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  1. 1. Chapter 1 Development Across the Lifespan An Introduction to Lifespan Development
  2. 2. What is lifespan development?? <ul><li>Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life-span </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline and dying </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Four Topical Areas Studied </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topical Areas of Focus <ul><li>Physical Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The body’s physical makeup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition, reaction time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Does the amount of sleep a college student gets each night affect stress?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ How does dealing with a chronic illness affect a mothers behavior?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Topical Areas of Focus <ul><li>Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning, memory, problem solving skills, and intelligence across the lifespan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Does excessive television viewing effect intelligence? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Can teenagers remember things that happened when they were toddlers?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Topical Areas of Focus <ul><li>Personality Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with others, social relationships, individual qualities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ When does a sense of gender develop and does it change across the lifespan?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Topical Areas of Focus <ul><li>Social Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the way in which an individual’s interactions and social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do people become more isolated in late adulthood?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The lifespan is usually divided into broad (albeit arbitrary) age ranges…
  9. 10. Individual Differences Exist <ul><li>Different rates of maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Reach developmental milestones at different points </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors, including culture, play a role in determining when events occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age ranges are only averages, and some people will be above or below </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. The context of development takes a broad perspective… <ul><li>The ecological approach (Bronfenbrenner ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D ifferent environmental levels influence individuals at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example (Isolated event) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do when your child is sick? You are a full-time employee and so is your significant other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which systems are influencing your decision at this point? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Four Major Levels: Bronfenbrenner <ul><ul><li>Microsystem: everyday immediate environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>home, caregiver/parent, friends, teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosystem: connects parts of the microsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parents linked to kids, students to teachers, friends to friends, bosses to employees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. (Bronfenbrenner’s ecological approach continued) <ul><li>3) Exosystem: represents broad influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local government, the community, schools, places of worship, local media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Macrosystem: represents larger cultural influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>society in general, federal government, religious systems, political thought </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Advantages to taking an ecological approach… <ul><li>Influences on development are interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Influences are multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Broad cultural factors affect development </li></ul>
  14. 17. Particular Periods vs. Lifespan Approach <ul><li>* Early developmentalists focused on “infancy” & “adolescence.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today the entire lifespan is seen as important for several reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth and change are continuous throughout life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each age has reciprocal influences on other ages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refers to inherited traits, abilities, and capacities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes maturation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nurture </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do developmentalists believe today ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That behavior is the result of nature and nurture combined </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Theoretical Perspectives <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explanations and predictions that provide a framework for understanding relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 major theoretical perspectives used in lifespan development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychodynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humanistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evolutionary </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Psychoanalytic: Freud <ul><li>Neurologist—based theory on the study of mentally ill patients </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early childhood experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Id </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Personality Structures <ul><ul><li>Id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consists of instincts/drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unconscious component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no contact with reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with the demands of reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses reasoning to make decisions (balance id/superego) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No morality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral component of personality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Psychoanalytic: Freud <ul><li>Psychosexual Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each stage individuals focuses on a different erogenous zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution or Fixation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Psychoanalytic: Erikson <ul><li>Psychosocial: Crisis based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each stage of life has a crisis that needs to be resolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative resolution possible </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. Cognitive Theories: Piaget <ul><li>Organization involves the rearrangement of schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is used to make sense of our world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation involves the changing of cognitive schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our thinking to further understanding through assimilation and accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation of new information into existing knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of new knowledge/modification of existing knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustment to new information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 28. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the role of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive skills originate in social relations and require sociocultural interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Zone of proximal development </li></ul>
  23. 29. Information Processing <ul><li>Focuses on how the mind processes information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store, retrieve, input, output, memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking and memory is a continuous process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind is analogous to a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The physical brain is described as the computer’s hardware, cognition as its software. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Classical Conditioning: Pavlov <ul><li>Stimulus pairing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Pavlov </li></ul></ul>
  25. 31. Operant Conditioning: Skinner <ul><li>Consequences produce changes in rate of responding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. Social Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Reciprocal relationship between behavior, environment, and cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation and modeling </li></ul>
  27. 33. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation <ul><li>Does not follow any one theoretical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, selects and uses from each theory whatever is considered the best in it’s best features. </li></ul>
  28. 34. Types of Research: Descriptive <ul><li>Record and observation of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. Types of Research: Descriptive <ul><li>Surveys/Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathers information quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out about attitudes, experiences, beliefs, and feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good interviews and surveys involve: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specific and unambiguous questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>means for checking the authenticity of the responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One limitation is socially acceptable answers </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth look at an individual to examine unique aspects of a person’s life that cannot be duplicated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of generalizability </li></ul></ul>
  30. 36. Types of Research: Correlational <ul><li>Describe the strength of the relationship between two (or more) variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful because the stronger the two events are correlated, the more effectively we can predict one from the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation does not equal causation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. Experimental research <ul><li>Allows researchers to determine the causes of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures are carefully regulated (controlled by experimenter) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Cause” is the manipulated factor being studied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Effect” is the behavior that changes due to the manipulation . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 38. Types of Research: Experimental <ul><li>Independent Variable (IV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the manipulated, influential, experimental factor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable (DV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the factor that is measured in an experiment. It can change as the independent variable is manipulated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group whose experience is manipulated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is a group that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 39. Cross-Sectional Approach <ul><li>Individuals of different ages are compared at one time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-efficient approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>does not require time for the individuals to age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides no information change or stability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 40. Time Span Research: longitudinal approach <ul><li>The same individuals are studied over a period of time in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information regarding stability and change over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive and time-consuming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attrition (Drop out potential) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The subjects remaining could bias the results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dissimilar from the ones that dropped out </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 41. Sequential Approach <ul><li>Combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals of different ages (cross-sectional) are tested over a period of time (longitudinal). </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is complex, expensive, and time-consuming </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps eliminate issues with both other methods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 42. Types of Correlational Studies <ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>(Make sure you understand what each of these are!) </li></ul>
  37. 43. Theoretical and Applied Research <ul><li>THEORETICAL RESEARCH is research designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>APPLIED RESEARCH is research meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems. </li></ul>
  38. 44. Ethics and Research <ul><li>Society for Research in Child Development and the American Psychological Association have developed ethical guidelines for researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>- Freedom from harm </li></ul><ul><li>-Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>-Use of deception </li></ul><ul><li>-Maintenance of privacy </li></ul>
  39. 45. Don’t forget to keep up with your reading and studying! <ul><li>Review & Rethink section of book </li></ul><ul><li>Key terms </li></ul><ul><li>Practice tests in study guide, on disk that came with book, on companion website! </li></ul>
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