1. The cognitive approach to abnormality Irrational thoughts Errors in logic
2. Main assumption• Psychological problems arise because the way we think. Ellis identified the following types of irrational thinking;
3. 1. Polarised thinking• Seeing everything as black or white.• Eg “I got 19/20 on that test, I got one wrong so I am a failure.”• This is illogical – what disorder could this thinking lead to?
4. 2. Over generalisation• We come to a general conclusion based on one single event.• Eg “I crashed my car that one time, it will happen again.”• “I failed one test, I will definitely fail that subject.”
5. 3. Believing ‘I should’, ‘I ought’ and ‘I must’.• Constantly obsessing over what you should be doing/ be like/ be achieving.• Eg “I should be exercising now”, “I should be a better student”, “I should be in a relationship”
6. 4. Catastrophising• Making a mountain out of a molehil• “I forgot to post that letter, this is the worst thing I have ever done”.• “That date went badly, I will never get married”.
7. How does depression occur?• 1. Errors in logic• Depressed people draw illogical conclusions about themselves and their lives, this leads them to becoming unhappy.• “Mary blanked me yesterday, she must hate me, I must be an awful person”
8. 2. Triad of errors (Beck) Negative view of the world “Everyone is against me”Negative view of the future Negative view oneself“I will never be any “I am worthless” good at anything”
9. Evaluate the cognitive approach• STRENGTH – supported by research evidence• Eg Gustafson found that many people with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression did suffer from maladaptive thinking patterns
10. • WEAKNESS – does not consider why the thinking in faulty• We do not know if irrational thinking occurs because of depression of if it causes it.• (which came first?)
11. • WEAKNESS and/ or STRENGTH The responsibility is on the individual• W- blames the individual• S-...
12. Cognitive treatments• Cognitive Behaviour Therapy• A type of therapy that combines cognitive and behavioural aspects• The AIM: To challenge .............................and encourage the client to see things differently
13. Using a case study• John is very depressed. He recently did not get a promotion at work that he was hoping for. He feels useless at his job and does not believe he will ever be happy. John has had 2 serious relationships. The 1st (3 years) ended as they went separate ways after university. The 2nd (4 years) his fiancé cheated on him. He thinks that he will never find anyone else.
14. Procedures :REBT:• Ellis developed this therapy (Rational- Emotive Behaviour Therapy)• Clients are taken through the A B C model• A: Activating event – eg.....
17. Beck’s cognitive therapy• The client must monitor situations where they have negative thoughts (as in the triad)• The therapist will challenge these negative thoughts in question and answer sessions• Why does this help? What would we say to John?
18. Evaluating cognitive treatments• STRENGTH Diverse applications• Can treat lots of different problems such as...
19. • STRENGTH - appealing to clients – less threatening than other therapies such as.......................and provides clients with self help strategies
20. • STRENGTH - CBT has been successfully used for treating depression. How does it compare to drugs?• Hollon: ................................................• Fava: 25% relapse ................................. 80% relapse .................................
21. • STRENGTH- Ethics- there is an equal relationship between client and therapist – they work together. What type of therapy is this better than?