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  • 1. Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood
  • 2. Body Growth and Proportion
    • Proportional changes: Cephalocaudal pattern
      • Head and waist circumference decrease when compared to height
    • Muscle mass/tone improve
    • Strength doubles
    • Weight gain: about 5-7 lbs/year
      • Increased size of the skeletal and muscular systems, and the size of some organs.
  • 3. Motor Development
    • Smoother and more coordinated
    • Gross muscle skills:
      • Skipping rope, swimming, bike riding, skating, and climbing are mastered.
    • Fine motor skills improve—increased myelination CNS
      • Hands are used as tools—hammering, pasting, tying shoes, and fastening clothes.
      • By 10-12 years similar to adult like
  • 4. Exercise and Sports
    • Only 22% of children in grades 4-12 were physically active for 30 minutes daily (1997)
    • 34% attended daily P.E.
    • 23% had no P.E.
  • 5. Participation in Sports
    • Positive and negative consequences for children
    • Positives
      • opportunity for exercise, healthy competition, building self-esteem, peer relations and friendships.
    • Negatives:
      • pressure to achieve to win, physical injuries, distractions from school, unrealistic expectations.
  • 6. Obesity
    • Overall, 20% of children are overweight 10% are obese
      • Girls are more likely to be obese
      • More common:
        • White: childhood
        • African American: adolescence
    • Chances of obesity in adulthood:
      • At age 6 results in approximately a 25%
      • At age 12 results in approximately a 75%
  • 7. Consequences of Obesity in Children
    • Risk factor for many medical and psychological problems
      • Pulmonary problems, such as sleep apnea
      • Hip problems
      • High blood pressure and elevated cholesterol levels
      • Low self-esteem and depression
      • Exclusion from peer groups
  • 8. Treatment of Obesity
    • Exercise is most successful for children
    • Experts recommend
      • diet, exercise, and behavior modification
    • Behavior modification teaches children to monitor their own behavior
      • ex) keeping a food diary
      • Makes a more permanent change
  • 9. Accidents and Injuries
    • Most common injury/death:
      • motor vehicle accidents; pedestrian or a passenger.
      • Seat-belts very important
    • Other serious injuries involve:
      • skateboards, roller skates, and other sports equipment.
      • Appropriate safety helmets, protective eye and mouth shields, and protective padding are recommended.
  • 10. Cancer
    • Second leading cause of death (5-14 years)
    • 1 in every 330 (before 19)
    • The incidence is increasing
    • Mainly effects:
      • white blood cells, brain, bone, lymph system,
      • muscles, kidneys, and nervous system.
  • 11. Who Are Children with Disabilities?
    • Approximately 10% receive special education or related services. (US)
      • More than half have a learning disability.
    • Of children with disabilities:
      • 21% have speech or language impairments
      • 12% have mental retardation
      • 9% have serious emotional disturbance
    • Boys 3 times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability.
  • 12. Learning Disabilities
    • Children with a learning disability:
      • are of normal intelligence or above.
      • difficulties in one academic or more
      • difficulty is not attributable to other diagnosed problem or disorder
    • Most common learning disability is dyslexia.
      • Difficulties in reading, possibly handwriting, spelling, or composition.
      • Successful intervention programs exist
  • 13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    • ADHD: children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics:
      • inattention
      • hyperactivity
      • Impulsivity
    • 4-9 times more likely in boys
    • Higher failure rate in school (2-3 x higher)
  • 14. Causes of ADHD
    • No definitive cause(s) found
    • Possible Causes:
      • Low levels of certain neurotransmitters
      • Pre- and postnatal abnormalities
      • Environmental toxins such as lead
      • Heredity
        • 30-50% have parent/sibling with
  • 15. Treatment of ADHD
    • Combined approach is recommended
      • Academic, behavioral, and medical
    • Requires parents, school personnel, and health-care professionals to cooperate
    • Controversial drug treatments
      • Ex) Ritalin slows down nervous system and behavior
  • 16. Educational Issues
    • Public Law 94-142 is the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
      • Requires free, appropriate public education for children with disabilities
    • Renamed IDEA (1983) spells out mandates for services to children with disabilities
      • Evaluation/eligibility determination, appropriate education
      • individualized education plan (IEP)
      • least restrictive environment (LRE).
