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Report - Hurricane Sandy’s Untold Filthy Legacy: Sewage
 

Report - Hurricane Sandy’s Untold Filthy Legacy: Sewage

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Explore the wheres, whats, and hows of the 11 billion gallons of sewage that overflowed into rivers and other waterways, largely as a result of record storm-surge flooding that swamped the region’s ...

Explore the wheres, whats, and hows of the 11 billion gallons of sewage that overflowed into rivers and other waterways, largely as a result of record storm-surge flooding that swamped the region’s major sewage treatment facilities.

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    Report - Hurricane Sandy’s Untold Filthy Legacy: Sewage Report - Hurricane Sandy’s Untold Filthy Legacy: Sewage Document Transcript

    • Alyson Kenward, PhDSenior ScientistDaniel YawitzResearch AnalystUrooj RajaResearch AnalystSewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy
    • Sewage Overflows FromHurricane SandyAlyson Kenward, PhDDaniel YawitzUrooj RajaClimate Central surveys and conducts scientificresearch on climate change and informs the publicof key findings. Our scientists publish and ourjournalists report on climate science, energy, sea levelrise, wildfires, drought, and related topics. ClimateCentral is not an advocacy organization. We do notlobby, and we do not support any specific legislation,policy or bill. Climate Central is a qualified 501(c)3tax-exempt organization.Climate Central scientists publish peer-reviewedresearch on climate science; energy; impacts such assea level rise; climate attribution and more. Our workis not confined to scientific journals. We investigateand synthesize weather and climate data and scienceto equip local communities and media with the toolsthey need.April 2013PrincetonOne Palmer Square, Suite 330Princeton, NJ 08542Phone: +1 609 924-3800Call Toll Free+1 877 4-CLI-SCI (877 425-4724)www.climatecentral.org
    • Alyson Kenward, PhDSenior ScientistDr. Kenward manages the Climate Science researchprogram at Climate Central. Her research interestsinclude the connection between climate change andwildfires, as well as the potential of clean-energytechnologies. Her writing has been featured at ScientificAmerican online, OnEarth, Yale Environment 360 andthewebsiteoftheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory.She holds a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University ofCalgary and a Masters in Science Journalism from NewYork University.Daniel YawitzResearch AnalystDaniel Yawitz is a High Meadows Fellow serving as aResearch Analyst and Multimedia Fellow at ClimateCentral. He holds a B.A. in Psychology and a certificatein Urban Studies from Princeton University, wherehis research focused on the use of behavioral cues toencourage energy-saving behaviors. He has previouslyworked as an intern for the Regional Plan Associationin New York City, where he served as a member of theGovernor’s Island Alliance and acted as a liasion to stateand federal governing agencies on the island.Urooj RajaResearch AnalystUrooj Raja is a High Meadows Fellow serving as aResearch Analyst and Multimedia Fellow at ClimateCentral. She received her B.A. in history with honorsfrom Princeton University. She worked as an adviserto the Permanent Mission from Pakistan to theUnited Nations and the Observer Mission from theOrganization of Islamic Conference (OIC), whereshe advised delegations on economic, legal, andenvironmental issues. She has previously worked asan instructor in Columbia University’s CommunityImpact initiative, the Harlem Children’s Zone, and asa Community Liaison for New York State AssemblyMember Deborah Glick.ReportAuthors
    • Executive Summary1. Introduction1.1 Rising Seas and Risk of Storm Surge1.2 More Heavy Downpours1.3 Types of Sewage Overflows2. Results2.1 Overview2.2 State-by-State Overflows3. Methods3.1 Data collection3.2 Data treatment4. Conclusion4.1 Impacts4.2 Costs4.3 MitigationReferences and NotesGlossaryAppendixContents
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 1Executive SummaryHurricane Sandy was the largest storm to hit the northeast U.S. in recorded history, killing 159, knocking outpower to millions, and causing $70 billion in damage in eight states. Sandy also put the vulnerability of criticalinfrastructure in stark relief by paralyzing subways, trains, road and air traffic, flooding hospitals, crippling electricalsubstations, and shutting down power and water to tens of millions of people. But one of the larger infrastructurefailures is less appreciated: sewage overflow.Six months after Sandy, data from the eight hardest hit states shows that 11 billion gallons of untreated andpartially treated sewage flowed into rivers, bays, canals, and in some cases, city streets, largely as a result of recordstorm-surge flooding that swamped the region’s major sewage treatment facilities. To put that in perspective, 11billion gallons is equal to New York’s Central Park stacked 41 feet high with sewage, or more than 50 times the BPDeepwater Horizon oil spill. The vast majority of that sewage flowed into the waters of New York City and northernNew Jersey in the days and weeks during and after the storm.Our analysis of sewage-spill data -- see interactive graphic -- provided by state agencies and individual treatmentplant operators shows that:• One third of the overflow (3.45 billion gallons) was untreated raw sewage. The remainder (7.45 billongallons) was partially treated, meaning that it received at least some level of filtration and, perhaps,chlorination.• 94 percent of the spilled sewage, well over 10 billion gallons, was the result of some form of damagecaused by coastal flooding. In some cases, Sandy’s storm surge simply flooded treatment plantsand pumping stations, while in other cases a combination of power outages and flood conditionsshuttered facilities or caused major diversions of sewage into receiving waters.New York47.3%New Jersey46.4%Washington D.C.4.3%Connecticut 0.22%Virginia 0.21%Pennsylvania 0.51%Maryland 0.77%Rhode Island 0.17%Delaware 0.03%New York and New Jersey Had More Than 94 Percent of the SewageOverflows From Sandy
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 2• 93 percent of the volume of sewage overflows took place in New York (47 percent) and New Jersey(46 percent). Eighteen of the 20 largest spills ended up in New York and New Jersey waters, as did thefour individual sewage overflows of more than 1 billion gallons each; two each from New York andNew Jersey.• The notable exception to storm-surge related sewage discharges was in Washington D.C., whereinstead, rainfall was the main culprit. Sandy produced 5.1 inches of rain in 24 hours, leading tothe sixth-largest Sandy-related sewage overflow at 475 million gallons of untreated sewage andcontaminated runoff. That was the only rain-related sewage spill in the top 30 overflows. Overall,heavy rainfall caused a reported 776 million gallons of sewage spills to waters in Mid-Atlantic States.In addition to sewage overflows, Sandy severely damaged numerous treatment plants and pumping stations.Damage to a number of treatment plants kept largely untreated sewage flowing into local waterways for weeks,and in some cases, even months after the storm. The last known Sandy-related sewage overflow took place inJanuary 2013.Climate Central is unable to estimate the total costs of repairing sewage systems impacted by Sandy, butaccording to state authorities:• The cost of repairing Sandy’s damage to sewage treatment plants in New York is nearly $2 billion. The NewJersey Department of Environmental Protection plans to allocate nearly $1 billion for recovery and repair offacilities, and another $1.7 billion for building resilience into the system.HighlightsNew YorkNew York City reported six sewage spills larger than 100 million gallons, and 28 larger than 1 million gallons.Long Island faced large spills from the Bay Park facility. When the plant was knocked out of service for 44hours, roughly 100 million gallons of untreated sewage overflowed into Long Island’s Hewlett Bay. Another 2.2billion gallons of partially treated sewage flowed through the plant during the 44 days it took to fully restoreoperations.In Westchester County, 49 million gallons of untreated sewage flowed from the Yonkers treatment plantduring 14 hours at the peak of the storm. Another 1.2 billion gallons of partially treated sewage flowed fromthe plant in the ensuing four weeks.New JerseyThe Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission in Newark reported the largest spill of all. During the week after thestorm, 840 million gallons of untreated sewage flowed into Newark Bay. It took another two weeks to get mostof the treatment up and running, and during that time another 3 billion gallons of partially treated sewageoverflowed.Middlesex County reported another 1.1 billions gallons of untreated sewage discharge to local waters, due tocomplications related to Hurricane Sandy.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 3Climate Change Means Rising Seas, Heavier Rainfalls, And More Sewage OverflowsSewage treatment plants are usually placed near water in low-lying areas so that sewage can be piped to the plant viagravity and treated sewage can be easily discharged into receiving waters. These key factors in plant locations makethem especially vulnerable to storm surges and coastal flooding. Compounding the inherent risk of their low-lyinglocations, many treatment plants have expansive, underground labyrinths of pipes, holding tanks and pumps thatcan remain waterlogged and incapacitated long after floodwaters recede. They also typically discharge their treatedwastewater through large underwater pipes, which can cause facilities to flood from the inside as waters rise, longbefore the surface water levels overrun the outside of the structures.Climate change is making sewage treatment plants more vulnerable to major failures and overflows due to risingseas, more intense coastal storms, and increasingly heavy precipitation events. In March 2012, Climate Central’scomprehensive analysis of sea level rise, Surging Seas, reported that for more than two-thirds of the U.S. coastallocations analyzed, global warming has more than doubled the odds of a one in hundred year storm surge occurringwithin the next year.Climate change that is already underway will lead to higher seas and more storms that can overwhelm coastal sewagetreatment systems, resulting in massive overflows of partially or untreated sewage into waters surrounding many ofour largest and most important coastal cities; water that millions of people rely on for food, health and recreation.The EPA has already forecasted that heavy precipitation events may make current efforts to mitigate sewer overflowsobsolete. Plans to mitigate future overflows must consider the effects of climate change on sea level rise, heavyprecipitation, and storm intensity.