National Adaptation Plans and Strategies (inter)national experiences-Martin Konig


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National Adaptation Plans and Strategies (inter)national experiences-Martin Konig

  1. 1. Climate Forum East: Regional CVA Workshop Batumi, July 8th-9th 2013 (inter)national experiences 1 Martin König Environment Agency Austria Department for Environmental Impact Assessment and Climate Change National Adaptation Plans and Strategies
  2. 2. Focus 2  Some critical climate change features in Georgia (from NC2/UNFCCC)  Starting up: adaptation modes and classifications to consider  Guidance for the adaptation process  UN guidelines for setting up national adaptation plans and processes in developing countries  EU adaptation strategy/guidelines  Austrian tools and adaptation process  Potential criteria for a prioritization of adaptation measures  National examples of integrative adaptation approaches in some ‘frontrunner’ industrialized countries (with some Austrian bias)  How to integrate CSOs? Working in partnerships
  3. 3. The vulnerability-adaptation link or: What is a CVA report good for? 3  Highlights most climate exposed/sensitive parts of society, economy and natural environment  Vulnerability hot spots may be indicated as regions, sectors, ecosystems or most affected people  Show trends, current situation and projections (climate as well as socio-economic scenarios!) that have led/lead/will likely lead to (additional) climate damages/altering vulnerability  Climate damages may be indicated in monetary terms for some (market) values and might be translated into monetary terms in some other cases (note that deciders like monetary information), but qualitative descriptions of damages are OK  CVA reports provide essential policy decision support on where to put emphasis for the adaptation process
  4. 4. T and P 2100 Change in Georgia (taken from Georgian NC2/UNFCCC) 4  Seasonal precipitation and temperature change Delta T and P projections for four SRES scenarios in Georgis W/E
  5. 5. Some striking vulnerabilities and pot. impacts in Georgia (taken Georgian from NC2/UNFCCC) 5  More extreme events? At least some hints from trends… Years with extreme mudflow activity in Tskenistskali river basin Number of annual storm events in Dedoplistskaro
  6. 6. Klimawandel und Extremereignisse © Münchner Rück (2013): Jahresrückblick Naturkatastrophen 2012 Extreme events matter
  7. 7. Klimawandel und Extremereignisse But note: damages = events x exposure of values © Münchner Rück (2013): Jahresrückblick Naturkatastrophen 2012 …because damage costs are already significant!
  8. 8. Intermediate key messages 10  Look at gradual (slow onset) trends as well as extreme (sudden onset) events  If climate models deliver high range of future extreme event frequencies/amplitudes, work with simple ‘if, then- scenarios’ to depict potential vulnerability in certain sectors/regions  If you want to assess potential future vulnerability quantitatively, you need to take socio-economic development (i.e. demographic, land-use, technological change and economic growth/values at risk) into account
  9. 9. Framing the adaptation concept, simplified wording  Exposure: A certain region/a certain sector/a company is exposed to (the changes of) climate parameters  Sensitivity: A certain region/a certain sector/a company is threatened/shows sensitivity towards (the changes of) climate parameters  Climate Impacts = Exposure + Sensitivity  Vulnerability = Climate Impacts +/- Adaptive Capacity
  10. 10. exposure pot. climate impacts sensitivity Climate change = anthropo- genic + natural forcing mitigation adaptive capacity vulnerability adaptation grey green Soft & fiscal regional sectoral micro- scale reactive or responsive proactive or anticipating determines determinesdetermines determines determines/reduces determines/reduces graphically: planned autonomous König 2011, amended after Isoard et al. 2009
  11. 11. IPCC SREX report 2012, amended Disaster risk and climate change Exposure depends on socio-economic dev. pathways (e.g. land-use, demography, technology and growth)!
  12. 12. Adaptation and the policy cycle Horrocks et al. 2006 after EEA 2007 (amended) CVAs core NAS objectives policy action based upon new scientific results Note: This wheel keeps on turning!