  • 17. The IEP
    • Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
      • spells out a program specifically tailored for the student with a disability.
    • Requirement for students with disabilities
    • Generally, the IEP should:
      • relate to child’s learning capacity
      • specially constructed to meet individual needs
      • not copy of what is offered to other children.
      • designed to provide educational benefits.
  • 18. The LRE
    • LRE: least restrictive environment
    • Similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated.
    • Inclusion - educating children with a disability in the regular classroom.
    • Mainstreaming - educating partially in a special education classroom and partially in a regular classroom.
  • 19. Piaget’s Theory: Concrete Operational Stage
    • Age Range: 7-12
    • Concrete operational thinking involves:
      • mental operations replacing physical actions
      • reversible mental actions
      • coordinating several characteristics of objects
  • 20. Contributions & Criticisms of Piaget
    • Contributions:
      • Helped us understand children’s cognitive development
      • Ex) assimilation, accommodation, object permanence
      • His observation yielded advances in cognitive development, such as shifts in thinking
    • Criticisms
      • Underestimation of children’s competence
      • Stages
      • Didn’t recognize the effects of training, culture or education
  • 21. What Is Intelligence?
    • Intelligence
      • verbal ability, problem-solving skills, and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences .
    • Cannot be directly measured
    • IQ tests can only provide an estimate of a student’s intelligence.
  • 22. IQ: Ways to Evaluate
    • William Stern: intelligence quotient (IQ).
        • IQ is a person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
            • IQ = MA/CA x 100
    • Alfred Binet: mental age/traditional IQ tests
    • Sternberg: triarchic theory of intelligence (3 forms)
    • Gardner: Eight Frames of Mind
    • Why look for alternative?
  • 23. Evaluating the Multiple Intelligence Approaches
    • Educators must consider:
      • What makes up children’s competencies?
      • Instruction in multiple domains
      • Assessment and learning in innovative ways
    • Critics: No research base to support the theory of multiple intelligences.
  • 24. Ethnicity and Culture
    • Racial differences in IQ tests
      • African American and Latino score below White children
    • Consensus: differences are based on environmental differences
    • Many early tests were culturally biased
      • Favored urban children over rural children, children from middle SES families over children from low-income families, and White children over minority children
    • Culture-fair tests are tests of intelligence that attempt to be free of cultural bias.
  • 25. The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests
    • Effectiveness depends on the knowledge, skill, and integrity of the user
    • Positive uses or misuses
    • Some cautions about IQ:
      • Scores can lead to stereotypes and expectations.
      • A high IQ is not the ultimate human value.
      • A single, overall IQ score is limiting.
  • 26. Mental Retardation
    • Characterized by:
      • low IQ (70 or lower)
      • difficulty adapting to everyday life (BIGGEST)
    • Causes can be organic or social and cultural
    • Stats on MR:
      • 89% mildly retarded (IQs of 55-70).
      • 6% moderately retarded (IQs of 40-54).
      • 3.5% severely retarded (IQs of 25-39).
  • 27. Giftedness
    • Characterized by:
      • above-average intelligence (an IQ of 120 or higher)
      • and/or superior talent for something
    • Characteristics of gifted children are:
      • Precocity
      • Marching to their own drummer
      • A passion to master
    • Gifted people tend to be:
      • more mature, have fewer emotional problems, and grow up in a positive family climate
  • 28. Creativity
    • Unique problem solving through novel and unusual thinking
    • Convergent thinking vs. Divergent thinking
    • Creative, usually  intelligence
    • Developing creativity
      • Brainstorming
      • Provide environments that stimulate creativity
      • Don’t over-control
      • Encourage internal motivation
      • Foster flexible and playful thinking
      • Introduce children to creative people
  • 29. Bilingualism
    • About 10 million children (English not primary)
    • Bilingual education (preferred strategy)
      • Teach in their native language then add English instruction
      • Critics vs. supporters
      • Fluency in two language results in:
        • Better performance on IQ tests
        • More conscious of language structure (written/spoken)
        • Notice errors in grammar/meaning better
        • More cognitive flexibility and complexity
  • 30. Industry Versus Inferiority
    • Ages 6 to 12
    • Focus
      • Attainment of competence
      • Meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world
      • Industry: Want to know how things are made and how they work
        • Encouragement to make, build, and work, increases industry.
