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Cthrc hr forum educators meeting charlottetowne pei  presentation (v5)
 

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  • Core functions include development and dissemination of relevant, credible and timely labour market information for touurism sector Includes labour market research, statistics and analysis research and development Provides and promotes LMI… As a member benefit to business, labour, associations, government, and equity groups To promote and enhance professional HR development in tourism
  • Key recent advances and events include: OECD TSA Human Resource Module Conceptual Framework – 2001 Canadian TSA-HRM R&D (1997-2002) Revision of international standards – IRTS 2008 Update of TSA methodological framework –TSA-RMF 2008 ILO/WTO Joint project on employment in Tourism Industries (2008) ILO/UNWTO Review of measurement issues and case studies of employment in tourism industries (2008) UNWTO Global Conference on Tourism Employment Statistics – Bali 2009 CTHRC Demographic profile of Tourism sector employees (1994 through 2010) ILO Technical Guide on Best Practices in Measuring Employment in Tourism Industries – In progress Canadian Human Resource Module Update releases 2006-2009 Canadian tourism labour supply-demand models, 2006-2010 Global economic crises, recession & aftermath (2007-2010)
  • Key recent advances and events include: OECD TSA Human Resource Module Conceptual Framework – 2001 Canadian TSA-HRM R&D (1997-2002) Revision of international standards – IRTS 2008 Update of TSA methodological framework –TSA-RMF 2008 ILO/WTO Joint project on employment in Tourism Industries (2008) ILO/UNWTO Review of measurement issues and case studies of employment in tourism industries (2008) UNWTO Global Conference on Tourism Employment Statistics – Bali 2009 CTHRC Demographic profile of Tourism sector employees (1994 through 2010) ILO Technical Guide on Best Practices in Measuring Employment in Tourism Industries – In progress Canadian Human Resource Module Update releases 2006-2009 Canadian tourism labour supply-demand models, 2006-2010 Global economic crises, recession & aftermath (2007-2010)
  • Tourism is a special form of demand (both personal and business consumption). Before the conception and development of the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA), it was impossible to identify either individual tourism economic activities/industries or their amalgam as a synthetic tourism sector. As a result, it was not possible at that time to conceive of, or estimate, an aggregate measure of employment in tourism industries, such as the total number of jobs in tourism industries or the characteristics of persons working in tourism jobs in ways that were comparable with other industries or the overall economy.
  • Until recently, the majority of the available measures of tourism phenomena dealt primarily with various aspects of tourism consumer demand (both personal and business) – the volumes of various categories of visitors, the money they spent, and the goods and services they purchased. Measures of the supply-side of tourism production were, at best, dispersed, partial and fragmented. Even today, some twenty years later, less than half of the countries in the world have developed the necessary statistical instruments to generate a comprehensive supply-side view of tourism.
  • According to the UN-WTO, tourism is: “the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes” A commodity (passenger air transportation, hotel accommodation, restaurant meals, etc.) is a tourism commodity if a significant part of its demand in Canada comes directly from visitors An industry (air transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services) is a tourism industry if tourism commodities make up a significant part of its output
  • Lets say my sister and her husband travel to Ottawa from Toronto (which is about 500 km) to visit me because Uncle Angus is visiting from Scotland Angus offers to take us out for dinner as his guests.
  • We end up at the Red Lobster on St. Laurent As it reminds Uncle Angus of growing up in Glasgow’s industrial core in the early 1940’s
  • Of these 100 customers however, 25 are visitors/tourists (red dots) and all the rest, 75 persons, are local resident consumers, shown here as blue dots.
  • In order to meet this demand the restaurant needs servers We are not concerned with how many they have on staff, right now were looking at how many server jobs are needed to properly meet this current demand. It doesn’t matter if it is Steve, Joleen or Sarah who happens to be on shift. For arguments sake, lets say this particular restaurant needs 20 servers, cooks and kitchen helpers and bartenders to meet this current demand Since everything else is equal, if 25% of the demand comes from visitors, the one view of tourism employment would only count 25% of the jobs The other view of tourism employment, counts all 20 of the jobs created in the restaurant by the current demand – regardless of the source of those jobs will be serving visitors or local consumers. count all 20 serving jobs. And of course we also count the cooks, the chefs, the bartenders etcetera
  • The Canadian vision of the TSA (CTSA) was of a new statistical instrument designed to provide a comprehensive overview of tourism economic activity in monetary terms (both current and constant dollars) To establish the relative importance of identified component tourism activities to overall tourism activity and to other activities in the national economy in these monetary terms. Reasons & rationale for a TSA: Visibility, identity & recognition for the “industry” Credible and coherent estimates of tourism Comparable with total economy, other industries, across regions Comparisons between countries Consistent measures over time Increased analysis & research capacity From the very beginning, tourism employment and labour analysis were an essential part of the original identified industry applications for the information to be derived from the new instrument which included aiding decisions relating to “manpower development, education and training; planning and awareness, etc.
  • Supply surveys feed into SNA directly TSA takes supply data directly from SNA but uses surveys directly in some cases to restore detail e.g., Accommodation industry (hotels, motels, camping, other) e.g., food and beverages commodity (meals/drinks from acc/rest) Key survey input is demand surveys (travel/tourism) – fundamentally important to identify what is tourism in SNA Big advantage of using IO is that all main, relevant sources are integrated differences between them are reconciled in balanced frameowrk Consequence is that we save ourselves a lot of work we maintain comparability with the SNA
  • A commodity (passenger air transportation, hotel accommodation, restaurant meals, etc.) is a tourism commodity if a significant part of its demand in Canada comes directly from visitors An industry (air transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services) is a tourism industry if tourism commodities make up a significant part of its output
  • (sometimes 4 or 6)
  • While other organizations may not be concerned with the impact of locals on the tourism sector, it is certainly a concern of the council. Business owners need to train their employees to offer excellent service regardless of whether they are serving a local or a tourist Visitors spend money, but so do locals (people who are within their “usual environment”) And we spend that money within the tourism sector and that spending creates jobs just as spending by visitors does Review Percentages I am going to run you through an example just to make sure everything is clear.
