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Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood
Body Growth and Proportion <ul><li>Proportional changes:  Cephalocaudal pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head and waist circu...
Motor Development <ul><li>Smoother and  more coordinated </li></ul><ul><li>Gross muscle skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skip...
Exercise and Sports <ul><li>Only 22% of children in grades 4-12  were physically active for 30 minutes daily (1997) </li><...
Participation in Sports <ul><li>Positive and negative consequences for children </li></ul><ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul>...
Obesity <ul><li>Overall, 20% of children are overweight 10% are obese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls are more likely to be ob...
Consequences of Obesity in Children <ul><li>Risk factor for many medical and psychological problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Treatment of Obesity <ul><li>Exercise is most successful for children </li></ul><ul><li>Experts recommend </li></ul><ul><u...
Accidents and Injuries <ul><li>Most common injury/death: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motor vehicle accidents; pedestrian or a pa...
Cancer <ul><li>Second leading cause of death (5-14 years)  </li></ul><ul><li>1 in every 330 (before 19) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Who Are Children with Disabilities? <ul><li>Approximately 10% receive special education or related services. (US) </li></u...
Learning Disabilities <ul><li>Children with a learning disability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are of normal intelligence or abo...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder <ul><li>ADHD:  children consistently show one or more of the following characteri...
Causes of ADHD <ul><li>No definitive cause(s) found </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of...
Treatment of ADHD <ul><li>Combined approach is recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic, behavioral, and medical  </li><...
Educational Issues <ul><li>Public Law 94-142 is the Education for All Handicapped Children Act  (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><...
The IEP <ul><li>Individualized Education Plan (IEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spells out a program specifically tailored for t...
The LRE <ul><li>LRE:  least restrictive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Similar as possible to the one in which children who...
Piaget’s Theory: Concrete Operational Stage <ul><li>Age Range:  7-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete operational thinking invol...
Contributions & Criticisms of Piaget <ul><li>Contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped us understand children’s cognitiv...
What Is Intelligence? <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal ability, problem-solving skills, and the  ability ...
IQ:  Ways to Evaluate <ul><li>William Stern:  intelligence quotient (IQ). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ is a person’s menta...
Evaluating the Multiple Intelligence Approaches <ul><li>Educators must consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes up child...
Ethnicity and Culture <ul><li>Racial differences in IQ tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American and Latino score below...
The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Effectiveness depends on the knowledge, skill, and integrity of the user ...
Mental Retardation <ul><li>Characterized by:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low IQ (70 or lower) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diffic...
Giftedness <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>above-average intelligence (an IQ of 120 or higher) </li></ul><...
Creativity <ul><li>Unique problem solving through novel and unusual thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent thinking vs. Div...
Bilingualism <ul><li>About 10 million children (English not primary) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual education (preferred stra...
Industry Versus Inferiority <ul><li>Ages 6 to 12  </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainment of competence  ...
The Development of Self-Understanding <ul><li>Continue to ask “who am I”? </li></ul><ul><li>View less external/physical, m...
What Are Self-Esteem and Self-Concept? <ul><li>Self-esteem - global evaluations of the self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA:  se...
The Influence of Friendships <ul><li>Friends are important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about the world ...
Stages of Friendship <ul><li>Stages of childhood friendship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Basing friendship on other’s behavio...
Peer Statuses:  High vs. Low <ul><li>High (popular, possibly controversial): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to have greate...
Bullying:  Characteristics of Victims <ul><li>About 160,000 children stay home each day because of bullies </li></ul><ul><...
Characteristics of Bullies <ul><li>About 15% of children </li></ul><ul><li>Half come from abusive homes </li></ul><ul><li>...
Developmental Changes <ul><li>More able to understand complex emotions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pride and shame </li></ul></...
Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Type of social intelligence that involves:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to monitor one’s ...
The Transition to Elementary School <ul><li>New Role:  School Child  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New interactions and relationsh...
The Education of Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds <ul><li>Poverty can present barriers to learning </li></ul><u...
Ethnicity in Schools <ul><li>Ethnicity in schools can vary considerably </li></ul><ul><li>School segregation by location  ...
Strategies for Improving Relations Between Ethnically Diverse Students <ul><li>Encourage positive contact with diverse stu...