      • The view of these creations as “making mischief” or “making a mess” increases feelings of inferiority.
  • 31. The Development of Self-Understanding
    • Continue to ask “who am I”?
    • View less external/physical, more in terms of internal/psychological traits
    • Self definitions: social characteristics.
    • Social comparison—what they can do in comparison with others—becomes key
  • 32. What Are Self-Esteem and Self-Concept?
    • Self-esteem - global evaluations of the self
      • AKA: self-worth or self-image
    • Self-concept - domain-specific evaluations of the self
    • Evaluations include:
      • academics, athletics, appearance, etc.
    • Increasing self-esteem:
      • Identify the causes of low self-esteem
      • Identify domains of competence important to the self
      • Emotional support and social approval
      • Achievement
  • 33. The Influence of Friendships
    • Friends are important because:
        • Information about the world
        • Emotional support/Buffer stress
        • Manage and control emotions
        • Communication with others
        • Foster intellectual growth
        • Practice relationship skills
  • 34. Stages of Friendship
    • Stages of childhood friendship:
      • 1. Basing friendship on other’s behavior.
        • Age 4-7; friends are children who like you and with whom you share toys and activities.
      • 2. Basing friendship on trust.
        • Age 8-10; focus on mutual trust.
      • 3. Basing friendship on psychological closeness.
        • Age 11-15; focus on intimacy and loyalty.
  • 35. Peer Statuses: High vs. Low
    • High (popular, possibly controversial):
        • Tend to have greater access to resources (toys, books, information, etc)
        • Interact with other high status students
        • More likely to form exclusive and desirable cliques
        • Tend to play with a greater number of children
    • Low (rejected/neglected):
        • Tend to follow the lead of higher status children
        • More likely to play with younger or less popular children
        • Form friendships with other lower status children.
  • 36. Bullying: Characteristics of Victims
    • About 160,000 children stay home each day because of bullies
    • Loners
    • Fairly passive
    • Cry easily
    • Lack social cues
    • Have parents who are intrusive and demanding
    • Boys with intensely close relationships with their parents
  • 37. Characteristics of Bullies
    • About 15% of children
    • Half come from abusive homes
    • Prefer violent TV
    • Misbehave at home more than other children
    • When caught—lie and show little remorse
    • More likely to break laws as adults
  • 38. Developmental Changes
    • More able to understand complex emotions
      • pride and shame
    • One situation  more than one emotion
    • Tend to take a fuller context of emotional reactions
    • Improved suppression/concealment of negative emotions
  • 39. Emotional Intelligence
    • Type of social intelligence that involves:
      • ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions,
      • discriminate among them,
      • use this information to guide one’s thinking and action.
    • Goleman’s view of emotional intelligence involves:
      • Developing Emotional Self-Awareness
      • Managing Emotions
      • Reading Emotions
      • Handling Relationships
  • 40. The Transition to Elementary School
    • New Role: School Child
      • New interactions and relationships with new significant others
      • New reference groups
      • New standards for judging themselves.
    • School provides children with a rich source of new ideas to shape their sense of self.
  • 41. The Education of Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds
    • Poverty can present barriers to learning
    • Schools in impoverished areas have fewer resources
    • Emphasize rote learning over thinking skills
    • Sub-standard learning environments
  • 42. Ethnicity in Schools
    • Ethnicity in schools can vary considerably
    • School segregation by location
    • Issues of:
      • Inferior educational opportunities
      • Low expectations
      • Negative stereotypes
  • 43. Strategies for Improving Relations Between Ethnically Diverse Students
    • Encourage positive contact with diverse students
    • Encourage perspective taking
    • Encourage critical thinking emotional intelligence
    • Reduce bias
    • View the school and community as a team to help support teaching efforts
    • Be a competent cultural mediator