  • First CTSA focused mainly on monetary aggregates associated with tourism supply, demand and tourism GDP. Qualifying Notes: 1) TSA measures only direct effects on GDP & jobs 2) Additional complementary impact models measure indirect and induced effects on GDP & jobs
  • Keep in mind that a tourism industry is one that owes a significant portion of its demand to visitors. Within the tourism sector, there are 29 industries within five tourism industry groups: Accommodation, F&B, Recreation & Entertainment, Transportation, and Travel Services
  • Only one out of the ten tables (Table 7) covers employment in the tourism industries; and that, only in terms of number of jobs; hours of work; and full-time equivalent jobs by status in employment, all broken out by twelve characteristic industry/activity groups . In retrospect, the most important benefits of the release and promulgation of the TSA:RMF (2000) were: The identification and specification of a methodological approach for measuring non-traditional cross–cutting sectors of economic activity; and The endorsement and adoption of a common concept and definition of the tourism sector as a synthetic collection of characteristic economic activities/industries that included passenger transportation, accommodations, food and beverage services, travel services and recreation and entertainment characteristic activity/industry groups.
  • Only the number of jobs and labour income directly attributable to tourism can be found in the CTSA, and even then, little or no information is provided on the attributes of the jobs, the employers, and the employees working in those jobs. Yet, as revealing and useful as this new employment information was at the time, it was immediately noted that the human resource dimension of the CTSA was, and still is, very limited as it focused mainly on monetary aggregates associated with tourism supply and demand and the measurement of GDP.
  • In 2000, a new joint UN/UNWTO/OECD/EC standard The Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA:RMF 2000) -- approved by the United Nations Statistics Commission Released jointly in 2001 Final TSA in TSA:RMF (2000) focused primarily on the core account -- key monetary aspects of tourism vs. overall economy. The TSA consists of ten tables of predominantly economic data which measure domestic and international consumption (in cash and in kind); value added of the tourism industries; tourism value added; and, tourism GDP.
  • Only one out of the ten tables (Table 7) covers employment in the tourism industries; and that, only in terms of number of jobs; hours of work; and full-time equivalent jobs by status in employment, all broken out by twelve characteristic industry/activity groups . In retrospect, the most important benefits of the release and promulgation of the TSA:RMF (2000) were: The identification and specification of a methodological approach for measuring non-traditional cross–cutting sectors of economic activity; and The endorsement and adoption of a common concept and definition of the tourism sector as a synthetic collection of characteristic economic activities/industries that included passenger transportation, accommodations, food and beverage services, travel services and recreation and entertainment characteristic activity/industry groups.
  • Only one out of the ten tables (Table 7) covers employment in the tourism industries; and that, only in terms of number of jobs; hours of work; and full-time equivalent jobs by status in employment, all broken out by twelve characteristic industry/activity groups . In retrospect, the most important benefits of the release and promulgation of the TSA:RMF (2000) were: The identification and specification of a methodological approach for measuring non-traditional cross–cutting sectors of economic activity; and The endorsement and adoption of a common concept and definition of the tourism sector as a synthetic collection of characteristic economic activities/industries that included passenger transportation, accommodations, food and beverage services, travel services and recreation and entertainment characteristic activity/industry groups.
  • The updated 2008 TSA:RMF emphasises the addition of a new Chapter 7 "Employment in the Tourism Industries", included in a revised and updated IRTS 2008 with the objective of helping countries to measure quantitative and qualitative dimensions of employment in order to better understand its impact on the tourism economy in a given country and complement the limited employment data produced for Table 7 of the TSA. For the first time, the new chapter describes concepts, definitions, basic categories and indicators of employment in the tourism industries from “a general statistical rather than a specific national accounts perspective”.
  • Key recent advances and events include: OECD TSA Human Resource Module Conceptual Framework – 2001 Canadian TSA-HRM R&D (1997-2002) Revision of international standards – IRTS 2008 Update of TSA methodological framework –TSA-RMF 2008 ILO/WTO Joint project on employment in Tourism Industries (2008) ILO/UNWTO Review of measurement issues and case studies of employment in tourism industries (2008) UNWTO Global Conference on Tourism Employment Statistics – Bali 2009 CTHRC Demographic profile of Tourism sector employees (1994 through 2010) ILO Technical Guide on Best Practices in Measuring Employment in Tourism Industries – In progress Canadian Human Resource Module Update releases 2006-2009 Canadian tourism labour supply-demand models, 2006-2010 Global economic crises, recession & aftermath (2007-2010)
  • Demographic Profile of Tourism Employees Uses TSA:HRM conceptual framework plus data from the 2006 Census Provides more detail than the TSA:HRM including: 38 occupations Gender Age Work Patterns Place of Birth Mother Tongue Equity Groups School Attendance Education Level The main report is found on the CTHRC collaboration web portal We have numerous summaries on the research section of the website under the labour market information/demographic profile National Provincial Industry Group Labour Profiles The labour profiles provide a demographic snapshot of the people in that labour pool who are employed in tourism The recently released 2010 version of this publication Who Works For You? A Demographics Profile revels that the level of schooling of the tourism labour force is one of the few aspects of the demographic structure of the tourism labour force that has changed significantly, with more than one in ten percent (`12.3%) of tourism workers holding a university degree compar3d to 22.3% of the Canadian labour force. Similarly, 28.4% of the total tourism labour force is attending school full-time, compared to 16.7 of the Canadian labour force. While the degree of unionization of the tourism sector labour force remains unchanged with 11.5% union membership, compared to 24.9% in the Canadian labour force.