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Chap9 10

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  1. 1. Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood
  2. 2. Body Growth and Proportion <ul><li>Proportional changes: Cephalocaudal pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head and waist circumference decrease when compared to height </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscle mass/tone improve </li></ul><ul><li>Strength doubles </li></ul><ul><li>Weight gain: about 5-7 lbs/year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased size of the skeletal and muscular systems, and the size of some organs. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Motor Development <ul><li>Smoother and more coordinated </li></ul><ul><li>Gross muscle skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skipping rope, swimming, bike riding, skating, and climbing are mastered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fine motor skills improve—increased myelination CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands are used as tools—hammering, pasting, tying shoes, and fastening clothes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 10-12 years similar to adult like </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Exercise and Sports <ul><li>Only 22% of children in grades 4-12 were physically active for 30 minutes daily (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>34% attended daily P.E. </li></ul><ul><li>23% had no P.E. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Participation in Sports <ul><li>Positive and negative consequences for children </li></ul><ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opportunity for exercise, healthy competition, building self-esteem, peer relations and friendships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure to achieve to win, physical injuries, distractions from school, unrealistic expectations. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Obesity <ul><li>Overall, 20% of children are overweight 10% are obese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls are more likely to be obese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More common: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White: childhood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American: adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chances of obesity in adulthood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At age 6 results in approximately a 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At age 12 results in approximately a 75% </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Consequences of Obesity in Children <ul><li>Risk factor for many medical and psychological problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary problems, such as sleep apnea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hip problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure and elevated cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem and depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion from peer groups </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment of Obesity <ul><li>Exercise is most successful for children </li></ul><ul><li>Experts recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diet, exercise, and behavior modification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior modification teaches children to monitor their own behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex) keeping a food diary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes a more permanent change </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Accidents and Injuries <ul><li>Most common injury/death: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motor vehicle accidents; pedestrian or a passenger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat-belts very important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other serious injuries involve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skateboards, roller skates, and other sports equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate safety helmets, protective eye and mouth shields, and protective padding are recommended. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cancer <ul><li>Second leading cause of death (5-14 years) </li></ul><ul><li>1 in every 330 (before 19) </li></ul><ul><li>The incidence is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>white blood cells, brain, bone, lymph system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles, kidneys, and nervous system. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Who Are Children with Disabilities? <ul><li>Approximately 10% receive special education or related services. (US) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than half have a learning disability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of children with disabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21% have speech or language impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% have mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9% have serious emotional disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boys 3 times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Disabilities <ul><li>Children with a learning disability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are of normal intelligence or above. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties in one academic or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty is not attributable to other diagnosed problem or disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common learning disability is dyslexia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties in reading, possibly handwriting, spelling, or composition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful intervention programs exist </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder <ul><li>ADHD: children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inattention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hyperactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4-9 times more likely in boys </li></ul><ul><li>Higher failure rate in school (2-3 x higher) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Causes of ADHD <ul><li>No definitive cause(s) found </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of certain neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre- and postnatal abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental toxins such as lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30-50% have parent/sibling with </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Treatment of ADHD <ul><li>Combined approach is recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic, behavioral, and medical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires parents, school personnel, and health-care professionals to cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial drug treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Ritalin slows down nervous system and behavior </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Educational Issues <ul><li>Public Law 94-142 is the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires free, appropriate public education for children with disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renamed IDEA (1983) spells out mandates for services to children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation/eligibility determination, appropriate education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individualized education plan (IEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>least restrictive environment (LRE). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The IEP <ul><li>Individualized Education Plan (IEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spells out a program specifically tailored for the student with a disability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirement for students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, the IEP should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relate to child’s learning capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specially constructed to meet individual needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not copy of what is offered to other children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to provide educational benefits. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The LRE <ul><li>LRE: least restrictive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion - educating children with a disability in the regular classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming - educating partially in a special education classroom and partially in a regular classroom. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Piaget’s Theory: Concrete Operational Stage <ul><li>Age Range: 7-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete operational thinking involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental operations replacing physical actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reversible mental actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinating several characteristics of objects </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Contributions & Criticisms of Piaget <ul><li>Contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped us understand children’s cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) assimilation, accommodation, object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His observation yielded advances in cognitive development, such as shifts in thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underestimation of children’s competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t recognize the effects of training, culture or education </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. What Is Intelligence? <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal ability, problem-solving skills, and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannot be directly measured </li></ul><ul><li>IQ tests can only provide an estimate of a student’s intelligence. </li></ul>
