The Second Great Awakening Religious movement of 1801 Sparked by evangelical religious ideas Attracted thousands of people to outdoor gatherings with singing, shouting and praising Stressed individual effort and responsibility A person’s worth did not rest in social status
The Second Great Awakening Increased the tensions between the nation’s belief in democracy and the realities of many American lives Encouraged people to forget about the past and start fresh Built bonds in community Helped spread Christianity among African Americans
The Question of Slavery African-Americans flocked to evangelical meetings If blacks were equal in God’s eyes, should they be equal in society? Most slave owners did not think so Bible verse: ―Slaves obey your masters.‖ ―Christian duties‖ required them to take care of their slaves, not to free them
The Question of Slavery African Americans did not believe the Bible taught that slavery was right Black preachers spoke of liberation, not obedience Slaves identified with Bible stories – believed God would free them as well Began to sing songs that connected them to their community as well as their African roots
Go down, Moses, Way down in Egypts land, Tell old Pharaoh, Let my people go. Oh let us all from bondage flee; Let my people go. And let us all in Christ be free! Let my people go.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Go_Down_Moses
Music Spoke of physical as well as spiritual freedom Helped slaves maintain a sense of self-worth and hopes for a better future Many white evangelicals began to denounce slavery In northern states, this grew into an antislavery movement called abolitionism that called for the end of slavery
Quick Check What religious movement began in 1801 and spread nationwide? How did individuals celebrate during this movement? How did this movement impact slaves? What did abolitionists want?
Effects of the Second Great AwakeningThe Second Great Awakening
Prosperity in the East Economic and political power remained in the hands of planters and merchants Easy to transport crops and merchandise to ports in East US population was growing rapidly Led to an increased demand for lumber, corn, wheat, etc High demand More production Increased profit
Cotton Gin Patented by Eli Whitney Gin separated cotton fibers from the plant’s sticky seeds more efficiently than older methods Made cotton growing more profitable Farmers began to plant more acres of cotton More slaves were needed to plant/harvest
Bright Leaf Tobacco 1830’s – NC farmers began to experiment with a new type of tobacco Grew well in the sandy soil NC tobacco production tripled in 10 years
Bright Leaf Tobacco A new curing process stimulated bright leaf production ―Curing‖ refers to drying tobacco leaves Hung leaves in large, airtight barns and piped in hot air from charcoal fires Took several days and nights to properly cure Communities held special gatherings at tobacco- curing time Barns had to be watched to keep heat even and to prevent fire
Quick Check How did the cotton gin affect the economy? Who held political and economic power at this time? What does the term ―curing‖ refer to?
Ebenzer Pettigrew – An Eastern Farmer Read pages 162-163 in Social Studies textbook Answer the following questions in complete sentences: What was finished first, making bushels of wheat or cutting rice? What types of events does Pettigrew record? Why do you think Pettigrew wrote these short entries? What things did Pettigrew record that are similar to your life today? What do Pettigrew’s records teach us?
The End of The International Slave Trade Early 1800s – Countries began to work together to end slave trade British reformers took the lead Britain became the first country to make it illegal for its citizens to participate US Congress banned the trade in 1808 Passed legislation that allowed government to seize slave vessels that ventured into US & to fine individuals who engaged in trade 1815 – France & Netherlands banned slave trade as well Spain & Portugal continued to ship slaves
Amistad Group of enslaved Africans took matters in their own hands Africans attacked the ship’s crew and took over the ship Tried to sail back to Africa but ended in New York US Supreme Court ruled they had been enslaved illegally and set them free They returned to Africa
A Life Enslaved 1830 – 1/3 of NC residents were enslaved Slaves had few legal rights Owners could whip, abuse, and even kill them Enslaved people built their own culture Hunted, fished and grew food during free time Blended African and American traditions Organized own churches
Out After Dark Slaves worked hard to build independent lives At night, woods filled with slaves on the move Went to visit family members on other plantations Supposed to carry passes from their owners White ―pattie rollers‖ on horses enforced this rule
Free Blacks Small, but significant group of free blacks in NC Some had been free for generations Some were freed by their masters Some earned enough money to buy their freedom 1860 – Free blacks made up 10% of population in New Bern
True or False? By 1830, 1/3 of NC’s residents were enslaved. Slaves had few legal rights. Enslaved people copied the culture of their owners. Slaves were always slaves; there was no chance of ever becoming free. In 1807, Britain became the first country to make it illegal for its citizens to participate in the slave trade.