  • The HRM provides a snapshot of employment of tourism industries, arranged & compiled into five industry groups -- transportation (with details available for air transportation and other transportation), accommodation, food and beverage services, recreation and entertainment and travel services Plus the data are arranged by the occupations they comprise, such as cooks, accommodation manager, room attendant… and others
  • While total tourism employment accounts for about 10% of Canada’s labour force, o f the jobs reported in the HRM, only about 1/3 (521,000) are due directly to tourism demand (spending). The direct employment figure is what is reported in the quarterly NTI reports, which causes some confusion. The remaining 1.08 million jobs are generated by resident activities such as local spending on taxis, in restaurants, hotels and casinos. The HRM also allows us another way to compare the tourism sector to the economy. In 2009, jobs in tourism industries declined 0.6%, a smaller decline than for all industries in Canada (-1.7%). Workers in tourism industries put in an average 29.0 hours per week in 2009, less than the Canadian average of 32.7 hours, reflecting the high proportion of part-time jobs in tourism. Compensation in tourism was up 0.3% in 2009, outpacing growth in the economy (0.1%).
  • 1.6 million jobs in tourism industries 9.4% of all jobs… formerly 9.9% of all jobs in 1997 Down 0.6% (10,000 jobs) in 2009 Also down 1.7% (27,000 jobs ) in 2005 Compared with a 2.0% decline in tourism revenues Less than the 1.7% (27,000) decline in jobs in the overall economy Net loss of 10,000 jobs in tourism industries in 2009 12,000 full-time jobs disappeared… 2000 part-time jobs created
  • Industries Three industries dominate the tourism job market: - food & beverages, recreation & entertainment, and accommodation, F&B accounts for more than half of the jobs (53%) at 853,000 Rec & entertainment next at 17% 274,000 jobs Then, accommodations is next accounting for a further a 14% at 222,000 jobs Following that transportation at 13% and 214,000 jobs And lastly, travel services at 3% and 45,000 jobs Since the first HRM the shares of F&B have declined from X% While the job share of accommodation has increased X%
  • Occupations: Those jobs that are created in the tourism sector are the concern of the CTHRC, Five occupations groups dominate, accounting for almost 48% of jobs in tourism industries These were food counter attendants and kitchen helpers, food and beverage servers and cooks, restaurant and food service managers, and cashiers. Food and beverage servers and cooks were concentrated within three industries: the food and beverage services recreation and entertainment and accommodation industries.
  • The tourism sector already faces many challenges attracting labour to the sector. In order to effectively address this situation, businesses need to understand the demographic and employment characteristics of existing workers. This information about the PEOPLE working in the sector is found in the Demographic Profile of Tourism Employees . The reports provide details on the people who worked at a tourism business rather than the number of tourism jobs. The main report and summaries (National, Provincial, Industry Group, Labour Pools) are available for download from the Council’s website
  • Almost 60% of tourism employment is found in Ontario and Quebec (2006 Census)
  • Nothing else would allow us to accurately know what percentage of executive housekeepers in Nova Scotia had a University degree versus a college level degree Although the absolute numbers will grow, the percentages generally do not shift very much. If 80% of travel counselors were female in 2006, unless something causes a drastic change, it will still be around 80% give or take 2% in 2011
  • In Canada, most travel occurs during the third quarter, with 40% of all tourist arrivals and 32% of all domestic visitation taking place in the summer months. In addition, during this time frame resident patterns change with the weather and locals frequent neighbourhood restaurants and attractions more often. All of this tourist and resident consumption contributes to an increase in service requirements. It is not surprising then that tourism businesses require part-time and seasonal labour in order to meet demand   According to the Census, the tourism sector employs more people in seasonal positions (52%) than in the economy overall (38%). However, other key economic sectors, including agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, farming, logging, and construction, all face more significant seasonal employment fluctuations than tourism does. Moreover, other service sectors such as government services and health services experience seasonal employment peaks similar to tourism. Part-time jobs are also prevalent in tourism, but six in ten (60%) tourism jobs in 2009 were full-time. Many occupations and industries within the tourism sector are better suited to part-time and seasonal work. These include attractions, facilities, and events that are not open year-round, as well as positions that can be labour-intensive. For example, businesses within the recreation and entertainment group are most likely to employ workers on a seasonal basis (58%), while part-time positions are more prevalent in the food and beverage services industry (49%). Some labour pools purposely look for more flexible employment. A lot of older Canadians seek part-time opportunities to stay active after retirement and to share their knowledge and experience without the responsibility of a full-time commitment. Many persons with disabilities want to participate in the labour force, but a full-time job may be detrimental to their overall health and well-being.   With Canada facing a labour shortage and an aging population, businesses must recognize the positive contributions of part-time and seasonal employment to a thriving sector, and make a strategic effort to attract and retain people suited to this type of work.