  13. 13. UN NAP guidance UN LDC expert group (2012)
  14. 14. EU guidelines on the adaptation process EU(COM) (2013) CVA NAS prepare implementation
  15. 15. 18 Create the basis for adaptation Identify problems and find solutions Implement actions and evaluate F actory for A daptation M easures O perated by U sers at various S cales Prutsch, A., Felderer, A., Balas, M., König, M., Clar, C. & R. Steurer (2013)
  16. 16. Intermediate key messages 19  Regard CVAs as key starting point for the national adaptation process  CVAs will have to undergo revisions, the whole process is a cycle, but revisions will be much less resource-iintensive once you have a basis  Quality of NAS and NAP is very much determined by quality of CVA – it is important to address knowledge gaps, socio- economic factors of vulnerability and uncertainty  The CVAs should not already name and evaluate adaptation options as this is part of the NAS process  Link up with policy makers as early as possible
  17. 17. 20 Austrian NAS Process Overall aim  to reduce anticipated negative impacts of climate change on Austria's society, economy and nature  to use positive effects of climate change and allow synergies  to provide an overall framework in which adaptation should take place Process  sectoral and iterative approach  close collaboration with science (research programmes ACRP and StartClim)  broad stakeholder involvement to support the development of the NAS
  18. 18. 21 Responsibilities and involvement Provinces Kyoto Forum Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management Environment Agency Austria AustroClim Coordination unit Wider research community Consultation and CooperationCSOs/NGOs Other Ministries Interest Groups
  19. 19. Building blocks for the Austrian NAS -1 22  Review of already ongoing adaptation activities (2008)  Starting basis for the national database on practice examples and research activities  available at, continuously up- dated  CVA for all activity areas (2008, 2010)  Assessing current and future vulnerability to climate change in Austria  Sectoral approach  Consideration of existing regional climate models, literature review and expert judgments, qualitative and descriptive work  First evaluation of vulnerability (current/2020/2050)  BUT: Further assessments in more detail are necessary!
  20. 20. Building blocks for the Austrian NAS -2 23  Sectoral expert studies to identify first recommended adaptation options  Undertaken by AustroClim (Institute of Social Ecology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Environment Agency Austria)  14 Sectors yet covered: agriculture, forestry, water, energy, tourism (2008); protection against natural hazards, building and housing, health, transport infrastructure, natural ecosystems/biodiversity (2010) economy, urban areas, spatial planning, disaster management/DRR (2011)  “Mini”workshops with selected experts per sector  Serve as a basis for further discussion in the participatory process  Mile stones: Policy Paper  Takes up results from expert studies and participatory process  Equates to the gradual development of the NAS  Undergoes formal consultation and is used for political approval  Workshops BMLFUW  Information, presentation and discussion with stakeholders on NAS progress
  21. 21. 24 ‚final‘ result: national adaptation strategy to frame national adaptation  agriculture  forestry  water  tourism  energy  building and housing  natural hazard protection  ecosystems & biodiversity  traffic infrastructure  health  catastrophe management  private economy, industry and retail  spatial planning  Cities and urban green  Activities for setting up the NAS  CVA  132 options to act on adaptation in 14 sectors Structure of actions description – title – goal – relevance – Interaction with other sectors – Existing instruments for implementation – State of implementation – Recommended further steps – Potential resource needs – Potential conflicts – Responsible actors – Time horizon
  22. 22. Participation process to support the development of the NAS  Environment Agency Austria carried out the participation process in close cooperation with responsible Ministry (Steering group)  Objectives:  Raise awareness about climate change in general and the need for adaptation  Improve the NAS quality through involving relevant stakeholders and benefit from their specific expertise and practical experience  Provide a platform to discuss conflicts and develop balanced solutions  Foster transparent decision-making (note: this is time- and nerve-consuming!)  Enhance the acceptance through jointly developed and backed results  Facilitate the implementation of the final NAS Financed by Duration Climate- and Energy Fund Austria 1.phase: January 2009 – September 2010 2.phase: October 2010 – December 2011
  23. 23. Involving the “organised public” and parliament decision 26  84 institutions have so far been actively involved in the participation process:  Federal and provincial ministries  Interest groups (e.g. Chambers of labor/agriculture…)  CSOs (e.g. Red cross) and NGOs  The Austrian Adaptation Strategy was decided by the national parliament in Autumn 2012  Provincial adaptation processes have started
  24. 24. Adaptation pathways might look very different Grey adaptation: invasive and/or energy intensive technical and construction measures aiming mainly at the protection of infrastructures or people Green adaptation: measures aiming at raising the resilience of ecosystems and their services Soft adaptation: non-invasive spatial planning measures and measures to enhance knowledge transfer/raising adaptive capacity Fiscal adaptation: Measures aiming at saving critical resources/protect values by adaptation (e.g. water or public/private infrastructures) by introducing measures like payment for ecosystem services (PES) or risk transfer mechanisms (e.g. insurances) 21 101 5 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 numberofmeasures category Distribution of measures in Austrian NAS greenmeasures fiscalmeasures grey/technicalmeasures softmeasures