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 41. IntroductionWhenHurricaneSandyslammedintotheEastCoastin October 2012, the strong winds, intense rainfalland record storm surge revealed the vulnerability ofmuch of our infrastructure to extreme coastal storms.Among the most at-risk type of infrastructure: sewagetreatment systems. Along much of the Atlanticcoastline, treatment plants, pumping stations andpipelines were overwhelmed and billions of gallonsof untreated sewage flowed into hundreds of rivers,streams, bays, and streets from Virginia to RhodeIsland.Some treatment plants were inundated by thehigh water, leaving them flooded and incapacitated.In other cases, plants were unable to handle theextra water flow resulting from heavy rainfall andfloodwater that mixed with normal sewage flow, sooperators diverted sewage around treatment plantsand directly into receiving waters, a technique knownas a bypass, in order to keep the plant operating.Still, other plants lost their pumping capacity as thestorm knocked out power and cut them off from thegrid. Even though plants have backup generatorsto maintain power during blackouts, in a number ofcases generators ran out of fuel following Sandy afterthey were left without power for days.Untreated sewage can have significantconsequences on the environment and publichealth, and following these overflows, people can beexposed to harmful microbes in recreational water.In the future, increased storm surge risks from sealevel rise and more bouts of heavy rains, particularlyduring storms, could lead to more treatment plantsbeing inundated and more overflows throughout theentire sewage treatment system.The goal of this report is to draw attention to thefact that our sewer infrastructure is at great risk toevents like Hurricane Sandy, despite previous effortsto mitigate the impacts of these storms. In most of thecases where Sandy affected treatment plants, plantoperators followed their best management practicesto reduce the volume and quantity of the associatedbypasses. But too often they found themselvesoverwhelmed by the sheer volume of sewage andwastewater runoff flowing through the system, orcrippled because storm surge flooding inundatedtheir facility or because power outages simply shutdown the plant.Figure1. OverflowfromtheBayParkSewageTreatmentPlantinEastRockaway,N.Y.HurricaneSandyresultedinover2billiongallonsof sewage overflow from this facility. Some of this overflow (an estimated 68 million gallons) was released adjacent to the WesternLong Island South Shore Estuary (above). Photo courtesy of Doug Kuntz.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 51.1 Rising Seas and Risk of Storm SurgeRising sea levels are among the strongest signalsof climate change. Higher temperatures are causingland ice to melt and ocean water to expand, both ofwhich cause sea level to rise. Scientists have alreadyobserved about an 8-inch rise in global sea level since1880, but that number is higher in places where theland is also sinking, such as in the Chesapeake Bayand New York City. Researchers now estimate thatglobal sea level will rise between 2 and 7 feet by 2100.Coastal storms become more dangerous as a resultof sea level rise. When a major storm hits the coast, itpushes high waves and flooding inland. Higher seasmean those floods start from a higher launch padand can be even more destructive. During HurricaneSandy, for example, the storm surge was higher thanit would have been decades ago because climatechange has already caused about a foot of sea levelrise in Lower Manhattan.Most sewage treatment plants treat millions ofgallons of sewage each day and constantly needto discharge the treated wastewater back into thewatershed. The plants are usually placed near thewater in low-lying areas so that sewage can be pipedto the plant via gravity without expending any extraenergy pumping it where it needs to go, and so thatthe effluent (treated sewage and wastewater) can beeasily discharged into receiving waters.But the same features that make coastal treatmentplants efficient also make them especially vulnerableto storm surges and coastal flooding. Compoundingthe inherent risk of their low-lying elevation, manytreatment plants have expansive, undergroundlabyrinths of pipes, holding tanks and pumps thatcan remain waterlogged and incapacitated longafter floodwaters recede. In addition, many plantsdischarge their treated wastewater through largeunderwater pipes, which can cause plants to floodfrom the inside as waters rise, long before the surfacewater levels overrun the outside of the structures.Sewage plants can be vulnerable to sea level rise,even without the threat of a coastal storm. Peak hightides make it difficult for plants to discharge treatedwastewater, since the plant’s ability to discharge isbased on the ability of water to follow the flow ofgravity through the plant. Most coastal plants weredesigned around historic high tide levels, when eventhe highest water levels would be at a lower elevationthan the outfalls. Rising seas upset the balancebetween water pressure inside the plant and waterpressure outside, making it more difficult for plants tooperate at high tide.1.2 More Heavy DownpoursHeavy downpours are increasing across the U.S.,partly as a result of global climate change. Accordingto the publically released draft of the National ClimateAssessment, heavy rainfall events have become 30percent more frequent since 1991, when comparedto the 1901-1960 average. The Northeast, GreatPlains and Midwest have seen the greatest increasesnationwide, with the Northeast seeing 75 percentmore heavy downpours over that time.More intense rainfall is placing a heavy burden oncities with combined sewer systems, which share thesame pipes to carry storm water and sewage boundfor a wastewater treatment plant. Too much rainfallin one of these sewers can overwhelm the pipes andlead to what’s known as a combined sewage overflow(CSO). These CSOs can occur in manholes, alongrivers, or at any point where there is a hole in the pipeto relieve pressure during heavy flows. CSOs can alsooccur at pump stations or treatment plants, whichbecome the bottlenecks for transporting and treatingthe increased flow brought about by heavy rainfall.1.3 Types of Sewage Overflows1.3.1 BypassesWhen a plant stops working, sewage continuesto flow through the plant, even though the capacityto treat that flow becomes greatly reduced. In thesecases, the plants send the remaining flow throughthe facility without full treatment. This release ofuntreated, or partially treated, sewage is known as a“bypass.”According to the Clean Water Act, plants arepermitted to bypass untreated wastewater underspecific circumstances; this usually only occurs duringemergencies. In order to legally bypass wastewater,the event must meet all of the following criteria:
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 6• The bypass was “unavoidable to prevent lossof life, personal injury, or severe propertydamage;”• There were no “feasible alternatives” to thebypass.• The permit-holder submits notice of thebypass to the permitting authority (usuallythe local EPA region, or state environmentalprotection office).2Bypasses can occur at any treatment stage at theplant, which means sewage may be released intowaterways completely untreated (with minimalfiltration),orafteronlybasicfiltrationanddisinfection.Bypasses can also occur at pump stations. Forsewer systems in large, or topographically complexmunicipalities, pump stations are placed at thelowest local elevation, so that waste can flow to thepump via gravity, before being mechanically pumpedto a treatment plant. During periods of heavy flow,or when the pump station goes out of service, thepumping station becomes a choke point, and sewagecan bypass that pump station and be discharged intoan adjacent waterway, essentially untreated.1.3.2 Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO)Combined sewer systems exist primarily in citiesbuilt before the 20th century; in the late 1800s, thesesystems were the most technologically advancedway to keep sewage out of the street and away fromsources of drinking water. Sewage and storm watercollect in a single pipe, and the combined wastewatertravels to a treatment plant, where it is treated andreleased into adjacent waterways.When it rains, morestorm water flows into the pipes, and can overwhelmthe system.Therefore, combined sewers are designedto overflow into the nearest river when it rains, inorder to keep sewage from backing up into the streetsor into peoples’ homes. This is known as a combinedsewer overflow (CSO).However, as cities have expanded over the pasttwo centuries, CSOs have become more frequent.A growing population leads to both more sewageand more paved surfaces that increase storm runoff.This increased sewage and runoff load is often beingjammed into pipes built more than a century agofor smaller cities and smaller populations. When thecombinedloadoverflowsaCSOoccurs,anduntreatedsewage flows directly into waterways, along withother contaminants the storm water sweeps into thesewer, such as industrial waste and debris.According to the EPA, there are 772 communitiesin the U.S. that rely on combined sewer systems tosome extent. Most of these are in the Northeast, andGreat Lakes regions, and in the Pacific Northwest. Forexample, there are 1,220 CSO outfalls in NewYork andNew Jersey alone.4The federal government regulates CSOs. InDecember 2000, Congress amended the CleanWater Act to require CSO communities to permit andminimize the impacts of overflows. MunicipalitiesFigure 2. Under normal conditions, a combined sewersystem distributes all sewage to a treatment plant. Heavyrainfall can cause overflows, sending some untreatedsewage into nearby waterways. Credit: EPA.