  • September, 2010, Statistics Canada released National Tourism Indicators, Second Quarter, 2010 Includes tourism demand, tourism supply, tourism GDP and employment attributable to tourism demand Labour Highlights: Tourism demand has recovered to 2007 levels, But, tourism employment level have not…still declining Tourism account for 610 jobs in Canada in Q2, down 1.3% compared to Q2 2009 Fifth consecutive quarter of YOY declines Jobs down in all tourism industry groups but accommodation
  • October, 2010, CTHRC releases seasonally adjusted monthly tourism labour force unemployment rates for September 2010: Current unemployment rate, 6.8%, compared with overall rate of 8.0% Same level as September 2009, with little within each industry group Travel services industry labour segment showed the largest increase, +4.1% Transportation labour segment showed largest decrease -1.8% Tourism unemployment rates in most provinces were similar or lower than national average Lower rates in some provinces (i.e. PEI , Saskatchewan & New Brunswick) due to fewer youth participants in regional labour markets Source: Statistics Canada Special custom LFS tabulations for CTHRC
  • A broad perspective of the cumulative long-term threat of a widening labour gap Identify unfilled tourism demand & missed opportunities Identify possible mitigating policy options Empower stakeholder to pre-emptive actions Reduce risks of potential negative effects on sector performance & vibrancy
  • Further work in progress to promote and extend this international standard for tourism statistics relates to: Development of an implementation programme; Development of compilation guidelines; and Development of a related database. The implementation programme to be developed will consist of supporting training materials, workshops and technical assistance programmes to assist countries in basic data collection and compilation of the data considered in the recommendation. characteristic activity/industry groups.

Cthrc hr forum educators meeting charlottetowne pei  presentation (v5) Cthrc hr forum educators meeting charlottetowne pei presentation (v5) Presentation Transcript

  • Labour Market Information: An Opportunity for Educators? Scott Meis, Special Advisor Educators Partners Meeting 10 th Annual Tourism HR Forum 14-16 November, 2011 Charlottetown, P.E.I
  • Outline
    • Labour Market Information -- Concepts & specifications
    • Historical perspective -- Development of LMI data
    • CTHRCs work on LMI – what, why, & how
    • What have we learned?
    • Trends and developments of LMI collection
    • Ideas for educational applications?
    • Other partnership possibilities?
  • Labour Market Information: Concept & Specifications
  • Tourism Labour Market Information (LMI)
    • Knowledge, facts, data and relevant information on the supply
    • and demand of the various different types of labour services (employment) related to tourism
    • Includes quantities of forms and flows of labour
    • Also prices & non-monetary compensation
    • At detailed and aggregate levels;
    • Used for labour market analysis and decision making
    • Source: Drummond Report, 2009.
  • Tourism Labour Market Information (LMI)
    • I nformation concerning static conditions or dynamics of the labour market
    • May be statistical or narrative
    • May be related to historical, current or projected circumstances
    • Particular types include data on employment and
    • unemployment, job vacancies,
    • Employee and employer characteristics
    • Compensation
    • Market entries and departures
    Source: Drummond Report, 2009
  • Tourism Labour Market Information (LMI): Supply Side
    • Availability of workers by region, occupation, industry and firm
    • Hours supplied
    • Skill and education level of workers that comprise human capital
    • Characteristics of workers -- age, sex, disabilities, group (visible minorities, aboriginal status), immigrant status
    • Demographic projections of the labour force -- new entries, retirees, immigrants and emigrants
    • Graduates from educational institutions and training programs;
    • Investments in human capital
    • Source: Drummond Report, 2009.
  • Tourism Labour Market Information (LMI) : Demand Side
    • Employment by region, occupation, industry and firm
    • Hours demanded
    • Skill and education and credential requirements of jobs
    • Job vacancies or unfilled jobs (also by region, occupation, industry and firm)
    • Occupational projections
    • Source: Drummond Report, 2009.
  • Tourism Labour Market Information (LMI): Prices/Compensation
    • Wages
    • Salaries
    • Earnings
    • Wage settlements
    • Total compensation including fringe benefits
    • e.g. time off, pension plans, various forms of insurance
    • Working conditions considered part of total compensation
    • Source: Drummond Report, 2009.
  • Tourism Labour Market Information (LMI): Categories of Information
    • Macro data
      • Quantitative statistical data on specific labour markets,
      • micro survey data
      • Examples: Labour Force Survey, Survey of employment, pay and hours of work, Census,
    • Micro information
      • Non-statistical narrative information pertaining to specific jobs
      • Serves the labour exchange function between employers & employees
      • Examples: social media, rumors
    • Cross-cutting or classificatory information
      • Examples: NAICS, NOCS, ISIC
    • Source: Drummond Report, 2009
  • Canadian Tourism Labour Market Adapted from Advisory Panel on Labour Market Information, 2009
  • Historical Perspective
  • History of Advances and International Events
    • Canadian National Task Force on Tourism Data (1986-87)
    • Canadian Tourism Satellite Account feasibility study (1987)
    • IRTS (WTO-OECD_UN,1993) -- no coverage of E&L
    • First prototype TSA (Canada,1994)
    • TSA:RMF (UNSC-UNWTO-OECD-EUROSTAT, 2000)
    • TSA:RMF (UN-UNWTO-OECD-EUROSTAT, 2001)
    • TSA Human Resource Module – Conceptual
    • Framework (OECD, 2001)
  • History of Advances and International Events (Cont`d)
    • First prototype TSA HRM (Canada, 2006)
    • IRTS (2008) Update & added employment chapter
    • TSA:RMF (2008) further specification of employment
    • ILO Compendium of Statistics on Employment Wages and
    • Hours of Work in Tourism Industries (2008)
    • ILO/WTO joint employment statistics projects (2008-2012)
    • WTO First International Conference on Tourism
    • Employment Statistics (Bali, Indonesia, 2009)
    • ILO Case Studies – Indonesia, Brazil, New Zealand, Canada
  • Tourism Employment & LMI: Past Measurement Issues
    • Tourism -- by definition --a special form of demand (both personal and business consumption)
    • Past measures of tourism phenomena = tourism consumer demand – volumes, values, & characteristics
    • Pre Tourism Satellite Account (TSA), it was impossible to identify in national industry statistics
      • Some individual tourism social activities,
      • Fragments of economic activity & industry activity
      • No comprehensive view a “synthetic” tourism sector
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • Tourism Employment & LMI: Past Measurement Issues (cont’d)
    • Supply-side of measures tourism production were almost non-existent or at best, dispersed, partial and fragmented
    • Impossible to conceive of, or estimate, an aggregate comparable measure of employment in tourism industries :
      • Number of jobs in tourism industries comparable with other industries
      • Comparable with overall economy.