  25. 25. Informing the general public - Website 28  New Website with information on:  Climate change in Austria  Adaptation to CC  Austrian activities towards a NAS  Participation Process  Database
  26. 26. 29 Informing the general public - Database  Providing good-practice examples  Search function for sectors, governance level, spatial patterns and research vs. practical examples
  27. 27. Involving the general public - Online survey 30  Online Survey via Website open from August until November 2009 for every (Austrian) citizen  Intention to obtain a picture of public notion and opinion on climate change and adaptation  Mix between multiple choice and blank text fields  Announcement via different newsletters and websites
  28. 28. 31 Newsletter
  29. 29. Intermediate key messages -1: Important factors for a successful process  Political and public awareness for the need of adapting to the impacts of climate change as a 2nd pillar of CC policy (1st pillar mitigation of GHG emission)  Careful planning of the process for the development of a NAS  Participative process from the start, involving science, different ministries, regional and local representatives, stakeholders, civil society… (participation process)  Start-off by reviewing already ongoing adaptation activities in Austria, especially research and good practice examples + assessment of vulnerabilities  Stepwise, sectoral and iterative approach, develop- ment of the NAS in stages (2 Policy Papers – June 09 + Oct 10; draft of final NAS Feb 12), continuously broadening the scope of the NAS
  30. 30. Intermediate key messages -2: Challenges for implementing a NAS  Conflicting interests between different groupings/different administrative levels (Federation vs „Länder“)  Interlinkages between adaptation sectors/activities and between adaptation and mitigation  Broad political commitment on all levels  Question of costs: Costs of damage due to climate change vs costs of adaptation measures? Who pays? (also for research)  Scientific knowledge gaps  regular reviews of NAS necessary („living document“)  How to address uncertainty?
  31. 31. Some key questions for the CVA/NAS process 1. Which sectors/regions are most vulnerable? 2. Which parts of economy are most sensitive? 3. Which ecosystems might collapse/have low resilience under changing climate regimes? 4. Which meteorological extreme events cause major damages/losses? How is their trend/projection? 5. Which gradual shifts do we have to adapt to? 6. Are there any opportunities due to climate change we should make use of? 7. What is the range of uncertainty we have to face? ----------- 1. Which conflicts among stakeholders/sectoral interests are already visible? 2. Which mainstreaming potential with sectoral policies can already be detected? 3. How can the suggested adaptation measures be prioritized?
  32. 32. Possible criteria for the prioritization of adaptation measures -1 Importance: Capability to reduce/prevent significant or irreversible damages and/or to protect many people? Urgency: Massive damages already occurring (adaptation deficit)? Long- term measures with long handling time until measure becomes effective? Robustness and Flexibility: Does the measure reflect the range of uncertainty and is it ‘no- regret’, if the climate change is not the expected one? Might the measure be adapted, revised or made undone at low cost?
  33. 33. Possible criteria for the prioritization of adaptation measures -2 Synergies and conflicts with other political goals: Capability to reduce or at least not raise GHG emissions? Cross- sectoral synergies/conflicts? Does the measure support other political goals such as biodiversity or social justice? Environmental Impacts: Does the measure help to raise resilience of ecosystem services? Is the measure invasive for ecosystems and their services? Social Impacts: Does the measure help to allocate risks in a fair manner? Is it capable to bring advantages for broad parts of society? Does the measure tackle threats for old, chronically sick and poor people?
  34. 34. Possible criteria for the prioritization of adaptation measures -3 Economic reasonability: Does the measure support the general government to get along with their long-term fiscal goals? How is the return of investment/long-term CBA? Is the measure cost-effective? Feasibility: Is the measure politically opportune? Is it accepted by the aggrieved parties? Is the measure easy to implement (not too many political scales/parties involved)? How about its mainstreaming potential?
  35. 35. The SALDO* Tool * stands for: the Social costs of Adaptation: approaches for an evaLuation of aDaptation Options
  36. 36. Intermediate key messages 39  Some priorization criteria might already help to shape the CVA structure  As mentioned yesterday: criteria for sector selection would be good  This does not necessarily have to follow ‘objective’ criteria, but can also include preferences, knowledge available,...  ...but it should be written down, how sectoral composition was decided
  37. 37. EU Adaptation Strategy  The general aim To enhance the preparedness and capacity to respond to the impacts of climatic change at EU, Member State, regional and local levels  The basis Commission White Paper (2009) • 4 pillar action plan: knowledge base, mainstreaming, international cooperation, policy instruments • 33 long-term actions • implementation from 2009-2012.
