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    Presentation tweed Secteur Biomasse Presentation tweed Secteur Biomasse Presentation Transcript

    • TWEED Industry Cluster Technology ofWallonia Energy, Environment Presentationand sustainable Development 1
    • Biomass Industry Cluster Technology ofWallonia Energy, Environmentand sustainable Development 2
    • Biomass Sources• Woodfuel• Crops/Farm residues• Organic Waste Biomass energy resource categories Source: Hoogwijk (2003, Biomass and Energy, 25, 119-133) 3
    • Processes for energy exctraction• Direct combustion• Thermo-chemical gasification (heat to 800ºC under pressure)• Pyrolysis (heat to 300-500ºC in near absence of air)• Anaerobic digestion• Fermentation of non-woody biomass• Hydrolysis & fermentation of woody biomass• Transesterification of vegetable oils• Gasification and catalytic production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids• Gasification to produce hydrogen 4
    • Biomass in Europe• s Share of Primary Energy Source: Baromètre BIOMASSE SOLIDE – EUROBSERV’ER – Novembre 2010 5
    • Biomass in Europe Source: Baromètre BIOMASSE SOLIDE – EUROBSERV’ER – Novembre 2010 6
    • Trends in biomass use by type 4000 Industrial Biofuel Consumption (Mt/yr) 3000 Biofuels Domestic Charcoal Domestic Dung 2000 Domestic Crops Domestic Fuelwood 1000 0 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 Year *with uncertainty bars for the total Source: Energy and the New Reality, Volume 2, L. D. Danny Harvey 7
    • Trends in biomass use by region 3000 North 2500 America LatinBiofuel Consumption (Mt/yr) America Western 2000 Europe Eastern Europe/FSU 1500 Africa South Asia 1000 East Asia Southeast Asia 500 Oceania 0 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 Year *with uncertainty bars for the total Source: Energy and the New Reality, Volume 2, L. D. Danny Harvey 8
    • Woodfuel Cluster Technology ofWallonia Energy, Environmentand sustainable Development 9
    • Biomass in Wallonia50 % agricultural land30 % forest (~540.000 ha)10 % urban planning6 % transport infrastructure4 % water/wetlands 10
    • Walloon Market• Belgian target for renewable energy in 2020 is 13% of the final energy consumption.• Wallonia goes greener ? a target RE of 20% and 30% for green electricity. (decisions pending)• In 2010, Wallonia used around 147 TWh of energy; o RE cover 6.2% of the final energy consumption (9.1 TWh) o Biomass accounts for more than 85% of the renewable energy production  5.5 TWh are produced by biomass CHP (1.25 TWh of electricity)  0.2 TWh by biogas plants  1.5 TWh for residential heating (pellets boilers, stoves, etc.) and the rest is coming from biofuel o Biomass will remain the most important RE source for the 2020 target 11
    • Walloon Pellets Production There are 8 companies that produce pellets with a total capacity of 500,000 tons/year. However, most of the pellets consumption is imported (Canada, Eastern Europe, etc.) for biomass CHP or the heating market. Capacity (tons/year) Source: The World of Pellets, Bioenergy 2010 12
    • Belgium Pellets MarketsThe wood pellet market in Belgium is characterized by a large demand for industrial pellets for(co-)firing in power production, a young pellet production industry with limited production and afast developing market for residential pellet heating.The total pellet consumption in Belgium in 2008 is estimated at 920,000 tons of whicharound 800,000 tons were industrial pellets consumed for power production.The Green Certificate Scheme in Belgium contributed to stimulating the demand for solid biofuels,including pellets, for electricity generation by (co)combustion, Electrabel (GDF Suez) being themajor consumer of industrial wood pellets in Belgium.This sector largely relies on pellet imports from Germany, Eastern Europe and North America andis expected to be growing significantly in the next years.It is estimated that around 325,000 tons of pellets were produced by at least 10 producers in2008. Four of them are DINplus certified (October 2009) and it is expected that a good share ofthe domestic production in Belgium is targeting the domestic heating market. Since stoves are themain pellet appliance, the majority of pellets are probably traded in bags. Some of the larger pelletplants produce exclusively for the power sector. Large exports are not reported.The consumption of high quality pellets in the heating market can be roughly estimated at120,000 tons in 2008, meaning that more than 11 kg of pellets were consumed per capita. This iscomparable to the situation in Germany. However, in contrast to Germany, stoves are the mainpellet appliance in Belgium. Source: The World of Pellets, Bioenergy 2010 13
    • Power Production- From Wood to Power Technical Diagram 14
    • Power Production Power production with pellets in Wallonia, Les Awirs, 85 MW! Source Valbiom 15