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 7are now required to improve their storm drainagesystems, eliminate dry weather overflows from thesesewers, and report the impacts of the spills to thepublic. However, the specific laws that dictate howCSOs are regulated are left to the states. Therefore,the degree to which different communities clean orreport their CSOs varies from state to state.Climate change may make it even harder to cleanCSOs. Based on projections for an increase in heavyrainfall, the EPA projects that climate will lead to alarge enough increase in the number of overflowevents that current mitigation efforts will becomeobsolete.51.3.3 Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSO)Unlike combined sewers, sanitary sewers carrystorm runoff and sewage in separate pipes. Sanitarysewers have the advantage of not overflowing everytime it rains, but they can still overflow if there issome excess inflow into the system. Sanitary seweroverflows (SSO) are usually more concentrated thanCSOs because they are not diluted by rainwater.SSOs have a variety of causes. They can betriggered by the failure of sewer equipment, from toomuch storm water infiltrating the sewer system, or ifsome kind of blockage accumulates in the pipes.Box 1: What is Sewage?Sewage is the combination of human waste and other wastewater, including all bath and toilet waste, laundrywastewater, kitchen waste (anything that drains down the kitchen sink or through the dishwasher), and othersimilar waste that comes from domestic and commercial sources. “Raw sewage” describes this sewage mixturebefore it has received any filtration or chemical disinfection.In cities and municipalities that rely on combined sewer systems, domestic and commerical sewage mixes withstormwater in underground pipes, and the entire mixture flows and is treated at a sewage plant (also known asa wastewater treatment plant). During heavy rainfall, stormwater can wash streetlevel chemicals and debris intothe combined sewer system, adding more pollutants into the sewage. Sewage flowing in sanitary sewage systems(in places that don’t have combined sewer systems) is usually not diluted by stormwater, and is thus much moreconcentrated when it reaches a sewage plant.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 82. Results2.1 OverviewThe analysis examines 1) how much wastewateroverflowed as a result of the storm, 2) how muchof that received treatment, and 3) what the leadingcauses were of those types of spills.The numbers reported here are based on the bestestimates of sewage flow volumes and plant damageprovided by a variety of state agencies, municipalgovernments, plant operators, and the EPA.States use different terms to describe overflowevents so we classified overflows according to themost commonly used category names. In severalcases, where was no assigned cause for an incident,we assigned one based on knowledge of rainfallamounts, power outages, floodwater heights, andlocation of each spill.We collected data from eight states (and theDistrict of Columbia) affected by Sandy:• Connecticut• Delaware• Maryland• New Jersey• New York• Pennsylvania• Rhode Island• Virginia• Washington, D.C.New York47.3%New Jersey46.4%Washington D.C.4.3%Connecticut 0.22%Virginia 0.21%Pennsylvania 0.51%Maryland 0.77%Rhode Island 0.17%Delaware 0.03%New York and New Jersey Had More Than 94 Percent of the SewageOverflows From SandyFigure 3. New York and New Jersey comprised the vast majority of the total recorded spill volume during Sandy, with 5.2 billiongallons and 5.1 billion gallons, respectively. The other six states and Washington, D.C. had a combined 600 million gallons.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 9Based on the data collected, we estimate that 10.9billion gallons of wastewater overflowed as a result ofthe storm.• Of that, 32 percent -- 3.45 billion gallons -- ofthe overflow was untreated. The other 7.45billion gallons of partially treated wastewaterreceivedatleastadegreeofprimarytreatment.In most cases, this included filtration anddisinfection.• New Jersey and New York comprised the vastmajority of the spill volume, with 46 percentand 47 percent, respectively.• The leading causes of overflows were relatedto Sandy’s enormous and unprecedentedstorm surge. Complications due to coastalflooding were responsible for 94 percent (10.2billion gallons) of the volume of sewage thatoverflowed.- Of the remaining 6 percent (690 milliongallons), 80 percent (549 million gallons)were the result of heavy precipitation,14 percent (98 million gallons) werethe result of power loss to plants andpumping stations, and 3 percent (22million gallons) happened due to othertypes of equipment failure.• Outside of New York and New Jersey (685million gallons), the leading cause of aspill was heavy precipitation, which eitheroverwhelmed a plant or flowed out of aCSO. In the remaining seven states, heavyprecipitation was responsible for 549 milliongallons of overflow.These numbers do not include amounts thatoverflowed directly from combined sewer systems inNew York and New Jersey. However, these two stateswere hit the hardest by Sandy’s storm surge, andhave the highest concentration of combined sewersystems in the country, since so many of the low-lyingcommunitiesaroundNewYorkHarborhadtheirsewersystems built in the 19th century (such as Manhattan,Brooklyn, Newark, Bayonne, Elizabeth, Jersey City,and Perth Amboy). When the streets flooded in thesecities, the seawater would have flushed everything inthose combined sewers into the waterways.Storm Surge-RelatedDamage94%Heavy Precipitation5%Other1%Storm Surge Caused 94 Percent of the Sewage OverflowsFrom SandyFigure 4. Coastal flooding and power outages caused by the record storm surge during Sandy were responsible for almost all of thesewage overflow volume linked to Sandy. Most of the rest of the overflows is attributed to heavy precipitation.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 10Box 2: Top Five Biggest Sewage Overflows During Superstorm Sandy1. Passaic Valley Sewage Commission, Newark, N.J. – After a wall of water at least 5 feet high inundated thissewage treatment plant during the storm, 840 million gallons of untreated sewage flowed directly intoNewark Bay between October 29 and November 3., when some treatment was restored. In addition, another3 billion gallons of partially treated sewage was sent into the bay before secondary treatment was restoredon November 16.2. Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant, Bay Park, N.Y. – We conservatively estimate that as much as 2.2 billiongallons of partially treated sewage flowed into Rockaway Channel from this plant between October 29 andDecember 21 (when this plant was once again fully operational). Tidal flooding in Bay Park was so severe thatplant operators were unable to give us their estimate of the overflow volume, but based on daily averageflows through the plant, we estimate 104 million gallons of untreated sewage was also sent into RockawayBay from Bay Park.3. Yonkers Joint Wastewater Treatment Plant, Yonkers, N.Y. – High waters on the Hudson River flooded theYonkers plant on October 29, knocking out the facility’s power. Before initial treatment was restored, over 49million gallons of untreated sewage emptied into the Hudson, but a total of 1.2 billion gallons of untreatedsewage went into the river before operations were back to normal two weeks after the storm.4. Middlesex County Sewage Authority, Sayersville, N.J. – Two pumping stations that service the MCUAtreatment plant were severely damaged by Sandy, sending over 1 billion gallons of untreated sewage intoRaritan River and Raritan Bay. These two pumps were in Sayersville and Edison, NJ, and the Sayersville pumpwas so badly damaged that it was still sending untreated sewage into the river as of January 2013.5. O Street Combined Sewer Overflow, Washington, D.C. – More than 5 inches of heavy rain fell inWashington, D.C. during Superstorm Sandy, leading to an overflow in the city’s combined sewer system. OnOctober 29 and 30, 475 million gallons of untreated sewage and contaminated storm runoff flowed into theAnacostia River from a pump station near Washington Nationals Park.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 11Despite ubiquitous CSOs in New York and NewJersey during Sandy, the total volume is unknown.The volumes from New York discussed here onlyinclude overflows from treatment plants and pumpstations.2.2 State-by-State Overflows2.2.1 ConnecticutThe two largest spills in Connecticut camefrom two mid-sized sewage treatment plants inBridgeport. As a result of the storm, both facilitiesfaced increased flows to their plant due to flooding inthe surrounding sewers. In order to stay in operation,the two plants were forced to bypass 17 million and2.5 million gallons of partially treated sewage intothe Long Island Sound and Bridgeport Harbor on thenight of October 29th.The sewage treatment plant in Mystic also sufferedfrom a storm surge that overwhelmed three of itsmajortreatmentprocesses.TheMysticplantbypassed2.3 million gallons of partially treated sewage into theMystic River on October 29, while it waited for theextreme high tide to recede.2.2.2 DelawareThe largest spill in Delaware came from the City ofLewes Wastewater Treatment Plant, which lies onlya few hundred yards from a beach on the DelawareBay. When Sandy hit, Lewes was evacuated. The plantoperators decided to shut the facility for the durationof the storm, reasoning that bypassing highly dilutedrunoff from a mostly-evacuated town would have asmaller environmental impact than letting the stormflush out their biological reactors. By October 31, 2.4million gallons had overflowed into the bay from thefacility.2.2.3 MarylandMaryland received more rainfall than coastalflooding during Sandy, which meant that themajority of its spills came from combined seweroverflows, or from power outages caused by downedtrees. Roughly 41.6 million gallons overflowed fromsewer outfalls across the state. The majority of thosewere near the headwaters of the Potomac River, inCumberland County.A more concentrated spill took place at the LittlePatuxent Water Reclamation Facility, near Savage.As a result of the torrential rains and high windsthat battered the Delmarva Peninsula during Sandy,the facility lost power as the storm damaged oneof the power lines leading to the plant. The on-siteemergency generator ran out of fuel within a fewhours, and the facility began bypassing untreatedsewage into the Little Patuxent River. The totalvolume of the spill was close to 19.5 million gallons.Fortunately, Howard County officials reportedthat there was no immediate danger to the localecosystem or drinking water after the storm, becausethe spill had been so diluted by the heavy rainfall.Another similar spill was reported at the Town ofSnow Hill Wastewater Treatment Plant in WorcesterCounty. During the storm, the plant was flooded withwater from the Pokomoke River, and bypassed morethan 2.4 million gallons.Baltimore City and Baltimore County recorded aseries of CSOs and SSOs from various manholes andsewer mains. This amount did not exceed 6.7 milliongallons.2.2.4 New JerseyTwo of the biggest spills associated with Sandycame from northern New Jersey. These were at thePassaic Valley Sewerage Commission, in Newark, andfrom the Middlesex County Sewerage Authority, inSayreville.The Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission (PVSC),which has a plant in Newark, was hit with the full forceof Sandy’s storm surge. A wall of water at least 5 feethigh overwhelmed the plant, leaving it flooded andcompletely out of service from October 29 throughNovember 3. During that period, 840 million gallonsof untreated sewage flowed through the plant anddirectly into Newark Bay. On November 3, workerswere able to restore primary treatment, and disinfectwhat was flowing into the bay. It took until November