  38. 38. The objectives (1) Knowledge  Improve and widen the knowledge base and identify gaps  Further the understanding of vulnerabilities and adaptation options  Facilitate knowledge use and exchange (2) Policy and markets  Mainstream adaptation into policies at EU level, including revision of legislation to include climate adaptation  Identify potential adaptation actions to make markets work more efficiently (3) Cooperation and facilitation  Facilitate cooperation with and between Member States, regions, cities and other relevant stakeholders  Provide guidelines for adaptation
  39. 39. Roadmap March 2013 Adoption of the STRATEGY  Background studies  Consultations  Cooperation with Commission services Impact Assessment to IA Board START January 2012 EU Adaptation Strategy  Online public consultation May 21 to August 20 2012:
  40. 40. Intermediate key messages 43  EAS can help framing NAS, but  EAS can never be a substitutioin for NAS  Guidelines for setting up NAS are valuable
  41. 41. GO-ADAPT Core objective: How do OECD countries meet the challenges that adaptation governance brings about? Challenges can be grouped in four categories: 1. Horizontal integration across different sectors 2. Vertical integration across policy scales (local- regional/provincial-national-(EU-global)) 3. (traditional) knowledge integration/uncertainties/scientific evidence and confidence 4. Participation of the people concerned and affected
  42. 42. Results from project Go-adapt  Goal: Overview about governance approaches for climate change adaptation in selected countries  10 OECD countries: ‘adaptation frontrunners’  Document analysis: scientific papers, policy documents, government reports and internet documentation + semi-structured interviews with administrative staff (state-of-the-art: 2010)
  43. 43. Political frame AU National Climate Change Adaptation Framework (2007-2012/14) AT Österreichische Anpassungsstrategie (2012) CA National Climate Change Adaptation Framework (2005) ES National Plan for Adaptation, including Working Programme I (2006) and II (2009) DE Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie (2008), Aktionsplan (2011) DK Danish Strategy for Adaptation to a Changing Climate (2008) FI National Adaptation Strategy (2005) NL  National adaptation strategy ‘Make room for Climate’ (2007)  Delta programme (2009)  Delta Act (2012) NO  Klimatilpasning I Norge (2008) UK  Climate Change Act (2008)  Adapting to Climate Change: A framework for Action (2008)  National Adaptation Programme (expected in 2013) NAS  All NAS are framing documents  Majority has a soft, non- binding and advising character  Follow-up: work programmes, action plans, sectoral programmes, monitoring and evaluation Legal frame  Only in NL and UK legally binding  UK: Climate Change Act 2008  NL: Delta Act
  44. 44. Responsibilities AU Government Department for Climate Change AT Bundesministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasser CA Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada ES Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea, Spanish Office on Climate Change (OECC) DE Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit DK Ministry for Climate Change FI Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture NL Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management (initially: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment*) NO Ministry of Environment UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) Responsibilities are different:  in 6 countries – adaptation and mitigation policies in the same ministry  in 4 countries – adaptation and mitigation policies in different ministries  operational support from other public entities (e.g. EPAs)
  45. 45. Adaptation as coordination effort  NAS act as catalysts for the adaptation processes  ‚traditional‘ governance approaches:  Strategies (NAS, mitigation, other strategies tackling climate change adaptation)  Boards (inter-ministerial, federal-provincial, advisory boards/consulting bodies  Consultations (classical stakeholder consultations)  New governance approaches:  Transdisciplinar (research) programmes (i.e. cooperation of scientists, planners, decision makers and practicionners on project basis)  partnerships „Adaptation opens new ways of cooperation“
  46. 46. What are partnerships and what is expected from establishing them? partnership =  Permanent connection of transdisciplinary (science, policy, society) stakeholders  Cooperation and CSO/NGO steering in a broadly defined field of work (such as adaptation)  Often in geographic boundary/regional co-operations  CFE should be regarded as partnership and ‚give birth‘ to regionally focussed (transdisciplinar) adaptation initiatives that might neglect adminstrative borders expectations  Reaction towards limited governmental problem solution capacity for complex challenges  effective, inclusive and legitimate  Innovative solutions and policies