Moses Grandy Read Grandy’s story on page 166 Select a quote or one aspect of his life that intrigues you Draw a picture that represents this quote or event Include the quote, if possible
The War of 1812 Britain and France went to war first – US remained neutral Britain began to seize US ships carrying supplies to France Britain began to kidnap US sailors – impressment US was mad that Britain supported Native American groups ―Warhawks‖ – Congressional leaders who wanted war with Britain 1812 – James Madison declared war on Great
British-Indian alliance defeated American forces headed to Canada Navy blockaded American ports – attacked coastal towns Invaded Washington, DC and burned the capitol and White House Some worried the US would not survive
North Carolinians in the war Dolley Payne Madison Wife of President James Madison Stayed at White House when British invaded – saved several papers and valuables ―Heroine of the war‖
Andrew Jackson – war’s most celebrated hero By 1814, both sides were ready to end the conflict Signed a peace treaty on Christmas Eve War had the greatest effect on Native Americans Creek Indians forced to give up much of their land Gave US a psychological boost Americans were proud they stood up to Britain
HAVE YOU BEEN PAYING ATTENTION? What religious movement began in 1801 and spread nationwide? What did abolitionists want? Where were they located? Which side of the state held political power? How did the cotton gin affect the economy? Who patented the cotton gin? What is one way slaves could become free? What was one cause of the War of 1812? What were Congressional leaders who wanted to go to war called? Who is considered the heroine of the war?
Struggles in the West Mainly small-scale family farmers Owned or rented a few dozen acres of land Families and livestock consumed most of what they grew Built life around farming, church and relatives Many lived and died without ever leaving the county where they were born ―Just getting by‖
Waking Up the State Wanted to improve transportation Many wanted to make more money, buy more things, and raise their standard of living Leaders across the country called on the government to build roads and improve waterways ―internal improvements‖ NC did not launch programs of internal improvements
North Carolina North Carolina’s legislature: Seats were determined by number of counties, NOT population More people lived in the Piedmont and western part of state Eastern legislatures used power to ensure that there were more eastern counties Eastern politics believed in limited government
Eastern Politics Did not need much government action Educated children with private tutors and academies Sent crops through a well-developed system of rivers and canals Saw no reason to spend $ to help rest of state
―Rip Van Winkle State‖ NC was declining socially and economically, instead of moving forward Stagnant western economy Lack of investment in education Elite’s tight hold on political power
Rip Van Winkle In a pleasant village lives the kindly Rip Van Winkle. Rip enjoys solitary activities in the wilderness, but is also loved by all in town— especially the children to whom he tells stories and gives toys. However, a tendency to avoid all gainful labor allows his home and farm to fall into disarray due to his lazy neglect.
Rip Van Winkle One autumn day, Rip is escaping his wifes nagging, wandering up the mountains with his dog, Wolf. Hearing his name being shouted, Rip discovers that the speaker is a man dressed in antiquated Dutch clothing, carrying a keg up the mountain, who requires Rips help. Without exchanging words, the two hike up to a hollow in which Rip discovers a group of silent, bearded men who are playing nine-pins Although there is no conversation and Rip does not ask the men who they are, he discreetly begins to drink some of their liquor, and soon falls asleep.
Rip Van Winkle He awakes in unusual circumstances: it seems to be morning, his gun is rotted and rusty, his beard has grown a foot long, and Wolf is nowhere to be found. Rip returns to his village where he finds that he recognizes no one. Asking around, he discovers that his wife has died and that his close friends have died in a war or gone somewhere else. He immediately gets into trouble when he proclaims himself a loyal subject of King George III, not knowing that the American Revolution has taken place. Rip is also disturbed to find another man is being called Rip Van Winkle (though this is in fact his son, who has now grown up).
Rip Van Winkle The men he met in the mountains, Rip learns, are rumored to be the ghosts of an old crew. Rip is told that he has apparently been away from the village for twenty years. An old local recognizes Rip and Rips now-adult daughter takes him in. Rip resumes his habitual idleness, and his tale is solemnly taken to heart by the Dutch settlers, with other hen-pecked husbands, after hearing his story, wishing they could share in Rips good luck, and have the luxury of sleeping through the hardships of war.
―Rip Van Winkle State‖ Is this an appropriate nickname for North Carolina during this time period? Why or why not? What other nickname could have been given to describe NC during this time? What similarities exist between the short story and NC?