    • Power Production Technologies- Walloon Companies XYLOWATT Gasification CHP Plant (Combined Heat & Power 0,1–10 MWe) Global efficiency = 75% (25% electricity, 50% heat) www.xylowatt.be 16
    • Power Production TechnologiesThe NOTAR ® downdraft gasifier Wood is composed of 52% C + 6% H + 41% O + 1% ashes PYROLYSIS Wood is decomposed in charcoal (30%) and pyrolysis gas (70%) COMBUSTION Pyrolysis gas (composed mainly of heavy tars) are burned and cracked with air to produce CO2 & H2O at high temperature (1200 C) REDUCTION Exhaust gases react with the carbon of the charcoal to form the fuel gas: CO2 + C = 2 CO et H2O + C = H2 + CO
    • Power Production Technologies- Gasification Powerplant manufacturer and turnkey provider- Operation (remote control & telemonitoring) and Maintenance (on-site & assistance)- Gasification process Woodgas production for industries ( ex: woodgas for glassmaking furnace)
    • Power Production TechnologiesFabricom provides innovative technical installations and services for the industry, energysector, tertiary and infrastructure markets. Its expertise covers a wide and varied range oftechnical disciplines, including Electrical, Instrumentation, Mechanical, Industrial Piping,Automation, and Maintenance, etc. Biomass CHP 3MW project in Liège 19
    • Power Production TechnologiesDe Smet Engineers & contractorsBiomass Power Turnkey projects, Engineering Works, General-contracting in Energy(Steam Process, Electricity Production, Biomass Boiler, etc. )Solutions for: - Storage www.dsengineers.com - Solids Handling - Preparation of biomass: shredding, drying, pelletization… - Biomass energy recovery technology: combustion, gasification, methanisation... - Electricity production system: steam turbine, gas turbine, ORC turbine, internal combustionengine - Heat Production: steam, hot water, hot air or gas, thermal oil... - Heat Valorisation: pelletization, drying, distillation… 20
    • Power Production TechnologiesTPF GroupEngineering, architecture and management consultancy,turnkey projectsActive in the development of projects relating to renewable TPF: Biomass plant andenergies such as wind power, thermal solar energy, treatment of olives wastebiomethanation and gasification, cogeneration, district heating , - 20 MW - Spainetc.www.tpf.eu TPF: Household Waste Incineration Plant - Belgium 21
    • Power Production Technologies- Walloon Companies (others)CORETEC, an engineering consultancy company specializing in energy,can offer its services for the study, implementation, optimization andsupervision of reliable and high-performance solutions.Services are available in 4 sectors: - Construction technology - Industrial technology - HP Energy Production - Energy Purchases Managementwww.coretec.be 22
    • Power Production TechnologiesCMI: Cockerill Maintenance & Ingénierie- Conception of boilers for Industries & Energy sector (Heat Production, HRSG ,etc.)- Combination of a waste incineration with a combined cycle (gas turbin, heat recovery boiler, steam turbin) increase the yield by 5%- Organic Rankine Cycle (gas ou liquids < 400 C) www.cmigroupe.com Heat Recovery Steam Generators 23
    • Power Production TechnologiesCMI: Cockerill Maintenance & IngénierieCMI Energy Services has converted the Awirspower station to biomass. The boiler no longerburns coal as before, but wood pellets. Electrabel: Awirs – 80 MW- Biomass - 24
    • Power Production TechnologiesHEAT Production Biom offers a complete heating solution comprising boiler and feeder-system installation, adjustment, maintenance-staff training, an annual service and the supply of fuel. - Range from 200 to 1000 kW. Tailored for • Government buildings (civil service…) • Public services (schools, hospitals, retirement homes…) • Sporting infrastructures (sports halls, swimming pools…) • Industrial premises • The timber and woodworking industry www.biom.be 25
    • Power Production TechnologiesHEAT Production BIOM Innovative and patented combustion process: the cyclonic burner • Use of a variety of fuels (slashed wood, pellets, sawdust, fruit stones, cereals…) • A level of fuel humidity that reaches 30% • A low level of inertia enabling rapid start-up and shut-down according to your needs • High performance levels (90%) • Low maintenance owing to complete combustion • Staged combustion leading to reduced levels of pollutants 26
    • Power Production Technologies Biomass schemes 4ENERGY Invest The core business of 4Energy Invest consists in  turning non-contaminated wood biomass, wood residues, shavings, barks ... which are at their end-of-life in the forestry sector, into energy, either directly through cogeneration process to generate heat and electricity, or indirectly through torrefaction process to produce renewable solid fuels such as BioCoal.  4Energy Invest is operating a fully operational cogeneration plant, located in Amel (Wallonia, Belgium), Currently developing cogeneration projects in Ham (Flanders, Belgium) and in Pontrilas (England, UK).  As project development company, 4Energy Invest is continuously assessing several other projects and has further identified a number of sites that offer opportunities to build and operate biomass-to-energy projects in Belgium as well as elsewhere in Europe (+ Brazil)www.4energyinvest.com 27
