Organ Systems of the Human BodyThere are 11 major organ systems inthe human body.They work together to maintainhomeostasis.
Can you name them?
Integumentary System What part of your body has to be partly dead to keep you alive? Clue: It comes in many colors Clue: It is the largest organ in your body Clue: You can see it right now!
Integumentary System Includes your skin, your hair, and your nails Protects the tissues beneath them Covers your body Helps maintain homeostasis
Structure andFunction of Skin Made of both live and dead epithelial cells Contains hair follicles, sweat glands, oil glands, muscle fibers, nerve fibers and blood vessels Protects you by keeping water in your body and foreign particles out. Nerve endings in your skin let you feel things around you Regulates body temperature. When you sweat, your skin and body cools Helps get rid of wastes through your sweat.
Structure and Function of Hair and Nails Like skin, contains both live and dead cells. Hair protects skin from UV light Eyelashes keep dust and bugs out of your eyes Hair helps regulate body temperature (goosebumps) Nails protect the tips of your fingers and toes
Cardiovascular System Includes your heart, blood and blood vessels Carries nutrients to your cells Carries waste products from your cells Carries hormones to your cells
Structure & Function of the Heart Made of cardiac muscle Has 4 chambers: left and right atrium (top) and left and right ventricle (bottom) Right side pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs Left side pumps oxygen rich blood to the body
Structure and Function of Blood Blood is made of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow Red blood cells carry oxygen to your cells with the help of a protein called hemoglobin White blood cells defend the body against pathogens (bacteria and viruses that make you sick) Platelets help your blood to clot
Structure and Function of Blood Vessels Blood vessels include arteries, veins and capillaries Blood vessels are made of smooth muscle Arteries carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to the body Capillaries are a tiny vessels where there is an exchange of O2 & CO2, nutrients and waste products, and other substances. Veins carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart
Muscular System Made of the muscles in your body that let you and your organs move
Structure and Function of Muscles Do you remember the 3 types of muscles? Which are voluntary (under your control) and which are involuntary (not under your control)?Smooth – found in digestive tract and vesselsSkeletal – attached to bonesCardiac – found in heart
Structure and Function of Muscles Responsible for movement Skeletal muscles is attached to bones by tendons (connective tissue) Do you see them? Usually work in pairs – when one contracts, the other relaxes
Skeletal System Made of bone and connective tissue
Structure andFunction of Bones
Structure and Function of Bones Protection: protects your organs Storage: store minerals to help nerves and muscles work property, store fat that can be used for energy Movement: skeletal muscles pull on bones to produce movement Blood: marrow in your bones make blood cells
Interesting Fact When you were born, most of your bones were soft and rubbery – made of cartilage. Over time, this cartilage is replaced by bone. Where do you still have cartilage? Hint: it is soft and flexible.
Bone Joints A place where 2 or more bones meet is a joint Joints are held together by ligaments (a type of connective tissue) Joints are cushioned by the cartilage (a type of connective tissue) at the end of your bones Joints are either moveable (gliding, ball and socket or hinge) or not moveable (fixed)
Structure and Function of Joints Gliding joint – hand and wrist glide past one another Ball and socket joint – like a video stick, allows movement in all directions Hinge joint – like a door, movement is in two directions Fixed joint – no movement, or little movement.
Respiratory System Includes the nose, throat, lungs and passageways that lead to the lungs Respiration is the process by which a body gets and uses O2, and releases CO2 and H2O The first part of respiration is breathing (inhaling and exhaling), and the second part is cellular respiration, which involves chemical reactions that release energy from food.