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 1216 for workers to restore secondary treatment. Duringthose three weeks, at least another 3 billion gallons ofpartially treated, disinfected sewage spilled into thebay.The destruction at PVSC caused an estimated $200million in damages. PVSC has an annual operatingbudget of $150 million.TheMiddlesexCountySewerageAuthority(MCUA),whichserves797,000householdsandbusinesses,alsofaced significant damage to its facilities near NewarkBay. While its central treatment plant was largelyunscathed by the storm, two pump stations (one inEdison and one in Sayreville) were severely damaged.The Sayreville pump station was so badly damagedthat it was intermittently bypassing sewage intoNewark Bay as late as January. The Sayreville pump issituated on the Washington Canal, a shallow channelnear the mouth of Raritan River. The total volume ofreported spills attributable to Sandy from facilitiesin the MCUA exceeded 1.1 billion gallons during athree-month period.Dozens of other, smaller spills and SSOs were alsoreported across central and southern New Jersey, as aresult of inundation, blockage, and the loss of powerto essential pumping equipment.2.2.5 New YorkThe sewer infrastructure in New York City, LongIsland, and parts of the lower Hudson River northof the city all faced direct hits from Sandy. Thecombination of treated and partially treated sewagethat overflowed from pump stations and treatmentplants in New York State exceeded 5.1 billion gallons.The largest single spill in New York State camelikely from the Bay Park Treatment Plant in NassauCounty, Long Island. The storm left this coastal plantcompletely out of operation for at least 42 hours afterthe storm. Since the tidal flooding was so severe,operators were unable to provide even conservativeestimates as to the amount of non-salt water thatescaped the plant. However, based on average dailyflows through the plant, we estimate that at least104 million gallons of untreated sewage overflowedinto Rockaway Channel. After the first 42 hours,treatment levels came back online slowly. It took untilDecember 21 (44 days) for secondary treatment to bePartially Treated68.3Untreated31.7One Third of the Sewage Overflow Volume From Sandy WasUntreatedFigure 5. Among the 32 percent of untreated sewage overflow during Sandy, there is no way to determine how dilute the sewagewas.Theothertwothirdsofoverflowswerepartiallytreated,whichincludeddisinfectioninmostcases,butinrareinstancesmayonlyhave involved filtration.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 13fully restored. During that time, we estimate that asmany as 2.2 billion gallons of partially treated sewageflowed into that channel, and out into Hewlett Bay.An additional 1.6 billion gallons came from pumpstations and treatment plants in New York City. Thecity is served by 14 wastewater treatment plants. Nineof those plants had spills that exceeded 10 milliongallons:• The Coney Island Wastewater TreatmentPlant on Sheepshead Bay had the mosttrouble. Despite the tireless efforts of plantworkers throughout the storm to keep theextreme high tide and increased flow fromoverwhelming the plant, water eventuallyinundated the plant. The plant chief orderedthe facility to shut down for two hours on thenight of October 29 to minimize damage topersonnel and electrical equipment. The plantwas back in service by 12:30 a.m. on October30. In total, 213 million gallons of raw sewageandCSOoverflowedfromtheplant,inadditionto another 284 million gallons that escapedwith only a reduction in secondary treatment.• The Oakwood Beach Wastewater TreatmentPlant on Staten Island also faced significantflooding, but was able to maintain sometreatment and disinfection throughout thecourse of the storm. The plant operatedwithout key electrical equipment betweenOctober 29 and November 2, and overflowed237.5 million gallons of mostly treated sewage.• The Rockaway Wastewater Treatment Plant inQueens was also forced to shut down duringthe storm due to severe flooding. While asmall degree of treatment was maintainedthroughout this time, the plant discharged 36million gallons of mostly untreated sewage,and 165 million gallons of partially treatedsewage.• The Hunts Point Wastewater Treatment Plantin the Bronx was forced to bypass untreatedsewage through its gates to prevent theflow from flooding the plant. Hunts Pointdischarged 153.8 million gallons of untreated,diluted sewage into the East River.• Operators of the Newtown Creek WastewaterTreatment Plant in Greenpoint, Brooklyn wereable to maintain power to the plant duringSandy by harnessing electricity from backupgenerators and electrical turbines. However,the extreme high tide and storm surge onthe evening of October 29 caused 143 milliongallons of untreated sewage to overflow fromthe submerged plant into Newtown Creekbefore the flow was brought under control.• The 26th Ward Wastewater Treatment Plantin East New York, Brooklyn, bypassed 89million gallons of wastewater that had onlyundergone partial secondary treatment. TheNew York City Department of EnvironmentalProtection cut power to the plant as it floodedwith water from the storm surge in order toprevent further damage to the equipment.• The North River Wastewater Treatment Plant,which sits beneath Riverbank State Park on theHudson River, saw significant flooding on thefirst floor of the plant that knocked out severalpumps responsible for guiding the sewagethrough the facility. Between October 29 andOctober 31, the plant bypassed 83 milliongallons of sewage into the river.• The Owls Head Wastewater Treatment Plantin Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, lost power to its mainpumps for several hours during the storm.Secondary treatment and disinfection systemsremained online, and the plant bypassed76.2 million gallons of partially treated anddisinfected sewage.• The Port Richmond Wastewater TreatmentPlant experienced heavy flows and damagedequipment, but maintained its ability todisinfect waste.The facility bypassed 30 milliongallons of partially treated sewage during thestorm.In New York City, a combined 102.6 million gallonsoverflowed from three more treatment plants(Tallman Island, Wards Island and Stony Point), andfrom 31 pump stations across the five boroughs.At the Yonkers wastewater treatment plant, justnorth of NewYork City on the Hudson River, HurricaneSandy overran the banks of the river, flooded the
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 14plant’s basement chambers, and cut power to allof the plant’s equipment. The plant’s engineers cutelectricity before the storm hit in order to minimizedamage, but the damage was still severe. The motorsrequired for pumping sewage through different levelsof treatment had to be removed, disassembled, dried,and put back together. Wires corroded by the saltwater had to be completely replaced. The flow wasagain being disinfected by the morning of October30, though it took three more days for the plant torestore primary treatment. Secondary treatmentwasn’t running until two weeks after the storm, Inthe meantime, the plant sent 120 million gallons ofuntreated, disinfected sewage into the Hudson Riverevery day. The estimated total volume of partiallytreated sewage that flowed into the Hudson River is49 million gallons untreated, and 1.2 billion gallonspartially treated.2.2.6 PennsylvaniaHeavy rainfall over Pennsylvania brought heavyflows to wastewater treatment plants in Harrisburgand York. As a result, these two plants were forced tobypass some parts of the treatment process duringthe storm. The two facilities discharged 22.8 millionand 12.5 million gallons of partially treated sewage,respectively.Another plant, in Hanover lost power as a resultof the storm, and discharged 11 million gallons ofuntreated sewage into nearby Plum Creek between 2p.m. on October 29 and 11 p.m. on October 30.2.2.7 Rhode IslandWhile heavy rains spared most of the state, manyplants in Rhode Island experienced heavy flowsduring the storm, primarily due to storm surge andlocalized flooding. The largest event was a dischargeof partially treated sewage at the Bucklin WastewaterTreatment Facility in East Providence. As a resultof increased flow from the storm, operators at theBucklin facility hurried to redirect the increased flowsthrough alternative channels in the plant, in orderto prevent a bypass. Unfortunately, as they weredoing so, the plant lost power, and the redirectedpartially treated sewage overflowed into theSeekonk River. The total amount of the overflow wasrecorded as more than 17.5 million gallons (whichreceived primary treatment and disinfection). Insmaller events, Newport’s Wellington Avenue CSOstructure experienced a 762,000-gallon overflow, andMiddletown’s Wave Avenue pumping station brieflybypassed 75,000 gallons.  2.2.8 VirginiaSandy caused two major spills of raw sewagein Virginia. One was at the Front Royal WastewaterTreatment Plant in Warren County, where heavyrains increased the flow through the plant andoverwhelmed its 12 million gallon capacity. 5.3million gallons of untreated sewage overflowed fromthe plant into a creek that feeds into the ShenandoahRiver.The other major spill happened when a sewermain in Suffolk broke and began spilling raw sewageinto Shingle Creek, just 10 miles north of the mouthof the James River. More than 18.5 million gallonshad flowed into the narrow waterway before the flowcould be stopped.2.2.9 Washington, D.C.No bypasses were reported from the Blue PlainsWastewaterTreatmentPlant,whichtreatsthemajorityof the wastewater from the greater D.C. metro area.However, more than 5 inches of heavy rainfall fell overthe city during the storm, and that took a heavy tollon the combined sewer system. Between October29-30, roughly 475 million gallons of untreatedsewage and storm runoff flowed into the AnacostiaRiver from a pump station nearWashington NationalsPark. Officials at the District of Columbia Water andSewage Authority believe that even more overflowedfrom sewer outfalls across the city, but had no way ofmeasuring those overflows.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 15Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant in East Rockaway, N.Y. (Credit: Doug Kuntz)One overflow location (68 billion gallons) from the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant wasadjacent to the Western Long Island South Shore Estuary (see images below). (Credit: Doug Kuntz)