Archibald DeBow Murphey Challenged state legislature’s lack of interest in improvements Proposed improving navigation Digging canals, building major roads, etc Promoted public education Drew up a plan for a public education system Free for those who couldn’t afford to pay fee All white children could be educated Proposals fell on deaf ears
Government Reform 1830s – leaders could no longer ignore pressures for reform Thousands of families moved west NC was losing population and support Constitution of 1835 Spread political power more evenly across state Removed some restrictions on voting/holding office New, energetic state government
Industrial Revolution American merchants began to build factories and develop their own machinery Weaving cloth, grinding corn, making shoes, etc. Centered in the Northeast Land was scarce Labor was plentiful and cheap
Transportation Revolution State officials worked to link east and west with roads, canals and railroads Gave eastern manufacturers a new market for their products Plank roads Long, wide boards Far superior to muddy dirt Railroads Soon become dominant form of transportation
Public Schools Legislature provided money for schools Counties began to acquire buildings and teachers Farm work > schoolwork Calvin Wiley – first superintendent of schools Founded teacher-training institutes Established classroom standards Traveled across state to promote interest in public education
Westward Expansion Expansion began soon after American Revolution Louisiana Purchase War of 1812: Alabama, Mississippi Oregon Treaty
Indian Removal Act Passed by a single vote Forced Indians to trade southern land for land in the west Assigned a reservation (eventually became Oklahoma) Most Indians did not want to move Many were held at gunpoint and forced to move west Some Indians picked up guns and fought back Florida: Seminoles fought so hard that US decided to let them stay
NC Cherokees Went into woods to hide from troops Sued federal government & won North Carolinians had mixed views Some thought Indians did not belong in American society Some thought they made good neighbors and wanted them to stay Leaders adopted a hands-off approach Allowed them to stay, but refused to recognize as citizens Did not help federal government force people out
The Trail of Tears 1838: Almost 20,000 individuals headed towards Oklahoma Journey took several months 7,000 troops were sent to guard them, but they did not provide enough food, shelter or medical care Approximately 4,000 died along the way
Did the government have the right to move Indians from southern land? Why or why not? How would you solve the Indian and settler conflict over land? If you were an Indian during this time period, would you have moved peacefully or fought for your land?
Manifest Destiny Term for the attitude prevalent during expansion US not only could, but was destined to, stretch from coast to coast http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qrjg9ulR- xo&feature=related
Abolition 1820s – all northern states abolished slavery With new acquisitions, Congress needed to decide whether slavery would be allowed 1830s – many Americans working to end slavery Levi Coffin – vocal southern abolitionist
Abolitionists Wanted to ―put a human face‖ on slavery Thought people accepted slavery because they viewed blacks as inferior Helped publish autobiographies of former slaves Frederick Douglas Harriet Jacobs Moses Grandy
David Walker A free black man born in Wilmington, NC Moved to Boston to join abolition movement Published a pamphlet Condemned slavery Urged blacks to fight back Used sailors, ministers and local leaders to distribute Eventually pamphlet ended up in North Carolina
Fear of Slave Revolt NC slave owners worried about black revolt 1802 – 21 slaves were hanged for planning revolt Charleston – residents discovered well-planned plot to take over city 1820s – Escaped slaves attacked several communities General Assembly Made it harder to free slaves Enacted harsh penalties for teaching slaves to read/write
Fear of Slave Revolt 1831 – Nat Turner led a group of slaves in raids in NC and VA Killed at least 55 whites in one night Sparked panic across the south Edenton Local militia searched every blacks house Many were whipped and/or arrested Demolished a local black church
Plantation Economy driven by land, slaves and cotton Soil was fertile/climate was mild Planters invested $ in new land and slaves to work it South remained an agricultural region cotton = profitable = no reason to invest in other businesses
Industry Land was harder to obtain Soil was rocky /climate was colder Merchants invested $ in canals and railroads to improve trade Manufacturing proved to be highly profitable Invested profits in new technology, factories, and transportation
Nullification Crisis 1832 – Congress raised tariffs on imported goods Helped northerners by reducing competition Hurt southerners who had to pay more for manufactured goods Did the federal government have the right to tell an individual state what to do? South Carolina lead the south in the debate Threatened to secede from the Union No other state support -- decided to back down Leaders worried issue of slavery would cause states to secede
1820 – Missouri Compromise All states below line would allow slavery All states above line would be free 1854 – Kansas-Nebraska Act Residents of Kansas and Nebraska could vote on whether their state would allow slavery or not
Election of 1860 Key issue: should slavery expand into western territories? Anti-expansionists formed new party – Republicans Nominated Abraham Lincoln for president Won every free state and became president December 20: South Carolinians voted to secede from the Union