      • Characteristics of persons working in tourism jobs
    • Even today, <50% of countries have statistical tools for a comprehensive supply-side view of tourism
    • Most have no comprehensive measures of tourism employment
    • A few have fragmentary measures of jobs in some tourism related industries
    Source: ILO, 2008
    • UN-WTO says tourism is: “the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”
    Basic Tourism Concept: Ottawa Recommendations (1991) Source: Kostovo, 2006
  • Local Resident Domestic Visitors Intl. Tourist Three Visitors plus One Local Resident
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Why a Satellite Account?
    • The Canadian vision of the first TSA (CTSA) -- a new statistical instrument to provide a comprehensive view of tourism economic activity in monetary terms
    • To establish the relative importance of component tourism activities to overall tourism and to other activities in the national economy
    • Employment and labour analysis were key parts of the envisaged original outputs to aid to decisions relating to manpower development, planning and awareness, education and training
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
    • The “Keystone” for TLMI
    • Extension of the System of National Accounts (SNA)
      • – hence the term “satellite”
    • Subject-matter specific
      • Other examples:
        • Non-profit Institutions & Volunteering
        • Pensions
        • Research and Development
        • Environment
    • Compiles 10 tables – revealing economic transactions
    • recorded in SNA on economic consumption by tourists
    • visitors
    • Source: Kostovo, 2006
    What is a Satellite Account?
  • TSA Integrated Data System Source: Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada Recreation surveys Canadian Tourism Satellite Account Survey of Household Spending Travel Survey of Resident Canadians International Travel Survey Demand surveys Input-Output Tables Travel Arrangement Services survey Food and beverage Survey Accommodation survey Transportation surveys Supply surveys System of National Economic Accounts Other supply surveys (including goods) Balance of Payments
    • Tourism commodity (passenger air transportation, hotel accommodation, restaurant meals, etc.) -- a tourism commodity if a significant part of its demand in Canada comes directly from visitors
    • Tourism industry - a tourism industry if tourism commodities make up a significant part of its output
    Key TSA Concepts Source: Kostovo, 2006
  • 27 Tourism Industries, 5 Groups
    • Accommodations
    • 7211 Traveller accommodation
    • 7212 RV (Recreational Vehicle) Parks and Recreational Camps
    • Food & Beverage Services
    • 7221 Full-service restaurants
    • 7222 Limited-service eating places
    • 7224 Drinking places (alcoholic beverages )
    • Recreation & Entertainment
    • 5121 Motion pictures and video industries
    • 7111 Performing arts companies
    • 7112 Spectator sports
    • 7115 Independent artists, writers and performers
    • 7121 Heritage institutions
    • 7131 Amusement parks and arcades
    • 7132 Gambling industries
    • 7139 Other amusement and recreation industrie s
    • Transportation
    • 4811 Scheduled air transportation
    • 4812 Non-scheduled air transportation
    • 4821 Rail transportation
    • 4831 Deep sea, coastal and great lakes water transportation
    • 4832 In-land water transportation
    • 4851 Urban transportation systems
    • 4852 Interurban and rural bus transportation
    • 4853 Taxi and limo service
    • 4854 School and employee bus transportation
    • 4855 Charter bus industry
    • 4859 Other transit and ground passenger transportation
    • 4871 Scenic and sightseeing transportation, land
    • 4872 Scenic and sightseeing transportation, water
    • 4879 Scenic and sightseeing transportation, other
    • 5321 Automotive equipment rental and leasing
    • Travel Services
    • 5615 Travel arrangement and reservation services
    Based on North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
  • Tourism Demand Vs. Local Resident Demand
    • Travel Services
      • Over 90% of demand comes from tourism / 10% local
    • Accommodation
      • 66% of demand comes from tourism / 34% local demand
        • Local Gala’s
        • Prom’s / Graduations (Room Rentals, Food, Drinks)
        • Weddings (mix of local residents and visitors)
    • Food and Beverage Services
      • Only 17% of demand comes from tourism / 83% local
      • Red Lobster/Cheesy Pizza/Subway/Tosca
    11/22/11
    • Tourism supply
    • Tourism demand
    • Tourism GDP
    • Tourism employment
    • (jobs attributable to tourism demand)
    Key TSA measures Source: Kostovo, 2006
  • Tourism Sector Scope
    • Tourism revenue/demand = spending on goods and services in tourism industries
    • Total revenues for the sector come from a combination of tourism and non-tourism (local) consumers …total spending $179 billion (2010)
    • Total tourism spending / revenues $74.2 billion (2010)
    • $18.8 billion in tourism exports to international visitors (2010), one the top ten exports
    • $59.4 billion, (80%) from domestic market (2010)
    • Tourism Gross Domestic Product – $29.7 billion (2010),
    • 1.95% of Total GDP (2010)… down from 2.3% in 1998!