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 16
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 173. MethodsThe data represented here comes from thebest available information compiled by stateenvironmental protection agencies, municipalgovernments, individual plant operators, the EPA,and a collection of news reports. However, there arediscrepancies in reporting techniques and qualitycontrols between these sources, which influences theoverall data quality. Consequently, we have refrainedfrom drawing conclusions that go beyond basicestimates.Furthermore, where data are incomplete, wemarked it as such, and made educated guesses basedon what was available. In these cases, the reportednumber is only a rough representation of an amount,rather than an official estimate.3.1 Data collectionThe EPA requires all treatment plants and seweroutfalls that release pollutants to apply for a NationalPollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)permit. NPDES permit holders are required to reportall bypasses and overflows to the EPA. The majorityof the data we collected come from these reports,which were either collected by state environmentalagencies, or by the EPA itself.However, the effects of storm knocked out manyof the electronic monitoring sensors plants use tomeasure bypasses and flows. In these cases, volumesof bypasses come from testimonials from plantoperators, who made estimates based on the plant’sdaily average flow, and the period of time the plantwas out of operation for.In several cases, the sheer volume of flooding at aplant made it impossible to distinguish what was saltwater and what was wastewater. In these situations,the amount of overflow volume the plants providedto us is an estimate of what would have been treatedby the plant in an average day. This number comesfrom multiplying the flow through the plant (inmillions of gallons per day) by the number of hours(or days) the plant was out of service.Due to the extent of the damage caused bySandy in hundreds of communities, this report maynot reflect every individual sewage overflow thatoccurred as a result of the storm in every part ofthe country. Our data reflects all the spills that werereported to a local or state authority, along with spillsthat we discovered through our own investigations.CSOs and SSOs are often more difficult to estimate.While NPDES permits require states to collect thisdata, not all states keep this data centralized orpublically available. Therefore, CSO and SSO datais wholly unavailable for Delaware, New York andVirginia, and partially available for Connecticut, NewJersey, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. Some statesrely entirely on citizen reports for both the locationand volume of some overflows, adding to theunreliability.3.2 Data treatmentIn cases where a state did not provide a fulldescription of each incident, we used our bestjudgment, in consultation with other experts, asto the type of overflow, the general cause of theoverflow, and the amount.Many of the largest spills reported here are basedon estimates developed in consultation with localplant operators, state agency officials and otherexperts. The estimates come from multiplying theaverage daily treated flow at that plant (in millionsof gallons per day) by the length of time a plant wasout of service for (in days). Below is a list of plants forwhich we calculated estimates:• Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission,Newark, N.J.• Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant, Bay Park,N.Y.• Yonkers Joint Wastewater Treatment Plant,Yonkers, N.Y.• North Yonkers Pump Station, Yonkers, N.Y.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 18In most cases, we knew the type of sewer system(combined or seperate) in the location provided, andcould estimate the type of damage Sandy would havehad in that area, based on what we knew about thestorm’s track and impact. Where information aboutthe cause was missing or incomplete, we occasionallyrelied on local news reports.The categories of “untreated” and “partiallytreated” are very rough. “Untreated” includes all spillscategorized as raw sewage, CSO, or SSO. “Partiallytreated” refers to sewage that received any degreeof treatment at a wastewater plant, even if it was aslittle as large-scale filtration. While these categoriesare rough, they allow for comparisons between stateswith different treatment standards.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 194. ConclusionAll told, the effort that went into keeping plants inoperation during Sandy, and into bringing damagedplants back up to capacity following the storm isremarkable. Operators of wastewater plants dideverything they could to minimize damage to theplant and treat sewage as well as possible. Even withthe amount of damage done, nearly every plant wastreating sewage, to some degree, within hours afterthe storm.Nevertheless, Sandy revealed how vulnerablecritical components of our sewer infrastructure areto storms that cause coastal flooding, carry heavyprecipitation, and temporarily cut access to theelectricity grid. The costs associated with a storm likethis are enormous, and range from the cleanup thathappens immediately after a disaster, to the addedexpense of operating damaged equipment monthsafter a storm.4.1 ImpactsThe effects of this contamination were apparentimmediately after the storm. Several local authoritiesissued health advisories warning citizens to stay awayfrom waters that were contaminated by sewageoverflows.6-11After the storm, the EPA warned peopleto stay away from flood waters in order to minimizethe risk of exposure to raw sewage, and cautionedthem to boil drinking water that may have beencontaminated.12Beyond the immediate consequences of foulsmells, the sight of floating waste, and the cleanupassociated with them, sewage overflows canhave serious impacts on public health, and on theecosystems in the receiving waterways.134.1.1 HealthRaw and inadequately treated sewage containspathogens (both bacteria and viruses) that can lead toserious health problems. Recent studies suggest thatthere are nearly 20 million cases of waterborne illnessfrom drinking water in the U.S. each year.14Sincelong-term data on sewage overflows are unreliable, itcan be hard to definitively link diseases with patternsin sewer overflows. Moreover, the EPA has reportedon the difficulty of connecting known outbreaks ofwaterborne-related illness with specific CSOs or otheroverflows. Nevertheless, the EPA also reports thatsewage overflows greatly increase risks of waterborneillness via several channels. Firstly, coming in contactwith contaminated water greatly increases the riskof contracting a waterborne disease. Secondly, fishand shellfish from contaminated waterways cancarry pathogens released during sewage overflows.Finally, drinking water sources may be impacted by asewage overflow, and municipal health departmentsoften issue boil water notices immediately after astorm. Children, the elderly, and pregnant womenare particularly vulnerable to illnesses caused by thepathogens in sewage overflows.During major flooding events like those associatedwith Hurricane Sandy, there is an added health riskassociated with contaminated standing water.4.1.2 Environmental ImpactsIn addition to pathogens and bacteria,inadequately treated sewage can impact the healthof an aquatic ecosystem by depleting the availableoxygen and creating an imbalance of nutrients fororganisms living in the contaminated environment.Similarly, untreated sewage contains highconcentrations of phosphorous and nitrogen, whichpromote plant growth. With this sudden nutrientincrease, algae in the contaminated waterways cangrow very quickly, collect on the water surface inunattractive, green algae blooms, and drive awaynormal aquatic life.4.2 CostsAll told, Sandy caused upwards of $50 billion indamages nationwide.15The total costs wrought onsewer infrastructure is not collected here, but theexamples from a few affected plants provide context
