7 years of  Indian Cyber Law Rohas Nagpal President, Asian School of Cyber Laws
Cyber Pornography
Cyber Pornography <ul><li>Section 67 of IT Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing, transmitting, causing to be published </l...
Baazee case
Baazee case <ul><li>Obscene MMS clipping listed for sale on  27 th   November, 2004 - “DPS Girl having fun&quot;.  </li></...
Points of the prosecution <ul><li>The accused did not stop payment through banking channels after learning of the illegal ...
Points of the defence <ul><li>Section 67 relates to publication of obscene material and not transmission. </li></ul><ul><l...
Findings of the Court <ul><li>It has not been established from the evidence that any publication took place by the accused...
Findings of the Court <ul><li>Prima facie Baazee.com had endeavored to plug the loophole.  </li></ul><ul><li>The accused h...
Findings of the Court <ul><li>Even though the accused is a foreign citizen, he is of Indian origin with family roots in In...
Court order <ul><li>The court granted bail to Mr. Bajaj subject to furnishing two sureties of Rs. 1 lakh each.  </li></ul>...
Protected Systems
Protected Systems <ul><li>Gazette notification for declaring protected system. </li></ul><ul><li>Government order authoriz...
Firos vs. State of Kerala <ul><li>Govt of Kerala declared the FRIENDS application software as a protected system. </li></u...
Tampering with source code
Tampering with source code <ul><li>Computer source code need not only be in the electronic form.  </li></ul><ul><li>It can...
Tampering with source code <ul><li>Following are punishable with  3 years jail and / or 2 lakh fine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Syed Asifuddin case <ul><li>Tata Indicom employees were arrested for manipulation of the electronic 32-bit number (ESN) pr...
Digital Evidence
Parliament attack case <ul><li>Several terrorists attacked Parliament House on 13-Dec-01 </li></ul><ul><li>Digital evidenc...
Parliament attack case <ul><li>A laptop, several smart media storage disks and devices were recovered from a truck interce...
Parliament attack case <ul><li>Evidence found on the laptop included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fake identity cards,  </li></u...
Parliament attack case <ul><ul><li>image file of design of Ministry of Home Affairs car sticker, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Parliament attack case <ul><li>No forensic backup was taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Court held that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chal...
General Overview
General overview <ul><li>Information Technology Act </li></ul><ul><li>Filing complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Power of the pol...
General overview <ul><li>Malicious code </li></ul><ul><li>DOS attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rohas Nagpal </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><li>Asian School of Cyber Laws </li></ul><ul><li>rohasnagpa...
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Rohas - 7 Years Of Indian Cyber Laws - ClubHack2007

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Rohas - 7 Years Of Indian Cyber Laws - ClubHack2007

  1. 1. 7 years of Indian Cyber Law Rohas Nagpal President, Asian School of Cyber Laws
  2. 2. Cyber Pornography
  3. 3. Cyber Pornography <ul><li>Section 67 of IT Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing, transmitting, causing to be published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porn in the electronic form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strict punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 years jail (SI or RI) + 1 lakh fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 years jail (SI or RI) + 2 lakh fine </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Baazee case
  5. 5. Baazee case <ul><li>Obscene MMS clipping listed for sale on 27 th November, 2004 - “DPS Girl having fun&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Some copies sold through Baazee.com </li></ul><ul><li>Avnish Bajaj (CEO) arrested and his bail application was rejected by the trial court. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Points of the prosecution <ul><li>The accused did not stop payment through banking channels after learning of the illegal nature of the transaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The item description &quot;DPS Girl having fun&quot; should have raised an alarm. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Points of the defence <ul><li>Section 67 relates to publication of obscene material and not transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Remedial steps were taken within 38 hours, since the intervening period was a weekend. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Findings of the Court <ul><li>It has not been established from the evidence that any publication took place by the accused, directly or indirectly. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual obscene recording/clip could not be viewed on the portal of Baazee.com. </li></ul><ul><li>The sale consideration was not routed through the accused. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Findings of the Court <ul><li>Prima facie Baazee.com had endeavored to plug the loophole. </li></ul><ul><li>The accused had actively participated in the investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of the alleged offence is such that the evidence has already crystallized and may even be tamper proof. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Findings of the Court <ul><li>Even though the accused is a foreign citizen, he is of Indian origin with family roots in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The evidence indicates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only that the obscene material may have been unwittingly offered for sale on the website. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the heinous nature of the alleged crime may be attributable to some other person. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Court order <ul><li>The court granted bail to Mr. Bajaj subject to furnishing two sureties of Rs. 1 lakh each. </li></ul><ul><li>The court ordered Mr. Bajaj to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surrender his passport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not to leave India without Court permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to participate and assist in the investigation. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Protected Systems
  13. 13. Protected Systems <ul><li>Gazette notification for declaring protected system. </li></ul><ul><li>Government order authorizing persons to access protected systems. </li></ul><ul><li>10 years jail for accessing or attempting to access protected systems. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Firos vs. State of Kerala <ul><li>Govt of Kerala declared the FRIENDS application software as a protected system. </li></ul><ul><li>The author of the application software challenged the notification and the constitutional validity of section 70. </li></ul><ul><li>The Court upheld the validity of both </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tampering with source code
  16. 16. Tampering with source code <ul><li>Computer source code need not only be in the electronic form. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be printed on paper (e.g. printouts of flowcharts for designing a software application). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tampering with source code <ul><li>Following are punishable with 3 years jail and / or 2 lakh fine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroying </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Syed Asifuddin case <ul><li>Tata Indicom employees were arrested for manipulation of the electronic 32-bit number (ESN) programmed into cell phones that were exclusively franchised to Reliance Infocomm. </li></ul><ul><li>The court held that such manipulation amounted to tampering with computer source code as envisaged by section 65. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Digital Evidence
  20. 20. Parliament attack case <ul><li>Several terrorists attacked Parliament House on 13-Dec-01 </li></ul><ul><li>Digital evidence played an important role during their prosecution. </li></ul><ul><li>The accused had argued that computers and digital evidence can easily be tampered and hence should not be relied upon. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Parliament attack case <ul><li>A laptop, several smart media storage disks and devices were recovered from a truck intercepted at Srinagar pursuant to information given by two of the suspects. </li></ul><ul><li>These articles were deposited in the police “malkhana” on 16-Dec-01 but some files were written onto the laptop on 21-Dec-01. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Parliament attack case <ul><li>Evidence found on the laptop included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fake identity cards, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video files containing clippings of political leaders with Parliament in background shot from TV news channels, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scanned images of front and rear of a genuine identity card, </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Parliament attack case <ul><ul><li>image file of design of Ministry of Home Affairs car sticker, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the game 'wolf pack' with the user name 'Ashiq'. Ashiq was the name in one of the fake identity cards used by the terrorists. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Parliament attack case <ul><li>No forensic backup was taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Court held that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges to the accuracy of computer evidence should be established by the challenger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mere theoretical and generic doubts cannot be cast on the evidence. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. General Overview
  26. 26. General overview <ul><li>Information Technology Act </li></ul><ul><li>Filing complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Power of the police (search, arrest etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Hacking </li></ul>
  27. 27. General overview <ul><li>Malicious code </li></ul><ul><li>DOS attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Rohas Nagpal </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><li>Asian School of Cyber Laws </li></ul><ul><li>rohasnagpal.com </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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