Structure and Functionof the Nose and Throat Your nose is the main passageway into and out of the respiratory system. Your nose has little hairs that filter the air you breathe. Air can also enter through your mouth. The throat has 2 parts – the pharynx and larynx Air enters the lungs through the pharynx, and food enters the esophagus through the larynx
Function of the Nose and Throat Nose Contains hair to filter air Throat Air and food enter body Pharynx Larynx Air enters lungs Food enters esophagus
Function of the Lungs Your body has 2 sponge-like lungs The trachea (entrance to the lungs) divides into 2 branches called bronchi One bronchus connects to each lung Bronchi branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles Bronchioles branch into tiny sacs called alveoli Your lungs have no muscles, what causes you to breath are the rib muscles and a large muscle called the diaphragm
Breathing and Cellular Respiration Look closely at the alveoli – what do you see? When you breathe, O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the alveoli. In cellular respiration, O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the capillaries
The Digestive System A group of many organs that work together to digest food so that it can be used by the body Some organs have food pass through them, other organs produce enzymes that help in the digestion of food
Function of the Digestive System Mouth: Teeth for mechanical digestion, saliva for chemical digestion Esophagus: Peristalsis moves food to stomach Stomach: Muscular (smooth) sac that continues mechanical digestion. Secretes HCl acid to help with chemical digestion Small Intestine: Chemical digestion continues Large Intestine: Absorbs H2O, stores, compacts and eliminates material not absorbed into the blood Rectum& Anus: Eliminates waste from the body
Function of theDigestive System Salivary Glands: Secrete saliva that helps in the chemical digestion of carbohydrates Pancreas: secretes enzymes that helps to neutralize the acid in the stomach and in the chemical digestion of sugars Liver & Gallbladder: Helps in digestion by Making bile to break up fat Stores nutrients Breaks down toxins
Interesting Facts If you were to stretch your small intestine out, it would be 6 m long! If you flattened out the surface, it would cover a tennis court! How is this possible? Look up villi It takes about 24 hrs for food to travel through your digestive system
The Urinary System Includes the kidneys and bladder Removes waste products from your blood
Function of the Kidney The kidneys are a pair of organs that constantly remove waste products from your blood. If these waste products are not removed, your body can actually be poisoned.
Function of Urinary Bladder Waste fluid (urine) leaves the kidneys through the ureters and enters the bladder. Urine leaves the body through the urethra
The Nervous System Consists of central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system Central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system all other parts The CNS acts as the control center for the body The PNS carries information to and from the CNS
Structure andFunction of the Brain Main control of the nervous system Consists of 3 parts: Cerebrum (controls thought and memories), cerebellum (controls sensory info from muscles, etc), and medulla (controls breathing, body temp, heart rate) Has both voluntary and involuntary movements. Can you name a voluntary movement? An involuntary movement?
Function of the Spinal Cord Carries messages from the PNS to your brain About as big around as your thumb Protected by bones - vertebrae
Function of Neurons (aka Nerves) Messages from your environment travel through the nervous system along neurons Neurons are special cells that transfer messages by impulses (a form of electrical energy) Funny looking cells with extensions – dendrites and axons
The Reproductive System
The Endocrine System A collection of glands and groups of cells that secrete hormones that regulate growth, development, and homeostasis A gland is a group of cells that make special chemical for the body These chemicals, called hormones, are made in one type of cell and cause a change in another cell or tissue in your body
Function of the Endocrine System Pancreas: regulates blood sugar Thyroid: regulates rate at which you use energy Parathyroid: regulates calcium levels in your blood Adrenal: helps body respond to danger Thymus: regulates immune system Pituitary: secretes hormones to help other glands Ovaries/Testes: secretes hormones needed for reproduction
The Lymphatic System Includes the thymus gland, bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes and lymph vessels
The Lymphatic System A group of organs and tissues that helps your body fight pathogens (bacteria or viruses that make you sick) Works with the bones in the skeletal system A group of organs and tissues that collect excess fluid that leaks out of the capillaries and returns it to your blood
Structure and Function of the Lymphatic System Thymus gland: produces T cells to help fight infections Bone marrow: produces lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells that fight infection Spleen: Produces lymphocytes and removes defective red blood cells Tonsils: Lymphocytes in the tonsils trap pathogens that enter the throat Lymph nodes: Store lymphocytes that fight infections and remove pathogens from lymphatic fluids Lymphatic fluid: Transport lymphatic fluid throughout the body