  22. 22. IQ: Ways to Evaluate <ul><li>William Stern: intelligence quotient (IQ). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ is a person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ = MA/CA x 100 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alfred Binet: mental age/traditional IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg: triarchic theory of intelligence (3 forms) </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner: Eight Frames of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Why look for alternative? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Evaluating the Multiple Intelligence Approaches <ul><li>Educators must consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes up children’s competencies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction in multiple domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and learning in innovative ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critics: No research base to support the theory of multiple intelligences. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ethnicity and Culture <ul><li>Racial differences in IQ tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American and Latino score below White children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consensus: differences are based on environmental differences </li></ul><ul><li>Many early tests were culturally biased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored urban children over rural children, children from middle SES families over children from low-income families, and White children over minority children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture-fair tests are tests of intelligence that attempt to be free of cultural bias. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Effectiveness depends on the knowledge, skill, and integrity of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Positive uses or misuses </li></ul><ul><li>Some cautions about IQ: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores can lead to stereotypes and expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high IQ is not the ultimate human value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single, overall IQ score is limiting. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Mental Retardation <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low IQ (70 or lower) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty adapting to everyday life (BIGGEST) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes can be organic or social and cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Stats on MR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>89% mildly retarded (IQs of 55-70). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% moderately retarded (IQs of 40-54). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5% severely retarded (IQs of 25-39). </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Giftedness <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>above-average intelligence (an IQ of 120 or higher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and/or superior talent for something </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of gifted children are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marching to their own drummer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A passion to master </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gifted people tend to be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more mature, have fewer emotional problems, and grow up in a positive family climate </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Creativity <ul><li>Unique problem solving through novel and unusual thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent thinking vs. Divergent thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Creative, usually  intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Developing creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide environments that stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t over-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage internal motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster flexible and playful thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce children to creative people </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Bilingualism <ul><li>About 10 million children (English not primary) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual education (preferred strategy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach in their native language then add English instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics vs. supporters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency in two language results in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better performance on IQ tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More conscious of language structure (written/spoken) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice errors in grammar/meaning better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More cognitive flexibility and complexity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Industry Versus Inferiority <ul><li>Ages 6 to 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainment of competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry: Want to know how things are made and how they work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement to make, build, and work, increases industry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The view of these creations as “making mischief” or “making a mess” increases feelings of inferiority. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Development of Self-Understanding <ul><li>Continue to ask “who am I”? </li></ul><ul><li>View less external/physical, more in terms of internal/psychological traits </li></ul><ul><li>Self definitions: social characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Social comparison—what they can do in comparison with others—becomes key </li></ul>
  32. 32. What Are Self-Esteem and Self-Concept? <ul><li>Self-esteem - global evaluations of the self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA: self-worth or self-image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-concept - domain-specific evaluations of the self </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>academics, athletics, appearance, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing self-esteem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the causes of low self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify domains of competence important to the self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional support and social approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Influence of Friendships <ul><li>Friends are important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional support/Buffer stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication with others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foster intellectual growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice relationship skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Stages of Friendship <ul><li>Stages of childhood friendship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Basing friendship on other’s behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age 4-7; friends are children who like you and with whom you share toys and activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Basing friendship on trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age 8-10; focus on mutual trust. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Basing friendship on psychological closeness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age 11-15; focus on intimacy and loyalty. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Peer Statuses: High vs. Low <ul><li>High (popular, possibly controversial): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to have greater access to resources (toys, books, information, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with other high status students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to form exclusive and desirable cliques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to play with a greater number of children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Low (rejected/neglected): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to follow the lead of higher status children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to play with younger or less popular children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form friendships with other lower status children. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Bullying: Characteristics of Victims <ul><li>About 160,000 children stay home each day because of bullies </li></ul><ul><li>Loners </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly passive </li></ul><ul><li>Cry easily </li></ul><ul><li>Lack social cues </li></ul><ul><li>Have parents who are intrusive and demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Boys with intensely close relationships with their parents </li></ul>
  37. 37. Characteristics of Bullies <ul><li>About 15% of children </li></ul><ul><li>Half come from abusive homes </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer violent TV </li></ul><ul><li>Misbehave at home more than other children </li></ul><ul><li>When caught—lie and show little remorse </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to break laws as adults </li></ul>
  38. 38. Developmental Changes <ul><li>More able to understand complex emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pride and shame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One situation  more than one emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to take a fuller context of emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Improved suppression/concealment of negative emotions </li></ul>
  39. 39. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Type of social intelligence that involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discriminate among them, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use this information to guide one’s thinking and action. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goleman’s view of emotional intelligence involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Emotional Self-Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling Relationships </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. The Transition to Elementary School <ul><li>New Role: School Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New interactions and relationships with new significant others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New reference groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New standards for judging themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School provides children with a rich source of new ideas to shape their sense of self. </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Education of Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds <ul><li>Poverty can present barriers to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Schools in impoverished areas have fewer resources </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize rote learning over thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-standard learning environments </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ethnicity in Schools <ul><li>Ethnicity in schools can vary considerably </li></ul><ul><li>School segregation by location </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior educational opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative stereotypes </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Strategies for Improving Relations Between Ethnically Diverse Students <ul><li>Encourage positive contact with diverse students </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage perspective taking </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage critical thinking emotional intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce bias </li></ul><ul><li>View the school and community as a team to help support teaching efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Be a competent cultural mediator </li></ul>
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