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 20for how expensive the storm was for affected sewersystems.The Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission inNewark, N.J., expected the total cost of repairs toexceed $200 million dollars. That is $50 million morethan their annual operating budget of $150 million.The total cost of damage to the sewer system inWestchesterCounty,N.Y.,isestimatedat$14.5million.Federal relief money will only cover a fraction of thatcost. The New York State legislature is attempting toraise $10 million in bonds, but is legally limited fromraising any more than that.In South Monmouth County, N.J., which lies rightonthecoast,thestormlefttwosewagepumpstationscompletely out of service due to flooding, and caused$10 million in damages to sewer equipment. TheSouth Monmouth Regional Sewage Authority has anannual budget of $6 million, and as of March 2013was still looking for ways to finance its repairs.New York State now estimates the sewage andwastewater system repair and recovery costs fromHurricane Sandy to be nearly $1.9 billion.The New Jersey Department of EnvironmentalProtection plans to allocate $2.6 billion dollars onwater infrastructure damaged by the storm. Of that,$342 million will go to recovery, $553 million willbe spent on repairs, and the remaining $1.7 will bespend on building resilience into the system.4.3 MitigationThe threats discussed here are not purely causedby climate change. Coastal storms, heavy rainfall andaging sewer infrastructure would cause overflows,even in an ordinary climate. However, rising seasand stronger storms exacerbate these problems, andmake the need to adapt even more urgent.Mitigating sewer overflows, from both combinedsewer systems, and from damaged plants, is anexpensive, and time-consuming process. However,if the frequency or severity of events like Sandyincreases, the costs of cleaning up from each stormwilleventuallyexceedthecostofextensivemitigation.4.3.1 Mitigating CSOsThe national CSO Control Policy, part of theamendment to the Clean Water Act made in 2000,requires communities to implement nine minimumcontrols and to develop a long-term plan to reducethe frequency and adverse effects of sewageoverflows. These nine controls include taking stepslike reducing runoff by channeling more storm waterinto absorbent green spaces, eliminating dry weatheroverflows, and maximizing the amount of sewagethat flows into a wastewater treatment plant. TheCSO control policy also requires communities to letthe public know about the impact of CSOs.Eliminating CSOs altogether is an ongoing andexpensive process. In 2004, the EPA compiled theexpenditures that 48 communities (roughly 6 percentof the total number of CSO communities) had takento update their sewer system. The costs totaled $6billion, and ranged from $134,000 to $2.2 billion perFigure 6. Combined sewage overflow locations in the NewYork City Metro Area. Credit: EPA.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 21community. The EPA estimates that the total costs offuture CSO controls will exceed $50 billion over thecoming decades.16The 2009 American Recovery andReinvestment Act included more than $75 million infunding to help update sewer systems in New Yorkand New Jersey.The City of Portland, Ore., was able to eliminatemore than 95 percent of its annual combinedsewer overflows by completely updating its sewerinfrastructure. Over the course of 20 years, the cityadded miles of underground pipes to carry 1.2 billiongallonsofannualstormwaterandseparateitfromthecity’s municipal waste. The project was completed in2011, and cost taxpayers an estimated $1.4 billion.174.3.2 Protecting Wastewater Treatment PlantsThevulnerabilityofwastewatertreatmentplantstorising sea levels and severe storms is not well-studiedand the projected costs of protecting these facilities(ormakingthemmoreresilienttostormsurgeevents)is not well-understood. In 2008, the New York CityDepartment of Environmental Protection publisheda report in which it identified the potential threatthat sea level rise and coastal inundation could poseto the city’s wastewater infrastructure. These includerising high tides, the increased frequency of storms,and the elevated risk of prolonged power outages.18The NYC DEP report identifies several strategies toreduce the impacts of coastal flooding and the stressplaced on treatment plants. These include:• Improving the capacity of the storm collectionsystem, so that less runoff from rainfall andflooding end up flowing to the plant, oroverflowing as a CSO.• Raising the elevation of key site-specificfacilities (such as pumps, generators, andelectrical equipment) above projected floodheights.• The construction of watertight doors andwindows to protect critical equipment.• Installing pumps that can work underwater(known as“submersible pumps”).• Having additional backup emergencymanagement equipment on site in order toprepare for prolonged power outages andminimize the amount of time the plant is outof service.• Revising the design criteria of each plant, sothat future renovations address the threat ofsea level rise.The damage caused by Sandy offers a chance toexpand that advice. Additional suggestions for low-cost,short-termactionsthatplantscouldtakeincludepreparing for evacuations, giving early warnings, andimproving emergency and operational preparednessat vulnerable locations.20It is important to note that the tireless efforts frommany plant operators kept these spills from being anymore severe. For example, in North Carolina, a statethatregularlyfacesdamagefromseasonalhurricanes,there were no overflows from sewage treatmentplants for three reasons. First, due to their experiencewith hurricanes, residents and town utility officialshave had practice shutting systems or evacuatingif needed. Second, Sandy hit the northern coast ofNorth Carolina, which is full of resort towns that tendto empty by the end of October, reducing the overallload on the system. Third, and most importantly,Sandy only dealt a glancing blow to the NorthCarolina coast on its way to the Northeast. However,in other states, the sheer magnitude of the stormand damage it caused overwhelmed most possibleemergency procedures. This is an indication that thevulnerability of these plants is entirely a vulnerabilityof infrastructure to high seas and extreme storms,rather than a vulnerability of management.New solutions to prevent future overflows shouldgo beyond short-term fixes, and be conducted withthe knowledge that the threats carried by Sandy– coastal flooding and heavy precipitation – willbecome more frequent over the coming decades.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 22
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 23References and Notes(1) U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 2013: Third National Climate Assessment, Draft forPublic Comment 2013. Chapter 2: Our Changing Climate, p47. Washington, D.C.(2) U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 2006: Code of Federal Regulations. Title 40. Protectionof the Environment. Section 403.17. Washington, D.C.(3) Riverkeeper, 2011: How is the Water? A Story of Sewage on the Hudson River. News: Water Quality.Ossining, NY: Riverkeeper Inc. http://www.riverkeeper.org/news-events/news/water-quality/how-is-the-water/.(4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011: Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Storm Water Out ofthe Public’s Water. New York, EPA Region 2.(5) U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 2008: A Screenng Asessment of the Potential Impacts ofClimate Change on Combined Sewer Overflow Mitigation in the Great Lakes Regions. Office of Researchand Development, U.S. EPA. Washington, DC.(6) ibid(7) Virginia Department of Health, 2012: Virginia Department of Health Closes the Virginia Portions of theChesapeake Bay and Virginia Inside Passage of the Eastern Shore to Shellfish Harvesting [Press release].https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/news/PressReleases/2012/102912Shellfish.htm.(8) New York Department of Health, 2012: Drinking Water Advisories Following Hurricane Sandy. http://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/water/drinking/boilwater/sandy/.(9) ibid(10) New York City Department of Environmental Protection, 2012: Recreational Water Advisory for HudsonRiver, East River, New York Harbor, Jamaica Bay and Kill Van Kull [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/press_releases/12-79pr.shtml.(11) Connecticut Department of Public Health, 2012: Severe Flooding Could Lead to Drinking Water andSewage Concerns [Press release]. http://www.ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=4186&q=513124.(12) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012: Questions and Answers on Hurricane Sandy Response.http://www.epa.gov/sandy/frequentquestions.html#drinkingwater.(13) Natural Resources Defense Council, 2004: Swimming in Sewage: The Growing Problem of SewagePollution and How the Bush Administration is Putting Our Health and Environment at Risk. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/sewage/sewage.pdf.(14) Reynolds, K.A., Mena, K.D. and C. P. Gerba, 2008: Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in theUnited States. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 192: 117-158.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 24(15) Blake, E.S., Kimberlain, T.B., Berg, R. J., Cangialosi, J.P., Beven, J.L, 2013: Tropical Cyclone Report:Hurricane Sandy. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. 12 February 2013. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL182012_Sandy.pdf.(16) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004: Report to Congress: impacts and control of CSOs ansSSOs. Office of Wastewater Management, Washington D.C. http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/cso/cpolicy_report2004.cfm(17) Portland Dept. of Environmental Services, 2011: Portland CSO control program is finished. [Pressrelease]. http://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/article/376144(18) New York City Department of Environmental Protection, 2008; Assessment and Action Plan: A ReportBased on the Ongoing Work of the DEP Climate Change Task Force. Climate Change Program, Report1. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/climate/climate_complete.pdf
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 25GlossaryBypass – The process of intentionally divertingwastewater away from any portion of a treatmentplant. The wastewater that is discharged from atreatment plant with no treatment, or only partialtreatment, is also referred to as a bypass.Combined Sewer – A sewer system build to carrydomestic sewage and stormwater runoff in the samepipes.Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) – An overflow thatoccurs when heavy rainfall or flooding exceed thecapacity of the storm system, and the sewer is forcedto discharge into a nearby street or waterway. CSOsprevent raw sewage from backing up into peoples’homes, but carry large amounts of sewage andcontaminated storm water into public waterways.Discharge – A term that refers to any release ofwastewater from a sewer system. Discharges canbe fully treated or untreated, and may come fromtreatment plants, manholes, CSO outfalls, or anyother point in a sewer system.Disinfection – A basic level of treatment in whicha chemical or applied to sewage to reduce theconcentration of pathogens in the wastewater.Disinfection is included in many forms of secondarytreatment, but is also applied to bypasses andoverflows as a last-resort level of treatment. Chlorineis the most popular form of last-resort disinfectant,since it is a cheap and cost-effective way to killmost harmful bacteria, but can have health andenvironmental problems of its own.Dry Weather Flow Conditions – The flow conditionswithin the sewer system that result from one ormore of the following: flows of domestic sewage,ground water infiltration, commercial and industrialwastewaters, and any other non- precipitation event.Dry Weather Flow Overflow – A combined seweroverflow that occurs during dry weather flowconditions. These overflows often result fromblockage in the CSO system or from unusually heavydry weather flow. Dry weather overflows are notdiluted with storm water runoff, and can be muchmore damaging than a wet-weather CSO.Indirect discharge – The introduction of pollutantsinto a municipal sewage treatment system fromany non-domestic source (i.e. from industrial orcommercial facility, or from hazardous street runoff).Infiltration–Waterotherthanwastewaterthatentersa wastewater system and building sewers from theground through such means as defective pipes, pipejoints, connections or manholes. (Infiltration doesnot include inflow). Infiltration is a big problem whenthere is flooding on the street, since that floodwatercan cause overflows in both CSO and SSO stormsystems.Inflow – Water other than wastewater that enters awastewater system and building sewer from sourcessuch as roof leaders, cellar drains, yard drains, areadrains.Peak Flow – The maximum flow that occursover a specific length of time (e.g., daily, hourly,instantaneous).Pollutant – Dredged spoil, solid waste, incineratorresidue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewagesludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biologicalmaterials, certain radioactive materials, heat,wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellardirt, and industrial, municipal, and agricultural wastedischarged into water.Primary Clarification or Equivalent – The level oftreatment that would typically be provided by oneor more treatment technologies under peak wetweather flow conditions. Options for defining primaryclarification include a design standard.This treatmentis site-specific and varies greatly depending on thesystem.PrimaryTreatment –The initial removal of removingsome portion of the suspended solids and organicmatter in wastewater. Common usage of this termalso includes preliminary treatment to removewastewaterconstituentsthatmaycausemaintenanceor operational problems in the system (i.e. gritremoval, screenings for rags and debris, oil and greaseremoval, etc). Techniques include filtration, flotationand sedimentation.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 26Pump Station – A point in a sewer system thatchannels the flow of sewage to a WWTP. Pumpstations are often located at low elevations, so thatsewage can flow to the pump via gravity, beforebeing redirected. During periods of heavy flow, thepump station can serve as a choke pointSanitary Sewer – A pipe or conduit (sewer) thatis intended to carry wastewater or water-bornewastes from homes businesses, and industries to thetreatment plant. Not intended to carry stormwater.Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO) – Untreated orpartially treated sewage overflows from a sanitarysewer collection system. These are usually caused bythe inflow or infiltration of stormwater or floodwaterinto the sanitary sewer, which overwhelm the sewer’scapacity and force sewage to overflow from the pipes.SSOs leak out of manholes, sewer mains, or dischargebackwards into peoples’ homes. SSOs tend to be lessdiluted, and contain less volume than CSOs.SecondaryTreatment – Complex, technology-basedmethods of removing bacteria and other harmfulorganismsandchemicalsfromwastewater.Secondarytreatment usually involves the use of biologicalreactors, which contain microorganisms that breakdown these contaminants. More advanced stepsinvolve the removal of small particles and nitrogen,which can have negative effects on aquatic habitats.Levels of secondary treatment differ betweenWWTPs,and depend on local standards and regulations.Sewage – The combination of human waste andother wastewater (including bath and toilet waste,laundry water, kitchen waste, and other similar wastefrom household or commercial sources).Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) – The amountof pollutant, or property of a pollutant, from point,nonpoint, and natural background sources, that maybe discharged to a water quality-limited receivingwater. Any pollutant loading above the TMDL resultsin violation of applicable water quality standards.Wastewater – Any combination of sewage, stormrunoff, industrial waste, or other types of waterthat have been negatively affected in quality byanthropogenic influence.Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) – A facilitythat removes contaminants and pollutants fromwastewater in order to make it safe for releasing.Also known as a Publically Owned Treatment Works(POTW).Wet Weather flow Conditions – The flow conditionswithin a combined sewer system resulting from aprecipitation event. This definition is site-specificand depends on the local climate. Wet weather mostcommonly includes rainfall, and snowmelt.
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 27AppendixTable A1. Top 25 Biggest Spills Sorted By VolumeRank State City Facility Volume (gallons) Cause Type1 NJ NewarkPassaic Valley Sewerage Commission,Wilson Avenue, Newark3,080,000,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated2 NY Bay ParkBay Park Sewage Treatment Plant,Harbor Road, Bay Park2,200,000,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated3 NY YonkersYonkers Joint WastewaterTreatment Plant, Yonkers1,174,000,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated4 NJ SayrevilleTwo pump stations, Middlesex County UtilitiesAuthority, Sayreville1,135,415,490storm surge andfloodinguntreated5 NJ NewarkPassaic Valley SewerageCommission, Wilson Avenue, Newark840,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated6 DC WashingtonCombined Sewer Pump Station,O Street, Washington475,000,000 heavy precipitation untreated7 NY BrooklynConey Island Wastewater Treatment Plant,Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn284,000,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated8 NY Staten IslandOakwood Beach Water Pollution Control Plant,Mill Road, Staten Island237,500,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated9 NY BrooklynConey Island Wastewater Treatment Plant,Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn213,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated10 NY QueensRockaway Wastewater Treatment Plant,Rockaway Freeway, Queens165,000,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated11 NY BronxHunt’s Point Wastewater Treatment Plant,Ryawa Avenue, Hunts Point, Bronx153,750,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated12 NY BrooklynNewtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant,Greenpoint Avenue, Brooklyn143,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated13 NY Bay ParkBay Park Sewage Treatment Plant,Harbor Road, Bay Park104,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated14 NY Brooklyn26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant,Van Siclen Avenue, Brooklyn89,000,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated15 NY New YorkNorth River Wastewater Treatment Plant,Henry Hudson Parkway, New York83,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated16 NY BrooklynOwls Head Wastewater Treatment Plant,Bay Ridge, Brooklyn76,200,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated17 NY YonkersYonkers Joint WastewaterTreatment Plant, Yonkers49,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated18 NY QueensRockaway Wastewater Treatment Plant,Rockaway Freeway, Queens36,000,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated19 NY Staten IslandPort Richmond Water Pollution Control Plant,Richmond Terrace, Staten Island30,000,000 power losspartiallytreated20 PA HarrisburgHarrisburg Advanced Wastewater TreatmentFacility, South Cameron Street, Harrisburg22,827,000 power losspartiallytreated21 NY Staten Island Hannah Street Pump Station, Staten Island 21,360,000storm surge andfloodinguntreated22 MD SavageLittle Patuxent Water Reclamation Facility,Greenwood Place, Little Patuxent19,500,000 power losspartiallytreated23 VA Suffolk Suffolk Pump Station, Wilroy Road, Suffolk 18,285,000 equipment failure untreated24 RI East ProvidenceBucklin Point Wastewater Treatment Facility,Campbell Avenue, East Providence17,540,000 other/unknownpartiallytreated25 CT Bridgeport West Side WWTP, Bridgeport 17,100,000storm surge andfloodingpartiallytreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 28Table A2. Sandy Sewage Overflows By StateAppendixState City Facility Volume (gallons) Cause TypeCT Branford Three pump stations, Branford 50,000 power loss untreatedCT Bridgeport West Side WWTP, Bridgeport 17,100,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedCT Bridgeport East Side WWTP, Bridgeport 2,480,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedCT East LymeBridebrook Pump Station, West Main St.,East Lyme131,100 heavy precipitation untreatedCT East Lyme Pump Station, Atlantic St., East Lyme 6,000 heavy precipitation untreatedCT HartfordSewer outfall, North Branch River,Hartford228,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedCT Ledyard Manhole, Southwest Brook, Ledyard 24,000 heavy precipitation untreatedCT MysticWastewater Treatment Plant, EdgemontStreet, Mystic2,263,350 storm surge and flooding partially treatedCT New Haven Pump Station, Sea Street, New Haven 550 other/unknown untreatedCT Norwalk Westport Avenue Pump Station, Norwalk 900 equipment failure untreatedCT Norwalk Sewer main, Howard Ave, Norwalk 50 equipment failure untreatedCT RidgefieldQuail Ridge pump station, Prospect St.,Ridgefield500 equipment failure untreatedCT RidgefiledWater Pollution Facility, Route 7,Ridgefiled2,000 heavy precipitation partially treatedCT StamfordWastewater Treatment Plant, MageeAvenue, Stamford1,260,000 other/unknown partially treatedCT StamfordWastewater treatment plant, Harbor ViewAvenue, Stamford193,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedCT West HavenPump Station, Dawson Avenue, WestHaven600,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedCT West Haven Manhole, Templeton Street, West Haven 20 equipment failure untreatedDC WashingtonCombined Sewer Pump Station, O Street,Washington475,000,000 heavy precipitation untreatedDE LewesLewes Wastewater Treatment Plant,American Legion Road, Lewes2,416,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedDE MilfordPump Station 3, Milford Neck Road,Milford90,000storm surge andprecipitationuntreatedDE MilfordPump Station 4, Milford Neck Road,Milford74,000storm surge andprecipitationuntreatedDE MillsboroOld Millsboro Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Millsboro474,608storm