea: Teens aged 15-19 have higher rates than older adults. Syphilis: Infection rates more than doubled between 1986 & 1990 among women aged 15-19.
Abstinence is the only certain way to avoid STDs
Adolescents need to be encouraged to practice safer sex