    • Biomethanation Cluster Technology ofWallonia Energy, Environmentand sustainable Development 28
    • Biomethanation Principles Crops/ Farm ResiduesPRINCIPLESAnaerobic digestion of organic mattersleading to the generation of methane andcarbon dioxideProcess involves three steps : 1. Hydrolysis 2. Acidification 3. Acetogenesis 4. MethanogenesisProcess can be carried out in a single step or a two steps 29
    • Biomethanation Technologies Power Production - Walloon Companies / Technologies GreenWatt - from the feasibility study to the construction and start-up of the installations, turnkey projects - developed an innovative biomethanation technology; Unlike traditional technologies, this technology – called two-stage – enables energy production at a local scale on the basis of plant residues without any need for external contribution (liquid manure, etc.). - offers a simple, efficient solution for purifying the COD-laden water evacuated by the food-processing industry. Walloon Technology, Patented FAD (Flushing Anaerobic Digestor), developped by GreenWatt is an original design of a digestor (methaniser) with high yield incorporating a system of unpatching and renewing of the biofilm.www.greenwatt.be 30
    • Biomethanation TechnologiesPower Production - Walloon Companies / Technologies - Building of an industrial treatment unit ( endive roots) Electricity production - (80 kWe 24/24 ) and heat production (94 kWth for 15 tons of waste a day). 31
    • Biomethanation TechnologiesRealco developed an expertise in enzyme-based hydrolysis processes.Enzymes degrade organic macromolecules, these elements are more watersoluble and more easily assimilable by microorganisms. Hydrolysis is thelimiting step for bacterial assimilation and thus for biological effluent treatmentsuch as biomethanation. 32
    • Biomethanation TechnologiesThe enzymatic hydrolysis developed by Realco focus on a pre-treatment of thesubstrate before its introduction into the digester.This strong pre-treatment allows to accomplish:- substrate liquefaction and homogenization, influent viscosity decrease- substrate biodigestibility increase, i.e. Increase of the substrate assimilation rateby microorganisms population responsible for the production of biogas and energy.Biomethanation- Increase energy with enzymatic solutions- Provides solution for overloaded / undersized digesters- Increase biogas production- Improve digester yield- Accelerate digesters (re)startApplicationsSubstrates difficult to treat but having great interest regarding their methanogenicpotential Digester yieldFor any substrates : fat, manure and litter, food industry waste, household waste,WWTP sludges, etc... 33
    • Biomethanation CompaniesBalteau- Contractor- Balteau designs and builds pumping, sewage management and drinkingwater facilities.In the Biogas sectorcollecting, pumping, management, valorisation, burningwww.balteau.eu 34
    • Biomethanation TechnologiesWalloon Companies (others)MethadevMETHADEV is an active small business in the sector of renewable power, specializedin the treatment and increasing the value of waste and organic effluents. METHADEVowns a specific expertise in producing and using biogas.www.methadev.comCebedeauCentre for Expertise in the Treatment and Management of WaterCebedeau is also active in the sector of biomethanation:• Expertise in biological and physico-chemical treatment• Industrial water management• Sampling, analysis and pilot testing• Applied research and technology transfer• Training and seminars www.cebedeau.com 35
    • Biofuel Cluster Technology ofWallonia Energy, Environmentand sustainable Development 36
    • Biofuel Overview H yd ro g e n (H 2) M e th a n o l (C H 3 O H ) W a te r g a s sh ift + se p a ra tio n DME G a sifica tio n S yn g a s (C H 3O C H 3 ) C a ta lyse d syn th e sis F T D ie se l (C xH y) L ig n o ce llu lo sic A n a e ro b ic SNG B io g a s P u rifica tio n b io m a ss d ig e stio n (C H 4 ) F la sh p yro lysis H yd ro tre a tin g B io d ie se l B io o il a n d re fin in g (C xH y) H yd ro th e rm a l liq u e fa ctio n E th a n o l H yd ro lysis S ugar F e rm e n ta tio n (C H 3 C H 2 O H ) S u g a r/sta rch M illin g a n d cro p s h yd ro lysis B io d ie se l E ste rifica tio n (a lkyl e ste rs) P re ssin g o r O il p la n ts Ve g e ta b le o il E xtra ctio n B io o il (ve g e ta b le o il)Source: Hamelink and Faaij (2006, Energy Policy 34, 3268–3283, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03014215
