Water side and Aquatic plantsSilvinus Clisson Pragash & Sn Azarudeen
Waterside plants• Waterside plants can be broadly defined as the vegetation which thrive in the margins of any water body such as Rivers, streams, lakes and ponds.• Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and banks are called riparian vegetation, characterized by hydrophilic plants. Riparian zones are significant in ecology, environmental management, and civil engineering because of their role in soil conservation, their habitat biodiversity, and the influence they have on fauna and aquatic ecosystems, including grassland ,woodland, wetland or even non- vegetative.• The assortment of riparian zone trees varies from those of wetlands and typically consists of plants that either are emergent aquatic plants, or herbs, trees and shrubs that thrive in proximity to water.• Riparian zones may be natural or engineered for soil stabilization or restoration. These zones are important natural bio filters, protecting aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, polluted surface runoff and erosion.• They supply shelter and food for many aquatic animals and shade that is an important part of stream temperature regulation. When riparian zones are damaged by construction, agriculture or silviculture, biological restoration can take place, usually by human intervention in erosion control and re-vegetation.
Aquatic plants• Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater). They are also referred to as hydrophytes or aquatic macrophytes. These plants require special adaptations for living submerged in water, or at the waters surface.• Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is permanently saturated with water. They are therefore a common component of wetlands.• These plants thrive in stagnant water such as lakes, ponds and also in the riverside wetlands and in rivers blocked with dams.• Aquatic plants play numerous roles in the ecosystem of a pond. Aquatic plants consume the same nutrients as algae. They also consume various metals and other compounds.• Another advantage of plants is that they provide shade, which deprive algae of direct sunlight. Blooming aquatic plants such as Lotus and tropical water lilies consume huge amounts of nitrates from the pond which will also help with reducing algae problems.• Aquatic plants not only help maintain the health of your pond, but they can also soften the look of the pond.• They can help camouflage any rocks around the edges of the pond as well as add natural beauty and variety of colour to the pond.
Aquatic plants• Aquatic plants are generally divided into four groups for management purposes. These groups are the Algae, Floating Plants, Submerged Plants, and Emergent Plants.• Floating Plants are not attached to the bottom. Floating plants come in sizes from very small (duckweed) to over a foot in diameter (water hyacinth). Most have roots that hang in the water from the floating green portions.• Submerged Plants are rooted plants with most of their vegetative mass below the water surface, although some portions may stick above the water. One discerning characteristic of submerged plants is their flaccid or soft stems, which is why they do not usually rise above the water’s surface.• Emergent Plants are rooted plants often along the shoreline that stand above the surface of the water (cattails). The stems of emergent plants are somewhat stiff or firm.• Many ponds have more than one type of aquatic plant, and care must be taken to identify all the aquatic plants inhabiting the pond. Some pond plants may be beneficial to local or migratory wildlife, and therefore, may want to be encouraged or at least not eliminated. Click on whichever group of aquatic plants that you feel your specimen may belong to and work through the examples until you find it.
Aquatic plants speciesAlternanthera reineckii Water Hyacinth TaroLotus Cattail Bulrush Different varieties of water lilies Iris
Design consideration for water side and aquatic planting• Having pleasantly diversified the path in relation to the stream, we have to think how best it may be planted. Some of the plants suited to the running stream edge will be the same as for the margins of stiller ponds, but some that have a liking for running water will be proper to the stream itself.• One should be careful not to crowd too many different plants into my stream-picture. The way to enjoy these beautiful things is to see one picture at a time ; not to confuse the mind with a crowded jumble of too many interesting individuals, such as is usually to be seen in a water garden.• Care must be taken not to overcrowd the plants, rather group together three to five plants of the same kind, leave a space, and again plant a clump of subjects of different colour, type, and height. This irregularity and variety will please the eye, which would tend to become surfeited by a mass of the same color, size, and form.
Design consideration for water side and aquatic planting• The natural surroundings must also be very carefully considered. If the area is restricted, greater variety and beauty can be obtained by the use of small growing species; while among extensive surroundings full rein may be given to the free-growing plants, many of which are invaluable as a background where space permits. It is always necessary, however, to bear in mind the size to which the plants will grow in from two to three years time, and to arrange them accordingly.• Knowledge of the habits and rate of growth of the plants introduced and a clear visualization of the picture one is endeavouring to produce can ensure success in this exceedingly difficult matter of planting for future effect.
Design consideration for water side and aquatic planting• Marginal plants are typically found along the perimeter of ponds, lakes, wetlands, and streams. In a man-made pond, these plants soften the hard edges of the rocks, and provide a smooth transition from the water in the pond to the grass and shrubs beyond.• Taller marginal plants, placed as a backdrop, would naturally catch the flying seeds of other plants. The seeds would then drop to the bottom of the pond and at least some of them would live again as a new plant where they landed.• Placing taller plants like reeds, cattails, and cannas near the back of a planting cluster works well. Then, add to the look by placing medium and shorter plants on the viewing side of the taller ones.
Design consideration for water side and aquatic plantingPlaying with Colours• Random placement of plants with different textures and colours will give your pond a complete, yet unstructured, appearance.• It’s always a good idea to emphasize primary colours with larger plants, and complete the look by adding some daring contrasts of texture and other colours around the edge.• Foliage comes in many other colours besides green. Play the colours and textures of foliage will help create a lush and inviting look.• Flowers, and the multitude of colours make easy work of naturalizing the water garden
Design consideration for water side and aquatic plantingThe Height Factor• The mature size and habit of the plants should be kept in mind. it’s important to place the shorter plants in the foreground and gradually work back to the taller ones.• One of the biggest mistakes that people make when planting a water garden is failing to realize how large some plants will grow or spread. When this mistake is made, the result is an overgrown jungle that requires much more work to keep them from taking over the pond.• If you want to create a truly low-maintenance water garden, its necessary to have a good idea how large a plant is going to grow before planting it.• In summary, the more fully all of these factors are taken into consideration when designing and planting in the water garden, the better the results will be.• Pond will be fully dressed and will tie naturally into the rest of the landscape and also enhance the view of the pond with even more features and colours to delight the eye.
BibilographyWALL AND WATER GARDENS by GERTRUDE JEKYLL.http://thewesternghats.in/sites/default/files/Arulagam_Karthik_KotagiriWorkshop.pdfhttp://www.aquascapeinc.com/aquascape-your-landscape-blog.php.http://www.naturestouchponds.com/aquatic-plants.htmlhttp://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/lake2006/programme/programme/lake2006_Pdf/Keshava%20H%20Korse.pdfhttp://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/pdf/design.pdfhttp://www.backyardgardener.com/pondlady/submerge.html