  • Tourism Output: Other Industry Comparisons
  • Economic contribution of tourism varies across provinces & territories Statistics Canada • Statistique Canada
  • CTSA Benefits: Pioneering Vision and Demonstration Prototype
      • Vision and specification of a standard methodological approach for measuring tourism related industries – both characteristic & connected
      • Proof of technical feasibility and utility
      • The endorsement and adoption of a common Canadian concept and definition of a synthetic tourism sector
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • TSA Benefits: Keystone to the Canadian Tourism Macroeconomic Statistics System
  • TSA Limitation: Employment Data
    • Discovery: very limited human resource dimension in the CTSA
    • CTSA only carries the number of jobs and labour income directly attributable to tourism demand
    • No direct information on job attributes, the employers, and the employees
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • The Standard: TSA Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA:RMF)
    • In 2000, a new joint standard The Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA:RMF 2000) -- approved by the United Nations Statistics Commission
    • Released jointly by UN/UNWTO/OECD/EC in 2001
    • Final TSA in TSA:RMF (2001) focused primarily on the core account -- key monetary aspects of tourism vs. overall economy.
    • TSA specifies ten tables of predominantly economic data which measure domestic and international consumption (in cash and in kind); value added of the tourism industries; tourism value added; and, tourism GDP.
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • TSA:RMF(2000): Benefits
      • Specification of a standard methodological approach for measuring tourism related industries – both characteristic & connected
      • The endorsement and adoption of a common concept and definition of the synthetic tourism sector
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • TSA:RMF Benefits – 1 st International Measures of Tourism Employment
    • T able 7 covers employment in the tourism industries:
    • Measurements: number of jobs; hours of work; and full-time equivalent jobs
    • Broken down by :
      • Status of employment
      • Twelve characteristic industry/activity groups
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • International Recommendations on Tourism Statistics (IRTS) 2008 Update
    • 2008 updated TSA:RMF adds a new Chapter 7 &quot;Employment in the Tourism Industries&quot;,
    • Chapter 7 included in revised & updated IRTS (2008)
    • Objectives
      • H elp countries measure quantitative and qualitative aspects of tourism employment
      • Understand employment impacts of the tourism economy
      • Complement the limited Table 7 employment
    • First “general statistical perspective” description of concepts, definitions, categories and indicators of employment in the tourism industries
    Source: Chernyshev and Meis, 2011
  • CTHRC / Canada`s Work on LMI: What, Why & How
  • Initial Development Trajectory of Tourism Labour Other Apps! Statistics Tools Phase 3 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 4
  • Canadian CTHRC Advances
    • CTHRC Demographic profiles (mid-1990s, 2010)
    • Canadian TSA-HRM R&D (1997-2002); Updates (2004-10)
    • CTHRC Tourism Labour Supply-Demand Models (2006-10) - JH
    • Return on Training Investment Calculator (2006-2008) - JH
    • Tourism compensation studies (2008, 2010) – JH
    • Monthly tourism unemployment estimates (2009-11)
    • Tourism labour productivity research sub-program (2009-11)
    • Work Place Matters, panel survey on labour issues (2010-11)
    • Total Employment extensions to National Tourism
    • Indicators (2011-12)
    • Demographic Profiles of Tourism Employees
    • Uses TSA:HRM conceptual
    • framework plus data from the
    • 2006 Census
    • Provides more detail than the
    • TSA:HRM including :
    • 38 occupations
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Work Patterns
    • Place of Birth
    • Mother Tongue
    • Equity Groups
    • School Attendance
    • Education Level
  • Canada – Estimating Employment, Labour and Work Characteristics in Tourism Industries
      • The Canadian Human Resource Module (TSA:HRM) of the Tourism Satellite Account
      • Provides statistics on three main human resource dimensions: jobs, hours of work and income earnings (detailed by labour income, annual wages/salaries, weekly wages/salaries, hourly wages/salaries)
      • Results apply to tourism sector, as a whole, and for each characteristic tourism activity/industry group and each occupational group
      • Timely regular benchmark data updates available annually six months after the close of the reference period.
      • Latest update (2010) includes time series data on trends in employment, hours worked and employment earnings from 1997 to 2009
  • Human Resource Module of the Tourism Satellite Account
    • The HRM provides a snapshot of employment of tourism industries, arranged & compiled into five industry groups
    • Also , by major occupational groups , such as cooks, accommodation manager, room attendant, etc.
    • Strategic tool for national labour planning & training development & issue analysis
      • Reveals evolution of labour & occupational
      • Structure of tourism employment linked to TSA
    • Consistent with vision of OECD TSA-HRM manual (2001)
    • Pioneering R&D by Statistics Canada for CTHRC (1997-2002)
  • Estimating Labour and Work Characteristics of Employment in Tourism Industries -- TSA:HRM
    • Four main sources of data underlie the compilations...
      • Population Census data
      • Labour Productivity Accounts data in the System of National Accounts
      • Labour Force Survey (LFS) data
      • Survey of Employment Payroll and Hours (SEPH) data
    • Research spinoffs: Tourism labour profiling, trend analysis, forecasting, & labour productivity analysis
  • Labour Market Information: What Have We Learned?
