Reading Matters Comprehension StrategiesSharing some ideas presented atNSW DET Training “ReadingMatters” by Debbie FrancisAdapted by Barbara Schaffer
Things to Consider -whole school approach K-6 Continuum Learning to K-6 Syllabus READ Reading to Learn Critical Literacy• Common philosophies; Aspects Sessions• Metalanguage Grouping &• Links to writing ,talking and listening Differentiating Assessment The Four Teaching Literacy READING • Modelled Resources Teaching and Strategies • Guided Learning • Independent Sourcing and Comprehension Selecting Strategies Texts • Before Super 6 • During Decoding Teaching • After Fluency Ideas Vocabulary
K-6 Continuum Learning to K-6 Syllabus READ Reading to Learn Critical Literacy• Common philosophies; Aspects Sessions• Metalanguage• Links to writing ,talking and listening Grouping & Differentiating Assessment The Four Teaching Literacy READING Strategies • Modelled Resources Teaching and Learning • Guided • Independent Sourcing and Comprehension Selecting Strategies Texts • Before Super 6 • During Decoding Teaching • After Fluency Ideas Vocabulary
Changes in the nature of reading are reflected in all the syllabuses Less Familiar Unfamiliar familiar known Less New known /unknown Concrete More Abstract generalised
How literacy demands change• How do literacy demands change as students move from the early years, into the middle years and through to the later years of schooling?• How do early, middle and later years teachers use modelled, guided and independent teaching strategies to cater for increasingly complex literacy demands?
There is an increased emphasis on reading strategically and efficiently through A sense of how the text has been constructed Identifying facts and opinions Identifying more than one theme Analysing the intent of the author Identifying what they already know Knowing to spend time on the new
Videos available on curriculum support website.athttp://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/literacy/publications/index.htmAn introduction to quality Literacy in the early, middle Literacy teaching learningliteracy teaching and later years Putting planning for literacy Modelled teaching – Later into practice: A middle years years teacher’s perspectiveGuided teaching – Early Guided teaching – Middle Guided teaching - Lateryears years yearsIndependent teaching – Independent teaching –Early years Middle years
The critical aspects of literacy development Reading texts ComprehensionVocabulary knowledge Unconstrained skills Aspects of writing Aspects of speaking PhonicsPhonemic awareness Constrained skillsConcepts about print
Individually read through:Balanced and integrated literacy teaching p. 16Explicit and systematic literacy teaching p. 17 What is it? What do teachers do? What does it look like in a literacy lesson? Compare and discuss your understandings with a partner or the group.
What is Comprehension ? Comprehension involves responding to, interpreting analysing and evaluating texts. (NSW.DET.2009) Comprehension should go hand in hand in with building knowledge in a particular content area.Comprehension is the key tolearning
Help students understand what comprehension isNo single standard for everyone on every textWe can revise and improve our understandingStudents may misunderstand a great deal but partialunderstandings are building blocks for betterunderstandingStudents need to know that comprehension is builtrecursively through rereading and rewriting. (Scott Paris 2009
What are the ThreadsWithin in each aspect, threads indicate areas of knowledge . Forexample the Comprehension aspect includes the following threads;Strategies and skillsInferringPerspective /opinions/discussing making and confirming predictionsComparing and contrasting of multiple texts /sources/purposesInfluence /positioningFeatures (ways ideas are presented )Main ideas, central themes , retell ,summary
ExpectationsHigh correlation between teacher expectation and studentperformance.The impact of expectations is particularly significant forstudents from cultural and linguistic backgrounds that differfrom those of the majority school culture.High expectations applies as much to literacy development as itdoes to other areas if the curriculum.Low or negative expectations affect not only a a studentsprogress and achievements but also their self image and senseof identity
End of Stage OneEighth cluster of markers:• Refers to prior knowledge and experiences to build understanding of atext.• Justifies predictions about sections of a text.• Builds understanding of a text by using knowledge of text organisationand features, e.g. referring toheadings and sub-headings to locate information.• Draws conclusions by using clues in a text.• Identifies more than one perspective or point of view when representedin texts.• Articulates the main idea and provides a synthesised retell that captureskey events in texts.• Creates mental images to capture ideas in texts.
End of Stage 2• Interprets text by inferring connections, causes and consequences duringreading.• Responds to and interprets texts by discussing the differences betweenliteral and inferred meanings.• Interprets the meaning of a text by seeking further information in othersections of a text or in different texts.• Identifies ways texts present different perspectives.• Evaluates text accuracy and credibility by comparing texts on a similar topic.• Analyses and evaluates the relative importance of key ideas and informationin a text to construct an overview.• Responds to and analyses texts by discussing the ways language structuresand features shape meaning.• Responds to and interprets texts by integrating sources of information intexts.
End of Stage 3Twelfth cluster of markers: Interprets and critically analyses texts by responding to inferred meaning within a text and justifying interpretations using evidence. Reinterprets ideas and issues by creating innovative personal responses to ideas and issues in literary texts through oral, dramatic, written and multimodal presentations. Critically analyses a wide range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts in different forms to compare how ideas are presented. Explains how texts can be interpreted from a variety of perspectives by discussing the ways that different views and values are presented. Interprets texts by identifying and discussing multiple purposes within the same text. Interprets and analyses several different texts on one topic to present a summary of information and ideas that show an understanding of the topic. Analyses texts to compare how language structures and features are used to position readers and viewers. Analyses and evaluates how written information and visual images shape meaning by comparing texts on the same topic.