    • Ethanol/ Biodiesel production in 2008 France Other 2% 4% Germany Other 18% 70 China 23% 3% 60 Production (billions litres/yr) 50 Italy 3% 40 US US Spain 17% Ethanol 30 51% 3%Brazil 40% 20 Thailand 3% 10 Biodiesel Argentina France 10% 13% 0 Brazil 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Ethanol Production in 2008 10% Year Total = 67 billion litres Biodiesel Production in 2008 Total = 12 billion litres Source: Energy and the New Reality, Volume 2, L. D. Danny Harvey
    • Ethanol/ Biodiesel production in2010In Wallonia:- A target of 5,75% of biofuel in transport for 2010Production unit:- BioWanze: capacity of 300 000 tons of bioethanol per year- Néochim in Feluy: capacity of 240 000 tons of biodiesel per year
    • Biofuel - Bioethanol/BiodieselCompaniesDe Smet Engineering & ContractorsFunded in 1990 by Groupe De Smet• General contracting company specialized in the agro-industrial field ( sugar industries, edible oil, etc.)• Supplier of industrial equipments• Project management• In 2004, DSEC made its general-contracting know-howavailable in other fields, including bio-energy and agro-chemical sectors (bioethanol/biodiesel).• Turnover 120M€• More than 100 employees• On 5 continents• 450.000 m³ yearly building capacitywww.dsengineers.com
    • Biofuel - Bioethanol/BiodieselDe Smet Engineering & ContractorsBuilding of a bioethanol production unit in Biowanze, Belgium- Capacity of 300 000 tonsof bioethanol per year- from 800.000 tons of wheat and400.000 tons of sugarbeets250 millions € investment
    • Biofuel - Bioethanol/BiodieselGreen Automotive
    • Biofuel - Biocoal Wood chips •Humidity Rate between 20 and 30 % • NCV 3,5 kWh/kg Pellets • Humidity Rate between 6 and 12 % • NCV 5 kWh/kg Coal NCV 7,5-9 kWh/kg Biocoal (Biochar) •Humidity Rate between 3 % • NCV 6,7-7 kwh/kg
    • Biocoal Technology SupplierCMI- NESA- Technology supplier- Supplies and develops wood torrefactionequipments
    • Biocoal Producer4Energy Invest BioCoal production capacity by end 2012 of 250,000 Tons
    • Biofuel from waste Project PHOENIX: Turn your car into fuel! World Premiere - Conversion Process of organic matters contained in grinding remnants of metallic waste to hydrocarbon alternative liquids and carbon used in steel industry, by low temperature catalytic craking - Recycling European average (82%)  Comet + Phoenix (90%) - Low energy process, 70.000 T/ Year 20 million literswww.certech.bewww.cometsambre.be
    • Biofuel from algae Project Bema SynCap has initiated a renewable energy and bio-tech project aiming at the production of: - Bio-energy (diesel) from microalgae (BEMA) and - Molecules with high added value. The BEMA project’s major objective is to implement a prototype photo-bioreactor that can demonstrate the feasibility of large scale microalgae biomass production.www.syncap.eu
    • Biofuel from waste- Waste RecyclingSita Treatment www.sita.beShanks www.shanks.beWaste management- Treatment of household waste by sorting, recycling, incineration and revaluation.- Authorised landfill site management
    • Electricity: Production support Cluster Technology ofWallonia Energy, Environmentand sustainable Development
    • Belgium Green Certificatesmechanism
    • Belgium Green Certificates mechanismBelgium Green Certificates mechanims:1.Growing obligation % of renewable power based on yearly electricitysales for each power supplier2.Penalty for the share that is not covered by Certificates (x €/ missingGC)3.Market for exchanging Certificates between green producers andsuppliers needing them4.Regulatory body in each region granting the Certificates and surveyingthe market5.Certified bodies for inspecting the green power plants and the bio-fuelresources
    • Belgium Green Certificates mechanismOne certificate per 1000 kWh produced, different in the 3 Regions(Wallonia, Brussel, Flemish Region)  Different price, differentdetermination Different determination:1.Flemish region 1 GC = 1MWh green electricity produced2.Flemish region: 1 CHP Certificate = 1 MWh primary energy saving3.Wallonia: 1 GC = 456 kg CO2avoided + Reduction factor applied onplants > 10 years old4.Brussels: 1 GC = 217 kg CO2 avoided5.Federal: 1 GC = 1 MWh green electricity (Territorial waters, Off-shorewindmills)
    • Belgium Green Certificatesmechanism
    • Belgium Green Certificates mechanismDifferent determination: other rulesFlemishTide&Wave, Hydro < 10 MWe,Biomass accorded to a)vegetable products from agriculture and forestry; b)litter and manure; c)sorted organic-biological waste; d)unsorted organic-biological waste with min. 35 % energy recuperatedWalloniaCHP and HYDRO < 20 MweBrusselPV, Wind, Biogas, Geothermal, Hydro < 10 Mwe, Organic waste fromagriculture and forestry
    • Belgium Green Certificatesmechanism
    • Belgium Green Certificatesmechanism