  47. 47. Examples for regional partnerships GB: Regional Climate Change Partnerships (RCCP) Canada: Regional Adaptation Collaboratives (RAC)  Since 1999  Initiative for regional administrative units from UKCIP; support from Defra (since 2008) = bottom-up  11 partnerships  Goal: analysis and consulting for regional impacts and adaptation options  Broad thematic focus (tourism, planning, water, private companies/industry, etc.)  2009 - 2012  Intiated through RAC-Program of NRCAN = top-down  6 partnerships  Goal: cooperation to establish regional adaptation planning and decision support  Thematic focus on water management Bauer, A., Feichtinger, J. & R. Steurer (2012)
  48. 48. Strengths and challenges of regional partnerships strengths  Addresses horizontal and vertical fragmentation of competences  Plenty of actors get involved  Flexibility  Reacts to local requirements  Strategically at regional/national level  Mutual trust among key actors challenges  Inclusion of the non- interested  Sustainable engagement  Connection to national scale  Different background of the partners with regard to knowledge, resources, interests and activities  Common language  Lacking awareness for adaptation  Finances/Ressources
  49. 49. Intermediate key messages and Q  Regional partnerships for CCIVA are important coordination mechanisms for actors within and among policy scales  Regional partnerships might boost innovation and diffusion of adaptation policies and -measures  NGOs/CSOs play a vital role in steering these partnerships and could act as information broker/translator, mediator, moderator  How is the chance for regional partnerships across borders in CFE countries?
  50. 50. Summarizing recommendations -1  Plan adaptation as (cyclical) process along the policy cycle and make use of EU/UN guidance  Take care to integrate the adaptation process vertically (policy scales from local to supranational), horizontally (across partaking/impacted) sectors and transdisciplinary (policy makers, practitioners, companies, affected people and multi-disciplinar research teams)  Consider regional (meaning sub-national as well as cross-border) partnerships in which to integrate CSOs/NGOs as potential leaders as well as governance at all policy scales
  51. 51. Summarizing recommendations -2  Urge your government as well as other funders (private funding organisations, donators,…) to accompany the adaptation process with an applied (transdisciplinar) research programme as well as with fundamental research (e.g. for climate and economic modelling)  Once the adaptation process gets started, seek for ‘windows of opportunity’ to mainstream adaptation in other policy domains, look for synergies and make sure adaptation process does not become a singular/stand-alone/one-shot exercise  Aim at an integrative process and involve all relevant institutions and players (note that this complicates the process and might lead to some compromises, but is essential for political commitment for the NAS)
  52. 52. Summarizing recommendations -3  Link up with international processes and showcase your national adaptation process and efforts  Take care for awareness raising in your country, collaborate closely with the media and aim at roadshows and public consultations  Disseminate results adequately to different target groups/social milieus. Note for example that heat-stressed elderly people might not use the internet and that dissemination material should be tailor-made to at least the most important social milieus in your country  Try to get an overview of the damages/costs of weather events in your country, project costs by applying climate damage triggers projection to cost-relevant impact chains (climate scenarios) and socio-economic scenarios. Note: This helps to get high-level political commitment
  53. 53. References  Bauer, A., Feichtinger, J. & R. Steurer (2012): The Governance of Climate Change Adaptation in 10 OECD Countries: Challenges and Approaches. Journal of Environmental Polocy & Planning.  Bednar-Friedl, B., Koland, O., König, M., Raab, J. (2011): The Social Costs of Adaptation: Approaches to an Evaluation of Adaptation Options. (Publication in German).  EU(COM) (2013): An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change.  ETC/ACC (2010): Guiding principles for adaptation to climate change in Europe. Technical paper 2010/6.  Prutsch, A., Felderer, A., Balas, M., König, M., Clar, C. & R. Steurer (2013): Methods and tools for adaptation to climate change. Environment Agency Austria, Vienna. (Publication in German).  Pringle, P. (2011): AdaptME: Adaptation monitoring and evaluation toolkit. UKCIP, Oxford, UK.  UKCIP (2010): The UKCIP Adaptation Wizard V 3.0, UKCIP, Oxford  UN LDC expert group (2012): National Adaptation Plans 58 Umweltbundesamt CFE Regional CVA workshop Batumi/Georgia ■ Jul 8-9 2013
  54. 54. Contact & Information Dipl.-Geogr. Martin König +43 1 31304 5961 Dr. Klaus Radunsky +43 1 31304 5534 59 Umweltbundesamt CFE Regional CVA workshop Batumi/Georgia ■ Jul 8-9 2013