Factors that affect the supports and challenges of any text, include: Experiences and knowledge of the students Concepts in the text Vocabulary Amount of abstraction and complexity of ideas Text layout and visual features Familiarity with the text type and structure The purpose for which the text will be used by the students .
Explicit Teaching of Comprehension Strategies Increasing explicit instruction for the use of comprehension strategies is the most widely cited current recommendation for improving reading comprehension in all students.So what do we mean by explicit instructionWe need to explicitly teach What is the strategy Why is it important How and when do you use it ?
Something in your own life (text to self)Something occurring in theworld (text to world).
Example questions/statementsThis story reminds me of my holiday ,This character has the same problem that I read/saw/heard inanother text.I saw a program on television that presented things described in this text.Does this remind me/you of something?Has something like this ever happened to me/you?Example teaching ideaBook and me: Students create two columns with headingsBook/Me.Prior to and during reading students add details about theconnections between the book and their lives.
We actively adjust (comprehension)We do this while reading/ viewing orlistening.
Example teaching ideaBefore and after chart: Students list predictions before and during reading.As they read students either confirm or reject their predictions.
Questions can be generated by thelearner, a peer or the teacher.
Example questions/statementsWhat in the text helped me/you know that?How is this text making me/you feel? Why is that?When you read/viewed/ listened to that text did it remind me/you ofanything I/you know about? Why did it remind me/you of that?What did the composer of the text mean by …?Whose point of view is this? What points of view are missing? Example teaching idea Wonderings: Using post-it notes, students list all the questions they have about the text. As they read students continue to write questions. When an answer is found for the wondering students remove the post-it note.
We stop and think about the text and knowwhat to do when meaning is disrupted.
Example questions/statementsIs this making sense?What have I/you learned?Should I/you slow down? Speed up?Do I need to re-read/view/listen?What can help me/you fill in the missing information?What does this word mean?What can I use to help me understand what I’m/you’re reading/viewing/hearing? Example teaching idea Coding: As they read students code the text with post-it notes +I understand ? I don’t understand ! I fixed it up myself *This is important
Learners create a mental image from a text read/viewed/heard.Visualising brings the text to life, engages the imagination and uses all of the senses. Visualising and imagining brings the text to life, engages the imagination and uses all of the senses
Example questions/statementsWhat are the pictures I/you have in my/your head as I/you read/view/ listen to thistext?Can I/you describe the picture or image you made while you read/ heard that part?How did the pictures in my/your head help me/you to understand the text?. Example teaching idea Sketch to stretch: As a passage/story is read students sketch their visualisation. In groups they share their sketches and discuss reasons for their interpretation.
Example questions/statements What things will help me/you summarise this text list, mind map, note- taking, annotations, etc? What are the main ideas and significant details from the reading/viewing/listening? If you were to tell another person about the text read/viewed/heard in a few sentences, what would you tell them? What is the main theme? How is it connected to the world beyond the text? In what significant ways does this text relate to/elaborate on the topic that you have been investigating? Can you create a metaphor for the text that you have read?Example teaching ideaKey words: Students highlight words they believe are key tounderstanding the passage. These words are written on post-it notesand placed on the page. After reading the students close the book andarrange the key words in an order that supports a cohesive summary
Learners identify and accumulate the most important ideasand restate them in their own words.
The role of conversations in comprehensionDiscussion is described as “a dialogic classroom event inwhich students and teachers are cognitively, socially andaffectively engaged in collaboratively constructingmeaning or considering understandings.”Almasi 2002
Begin with the general rather than the specific So what’s going on in this part ? What do we know that we didn’t know before? What’s new ? What was the author trying to get us to understand here ? Can you say something about that ?
Invite and support clarification of the tricky parts Anyone want to share something that was tricky or confusing? How about this part here………………. Where it says ………………? I got confused by …………..what do you think about this part ? What was the author trying to get us to think ? How ?View questions as a scaffold trying to get to the big picture and not a quiz tocheck understanding .
Authenticity is Important Authenticity encompasses the use of real texts but it is also about purpose . Using authentic texts can align the teachers purpose for reading with the students purpose for readingWhen reading texts on a topic that they are interested instudents: Use more comprehension strategies Have a greater recall of information and ideas
Rich experienceswith a variety ifforms and types oftexts are crucial toimproved studentachievement .http://youtu.be/bGKNLikKZj4
Model for teaching challenging texts Framing the text What support do my students need before they begin to read or view a text ? SurfaceUnderstanding Read Carefully What strategies will assist students to read with purpose and clarity Return to the Text How can I encourage a second reading to facilitate deeper meaning Collaboration Deep Which collaboration activities will help deepen their understanding.Understanding Reflective Response How can I helps students to see the relevance this text and the themes and ideas it contains has to their world
Framing the textWhat support do my students need before they begin to read or view a text ?Draw on students’ existing background knowledgeBuild students’ background knowledgeTake students on a virtual tour of the textUse outlines to scaffold understanding TEACH VOCABULARY EXPICITLY Focus on the key vocabulary
Read Carefully What strategies will assist students to read with purpose and clarityBrainstormingConcept maps, mind maps etc.Before and after charts, KWLMaking predictionsMaking connections, topics, authors, texts ,experiencesThink alouds
Return to the TextHow can I encourage further or closer reading to help deepen understanding Dictagloss, Jigsaw Analysing text layout/structure Graphic organisers Skimming Web searches/ research Videos /DVDS /poems/artworks/photographs/diagrams Guest speakers /excursions