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Rohas - 7 Years Of Indian Cyber Laws - ClubHack2007
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Rohas - 7 Years Of Indian Cyber Laws - ClubHack2007


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  • 1. 7 years of Indian Cyber Law Rohas Nagpal President, Asian School of Cyber Laws
  • 2. Cyber Pornography
  • 3. Cyber Pornography
    • Section 67 of IT Act
      • Publishing, transmitting, causing to be published
      • Porn in the electronic form
    • Strict punishment
      • 5 years jail (SI or RI) + 1 lakh fine
      • 10 years jail (SI or RI) + 2 lakh fine
  • 4. Baazee case
  • 5. Baazee case
    • Obscene MMS clipping listed for sale on 27 th November, 2004 - “DPS Girl having fun".
    • Some copies sold through
    • Avnish Bajaj (CEO) arrested and his bail application was rejected by the trial court.
  • 6. Points of the prosecution
    • The accused did not stop payment through banking channels after learning of the illegal nature of the transaction.
    • The item description "DPS Girl having fun" should have raised an alarm.
  • 7. Points of the defence
    • Section 67 relates to publication of obscene material and not transmission.
    • Remedial steps were taken within 38 hours, since the intervening period was a weekend.
  • 8. Findings of the Court
    • It has not been established from the evidence that any publication took place by the accused, directly or indirectly.
    • The actual obscene recording/clip could not be viewed on the portal of
    • The sale consideration was not routed through the accused.
  • 9. Findings of the Court
    • Prima facie had endeavored to plug the loophole.
    • The accused had actively participated in the investigations.
    • The nature of the alleged offence is such that the evidence has already crystallized and may even be tamper proof.
  • 10. Findings of the Court
    • Even though the accused is a foreign citizen, he is of Indian origin with family roots in India.
    • The evidence indicates
      • only that the obscene material may have been unwittingly offered for sale on the website.
      • the heinous nature of the alleged crime may be attributable to some other person.
  • 11. Court order
    • The court granted bail to Mr. Bajaj subject to furnishing two sureties of Rs. 1 lakh each.
    • The court ordered Mr. Bajaj to
      • surrender his passport
      • not to leave India without Court permission
      • to participate and assist in the investigation.
  • 12. Protected Systems
  • 13. Protected Systems
    • Gazette notification for declaring protected system.
    • Government order authorizing persons to access protected systems.
    • 10 years jail for accessing or attempting to access protected systems.
  • 14. Firos vs. State of Kerala
    • Govt of Kerala declared the FRIENDS application software as a protected system.
    • The author of the application software challenged the notification and the constitutional validity of section 70.
    • The Court upheld the validity of both
  • 15. Tampering with source code
  • 16. Tampering with source code
    • Computer source code need not only be in the electronic form.
    • It can be printed on paper (e.g. printouts of flowcharts for designing a software application).
  • 17. Tampering with source code
    • Following are punishable with 3 years jail and / or 2 lakh fine:
      • Concealing
      • Altering
      • Destroying
  • 18. Syed Asifuddin case
    • Tata Indicom employees were arrested for manipulation of the electronic 32-bit number (ESN) programmed into cell phones that were exclusively franchised to Reliance Infocomm.
    • The court held that such manipulation amounted to tampering with computer source code as envisaged by section 65.
  • 19. Digital Evidence
  • 20. Parliament attack case
    • Several terrorists attacked Parliament House on 13-Dec-01
    • Digital evidence played an important role during their prosecution.
    • The accused had argued that computers and digital evidence can easily be tampered and hence should not be relied upon.
  • 21. Parliament attack case
    • A laptop, several smart media storage disks and devices were recovered from a truck intercepted at Srinagar pursuant to information given by two of the suspects.
    • These articles were deposited in the police “malkhana” on 16-Dec-01 but some files were written onto the laptop on 21-Dec-01.
  • 22. Parliament attack case
    • Evidence found on the laptop included:
      • fake identity cards,
      • video files containing clippings of political leaders with Parliament in background shot from TV news channels,
      • scanned images of front and rear of a genuine identity card,
  • 23. Parliament attack case
      • image file of design of Ministry of Home Affairs car sticker,
      • the game 'wolf pack' with the user name 'Ashiq'. Ashiq was the name in one of the fake identity cards used by the terrorists.
  • 24. Parliament attack case
    • No forensic backup was taken.
    • Court held that:
      • Challenges to the accuracy of computer evidence should be established by the challenger.
      • Mere theoretical and generic doubts cannot be cast on the evidence.
  • 25. General Overview
  • 26. General overview
    • Information Technology Act
    • Filing complaints
    • Power of the police (search, arrest etc)
    • Hacking
  • 27. General overview
    • Malicious code
    • DOS attacks
    • Piracy
  • 28.
    • Rohas Nagpal
    • President
    • Asian School of Cyber Laws
    • [email_address]