  • What is a Tourism Job? Total jobs in all industries (T) (t) jobs in tourism industries (A) not attributable to tourism demand (i.e. industries that directly serve visitors) (a) jobs in tourism industries (A) attributable to tourism demand (i.e. industries that directly serve visitors) (b) jobs in non-tourism industries (B) attributable to tourism demand (i.e. industries that directly serve visitors) (T) (A) (a) (B) Total jobs in tourism industries (A) (i.e. industries that directly serve visitors, including non-visitor) Total Jobs attributable to tourism demand (B) (i.e in tourism industries & non-tourism industries) (b) (t) HRM Supply-Side (A) HRM Tourism Demand-Side(a) (a)
  • Key Insights: Total TI Jobs, Employee-jobs & Persons Employed
            • 1.9 million total jobs (2006)
            • held in tourism industries
            • 11% of the 168 million jobs in the
            • economy (Census tabs)
            • 1.7 million employee jobs in tourism
            • industries (minus self-employed) (2006)
            • 617,300 tourism employment jobs
            • – attributable to tourism demand in 2010
            • 1.66 million individual persons worked
            • in the sector,
            • 10.3% of all persons employed, one in ten
            • members of the labour force
  • 2009 Key Results
    • 1.6 million jobs in
    • tourism industries
    • Down 0.6% in 2009
    • Also down 1.7% in 2005
    • Compared with a 2.0% decline in tourism revenues
    • Less than the 1.7% decline in jobs in the overall economy
    • Net loss of 10,000 jobs in tourism industries in 2009
    • Net result of 12,000 full-time jobs that disappeared
    • and 2000 part-time jobs created
  • Other Key Results
    • Industries:
    • Three industries dominate
    • the tourism job market:
    • - food & beverages
    • - rec. & entertainment
    • - accommodation
    • F&B accounts for more than half of the jobs (53%)
    • Rec. & entertainment next at 17%
    • Accommodations next for a further a 14%
    Chart 1: Distribution of jobs in tourism industries, 2009 Food and beverage services 53% Travel services 3% Transportation 13% Accommodation 14% Recreation and entertainment 17%
  • Tourism Occupations
    • A collection of jobs , sufficiently similar in work performed to be grouped under a common title
    • Identified and grouped primarily in terms of the work performed, as determined by tasks, duties, & responsibilities of the occupation
    • Factors include: processes used, equipment used, degree of responsibility, complexity of work, skill levels required & services provided
    • Within the sector, we identify 37 distinct occupations , of importance plus general groupings
    • Some straddle 2 or more industry groups, e.g. cooks/chefs in F&B, Accommodations and Rec. & Ent.
    • 400 occupational categories found within tourism sector, less that 50 are significant **
  • Occupations
    • Top five include:
    • - food- counter attendants
    • - kitchen helpers & related
    • occupations
    • - food & beverage server
    • - cooks
    • - restaurant and food service managers
    • - cashiers
    Main occupations by industry group, Canada 2009
    • Five occupation groups dominate employee jobs
    • 48% of all employee jobs
  • Other Key Results: Employee Profiles Job Share by age group by industry group
    • Findings:
      • Youth aged 15 to 24 --a major source of labour
      • Holding 594,000 employee jobs, or 4 of 10 employee jobs
      • Three out of four young workers employed in F&B industries
      • Most common occupations: food counter attendants, kitchen
      • helpers, etc.
      • Most common occupation among older workers -- cook
    • HRM provides information
    • on selected employee
    • characteristics:
    • - gender
    • - age
    • - immigrant status
  • Demographic Profiles of Tourism Sector Employees -- The people found in the jobs!
    • More women than men (52% vs. 48%) – opposite of economy
    • 1 / 3 were age 15-24 (vs. 15% in overall economy)
    • Tourism workers more likely to have a mother tongue other than English or French
    • O ne-quarter were born outside of Canada
    • Almost half of foreign-born workers employed in tourism are found in Ontario
  • Tourism Employment by Province Almost 60% of tourism employees are found in 2 provinces: Ontario and Quebec
  • Profiles of Special Populations: Disabled Persons
    • Make up 1 in 10 tourism workers, less than 12% share in overall workforce
    • Transportation industry group had the largest proportion of disabled workers
    • Women with a disability were more likely than men to work in tourism
    • One half of tourism workers with a disability were 45 & older
    • Four in ten workers with disabilities were employed in one province
  • Seasonality of Tourism Employment
    • Tourism employs more people in seasonal positions (52%) than in the economy overall (38%)
    • Other key economic sectors - agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, farming, logging, construction - all face more significant seasonal employment fluctuations than tourism
    • Part-time jobs are prevalent in tourism, but six in ten (60%) tourism jobs in 2009 were full-time
    • Offers mature workers, people with disabilities, and youth flexibility they need
    • Of tourism workers under the age of 25, 71% were pursuing secondary or post-secondary education
  • Insights on Part-time Work & Total Hours by Industry Group
  • Indicators of Social Inequities in Tourism Work
  • Insights on Self-Employed Work In Tourism
  • Timely Recent Results: Employment Lags Falling in Tourism Demand!
    • September, 2011, Statistics Canada
    • released National Tourism Indicators,
    • Q2, 2011
    • Labour Highlights:
      • Tourism jobs (attributable to V demand) increased 0.8% YOY
      • Q2 results show 2 nd consecutive quarterly gain
      • Tourism demand accounts for 600,700 jobs in Canada in Q2
      • Led by job growth in accommodation & food & beverages in
      • industry group
      • Highest growth rate in all industries in Canada in Q2, 2011
    •   Source: Statistics Canada, National Tourism Indicators, Second Quarter, 2011 . September 2011. Catalogue no. 13-009-X.
  • Timely Recent Results: TI Unemployment Rates -- Falling (Sept., 2011)
    • In September tourism sector
    • unemployment rate ( seasonally
    • unadjusted ) -- 5.9%
    • 0.9% lower than the rate reported
    • in September 2010.
    • Canadian economy overall –September rate -- 7.1%
    • Lowest rate recorded since December 2008 
    • Within tourism industries, unemployment rates decreased in accommodations, food and beverage services, and transportation industries
    • Unemployment in travel services remained stable
    (August, 2010)
  • Future Labour Gap Analyses
    • Growing imbalance/gap inj tourism labour supply and demand
    • Temporary labour surplus 24,776 jobs in 2010 (now extended to 2014)
    • Potential labour shortage of 160,000 by 2025 (down from 219,000)
    • 8% of labour demand
    Source: CTHRC’s Tourism Labour Supply/Demand Projections Model, 2010
  • LMI Collection: Current Trends and Developments
  • Global Activities: Post-2008 WTO-ILO Partnership
    • Goals: to promote and extend the international statistical standard for tourism statistics
    • Actions -- research and development of ...
      • An implementation programme
      • Compilation guidelines
      • Related database
    • Implementation programme will consist of:
      • Supporting training materials,
      • Workshops and technical assistance
    Source: ILO, 2008
  • Global Initiatives: Meeting the Need for Data on Persons Employed in Tourism
    • One objective of IRTS 2008 Chapter 7 – produce comprehensive data on persons employed in tourism industries
    • Idea -- meet the challenge of moving from the macro-economic side of employment to its human or individual significance
    • SHOW OTHERS HOW TO DO WHAT CANADA HAS DONE!
    • move beyond data on jobs , FTEs and labour income to:
      • the number of persons employed in tourism-characteristic jobs;
      • the working conditions of persons engaged in tourism-characteristic activities - their hours of work;
      • their wages and salaries;
      • their occupation, education, and other personal characteristics;
      • their employment status in terms of whether they are salaried or self-employed workers, etc.
      • ``Decent Work`` Indicators
  • Global Initiatives: Meeting the Need for Data on Persons Employed in Tourism
    • ILO & UNWTO currently implementing a Joint Project on the Measurement of Employment and Decent Work in the Tourism Industries.
    • Canada assisting by outlining its procedures for producing data on persons employed in the tourism industries
  • Other National Pioneering Research & Developments :
    • Austria – another prototype Human Resource Module development
    • New Zealand – data and research on labour productivity of SMEs
    • Indonesia – conceptualizing performance indicators of ``Decent Work`` in tourism industries
    • Brazil:
      • New data on informal employment in tourism industries
      • Integrated Information System on the Labour Market of the Tourism Sector – SIMT),
  • How Educators Could Use LMI Assets
  • 11/22/11
    • LMI to support current curricula and course plans
    • LMI to inform students’ career planning -- e.g. career
    • profiles, career paths, compensation information?
    • LMI to inform education program development and review
    • (e.g. labour supply/demand, demographic profiles)
    • Resources for students’ & professors’ research
    • projects (e.g. productivity, career paths, impacts of new
    • technologies on work, attraction, retention)
    LMI – An Asset for Educators?
  • 11/22/11
    • Information inputs to core learning outcomes:
      • Industry knowledge -- descriptions of tourism
      • sector, subsectors, industries, commodities, products,
      • occupations, provincial and local specifics
      • Policy, Strategic Planning, & Issues -- roles of
      • government, impacts of policy, impacts on
      • society, labour and skills shortages...
    LMI – Curriculum /Course Applications?
  • 11/22/11
    • Information inputs to core learning outcomes:
      • Tourism Analysis & Research Methods –
      • collecting, analyzing, evaluation data on TLMI
      • Human Resources/Human Resources Management --
      • descriptions of occupations, labour force
      • characteristics by industry and occupation, career
      • paths, compensation information and issues
    LMI – Curriculum /Course Applications?
  • Other Potential Partnerships?
  • Cooperation on Current and Future Research Problems?
    • Workplace Matters Bi-monthly industry panel survey on current issues
    • Understanding drivers of improved labour productivity
    • Defining and specifying Characteristic Tourism Occupations
    • Developing labour supply-side measures of attraction and retention
    • Measuring career trends
    • Developing measures and Indicators of “Decent Work” (DWI) – Destroying the McJobs Myth!
  • Review
  • To Review
    • Tourism LMI, employment and labour statistics related to tourism have long received relatively little methodological attention and thus remained adequately measured and insufficiently studied
    • Presentation reviewed previous impediments and recent solutions to closing the information gaps
    • Emerging international statistical recommendations, standards and guidelines -- one part of the solution
    • Leading edge national development and implementation initiatives, such as CTHRC’s’ in Canada and others - second part of solution
  • To Review
    • Many New CTHRC Research LMI Products/Tools:
      • The Human Resource Module of the Tourism Satellite Account
      • Demographic Profiles of Tourism Employees
      • National Tourism Indicators
      • Monthly tourism unemployment figures
      • Tourism Compensation Studies
      • Return on Training Investment Calculator
      • The Future of Tourism Sector: Labour Supply and Demand
      • Workplace Matters Employers’ Opinions Panel
    • Many New CTHRC LMI Assets & Insights
    11/22/11
  • Review
    • Despite availability, appears there is little educators use of w tourism LMI assets
    • Opportunities seem to exist for integrating TLMI into…
      • Curriculum & course content
      • Student and professors research projects
      • Tourism & hospitality career counseling
    • Uptake and application needed to transfer and transform new data to information and knowledge – to change the future culture of tourism!
    • What potential exists to partner with educational organizations in further R&D, dissemination & application of TLMI?
    11/22/11
  • Acknowledgements
      • Sector Council Program of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
      • Jennifer Hendry, Director, Research, Canadian Tourism Human Reosurce Council
      • Calum, MaDonald, Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council
      • DChris Jackson, Assistant Director, Research & Development Projects & Analysis Section, Income & Expenditure Accounts, Statistics Canada
      • Greg Hermus, Canadian Tourism Research Institute, Conference Board of Canada
      • Igor Chernyshev, Statistics Division, International Labour Organization
  • Thank you for your interest & attention! Are there any questions? wswedlove@cthrc.ca Thank You Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council │www.cthrc.ca │613 231 6949