surge andprecipitationpartially treatedMD Aberdeen Manhole, Rigdon Rd, Aberdeen 50,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Aberdeen Manhole, South Drive, Aberdeen 10,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Aberdeen Manhole, 0949 Rigdon Rd, Aberdeen 4,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Abingdon Pump station 5, Pamela Drive, Abingdon 1,800,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedMD AccoreekSewer main, Indian Head Highway,Accoreek100,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Allegany Mill Run Pump Station, Allegany 45,600 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Allegany CountyPump, locust grove lane,Allegany County96,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Allegany CountyManhole, darrows lane,Allegany County93,600 heavy precipitation untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 29MD Back River Manhole, Overbrook Road, Back River 544,962 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Balitimore Manhole, 7204 Croydon Road, Balitimore 57,448 heavy precipitation untreatedMD BaltimoreManhole, 2800 Chesterfield Ave,Baltimore8,100 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Clarinth Rd, Baltimore 3,417 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Penhurst Ave, Baltimore 1,928 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Manhole, 1250 E 25th St, Baltimore 600 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Manhole, 1300 E Baltimore St, Baltimore 360 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, N Howard St, Baltimore 250 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Hillsdale Rd, Baltimore 224 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Ceddox St, Baltimore 195 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Collins Ave, Baltimore 180 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Mosher Street, Baltimore 111 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Manhole, 402 Key Hwy, Baltimore 60 blockage untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, W North Ave, Baltimore 51 equipment failure untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, Mathews St, Baltimore 15 blockage untreatedMD BaltimoreManhole, Anneslie Road and Maplewood,Baltimore98,104 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Baltimore Sewer main, N Kenwood Ave, Baltimore 4,720 blockage untreatedMD Bel Alton Manhole, 9225 Twinberry Dr, Bel Alton 4,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Berlin Sewer main, Ocean Pkwy, Berlin 500 equipment failure untreatedMD Bethesda Manhole, 4990 Sentinel Drive, Bethesda 8,000 blockage untreatedMD Bethesda Sewer main, Brookeway Dr, Bethesda 40 other/unknown untreatedMD BoonsboroGreenbrian State Park WWTP, NationalPike, Boonsboro105,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD BrunswickManhole, 20 C & O Canal Tow Path Rd,Brunswick50,000 heavy precipitation partially treatedMD BrunswickManhole, 20 C & O Canal Tow Path Rd,Brunswick50,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cambridge Seven sewer outfalls, Cambridge 4,980,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cambridge Manhole, Southside Ave, Cambridge 5,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cascade Manhole, 25040 Pen Mar Rd, Cascade 50,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Catonsville Private address, Catonsville 1,300,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Catonsville Manhole, Overbrook Road, Catonsville 979,222 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CatonsvilleManhole, Frederick Road & NunneryLane, Catonsville5,028 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CentrevilleCentreville WWTP, Johnstown Lane,Centreville696,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CumberlandCumberland Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Candoc Lane, Cumberland7,908,600 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CumberlandSewer outfall 11, Franklin Street,Cumberland3,090,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CumberlandSewer outfall 5, Elizabeth Street,Cumberland403,800 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CumberlandSewer outfall 2, Braddock Estates,Cumberland199,200 storm surge and flooding untreatedMD Cumberland Manhole, 10 N Mechanic St, Cumberland 85,700 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cumberland Pump, Wright’s Crossing, Cumberland 76,800 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cumberland Manhole, Bedford Street, Cumberland 68,700 heavy precipitation untreatedMD CumberlandOutfall, 003/E, Cumberland WWTP,Cumberland20,000 heavy precipitation untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 30MD CumberlandOutfall, 006/H, Cumberland WWTP,Cumberland20,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cumberland CountyCorriganville Pump Station, Corriganville,Cumberland County172,800 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cumberland CountySewer outfall 3, Grahamtown,Cumberland County110,400 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Cumberland CountyPump station, Cresaptown,Cumberland County105,600 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Emmitsburg Manhole, Emmeit Gardens, Emmitsburg 6,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Essex Manhole, 1900 Eastern Blvd, Essex 1,000 equipment failure untreatedMD Fort Meade Tertiary Filters, WWTP, Fort Meade 4,423,000 heavy precipitation partially treatedMD Fort WashingtonSewer main, Livingston Rd,Fort Washington90,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Fort WashingtonManhole, 12800 Monroe Ave,Fort Washington58,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Fort WashingtonSewer main, Calhoun Street, FortWashington150 blockage untreatedMD Frederick Manhole, 5 Quail Knob Lane, Frederick 51,160 heavy precipitation untreatedMD FrederickManhole, 7400 Marcie’s Choice Lane,Frederick13,890 heavy precipitation untreatedMD FrostburgPump, CentenniHill Pumping Station,Frostburg17,000 power loss untreatedMD Frostburg Pump Station 1, Cumberland 60,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Frostburg Pump Station 2, City of Frostburg 45,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD FrostburgOutfall, 001/C, Cumberland WWTP,Cumberland30,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD FrostburgOutfall, 010/Q, Cumberland WWTP,Cumberland30,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD FrostburgOutfall, 011/R, Cumberland WWTP,Cumberland30,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD FrostburgOutfall, 012/U, Cumberland WWTP,Cumberland30,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Funkstown Manhole, 20 Lagoon Rd., Funkstown 9,200 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Glen BurnieSewer main, Nabbs Creek Rd,Glen Burnie1,000 equipment failure untreatedMD Glen Echo Manhole, 26 Wellesley Cir, Glen Echo 190 blockage untreatedMD Harford Manhole, 518 Law St, Aberdeen, Harford 1,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD HarfordManhole, James & Rogers Streets,Aberdeen, Harford1,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD HarfordManhole, Service & Grant Street,Aberdeen, Harford1,500 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Harwood Manhole, 4600 Sands Rd, Harwood 5,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Hyattsville Sewer main, E Spring Pl, Hyattsville 5 other/unknown untreatedMD Joppa Pump, 500 Dembytowne, Joppa 27,900 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Knoxville Sewer main, Jefferson Pike, Knoxville 2,530 equipment failure untreatedMD La Plata Manhole, Hawthorne Road, La Plata 100,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD La Plata Manhole, Curley Hill Road, La Plata 45,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD La Plata Manhole, La Plata WWTP, La Plata 45,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD LaVale Sewer outfall 6, Red Hill Road, LaVale 9,260,650 heavy precipitation untreatedMD LaVale Pump station 1, LaVale 8,506,580 heavy precipitation untreatedMD LaVale Pump station 3, Mill Race, LaVale 6,688,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Lexington Park Manhole, Chestnut Way, Lexington Park 50,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Lexington Park Manhole, Old Missouri St, Lexington Park 50,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Lochearn Manhole, Patterson Avenue, Lochearn 762,791 heavy precipitation untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 31MD Lochearn Manhole, Southern Cross Drive, Lochearn 256,487 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Lochearn Manhole, Parsons Drive, Lochearn 203,434 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Lochearn Manhole, Montbel Avenue, Lochearn 162,526 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Lochearn Manhole, Alter Street, Lochearn 152,667 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Milford MillManhole, Abbie Place, Milford Mill,Baltimore222,222 heavy precipitation untreatedMD MyersvilleMyersville Wastewater Treatment Plant,Milt Summers Road, Myersville1,922,300 heavy precipitation untreatedMD MyersvillePump, Brethern Chruch Road, Myersville,Frederick15,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Myersville Pump, Canada Hill Rd, Myersville 3,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD New WindsorNew Windsor Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Water Street, New Windsor417,000 heavy precipitation partially treatedMD Parkville Manhole, Bagley Avenue, Parkville 465,925 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Parkville Manhole, Hillcrest Avenue, Parkville 334,031 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Parkville Manhole, Aiken Avenue, Parkville 175,877 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Pikesville Manhole, Marnet Road, Pikesville 148,339 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Princess Anne WWTP, 30353 Linden Ave, Princess Anne 5,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Randlestown Pump, 8808 Stonehaven Rd, Randlestown 2,400 power loss untreatedMD Ridge Manhole, 49671 Airedele Rd, Ridge 1,500 equipment failure untreatedMD Rockville Sewer main, Enid Dr, Rockville 137 blockage untreatedMD RosedaleRed House Run Pumping Station, LakeDrive, Rosedale951,500 equipment failure untreatedMD SabillasvilleFoxville Gardens Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Foxville Deerfield Rd., Sabillasville299,230 heavy precipitation untreatedMD SabillasvilleManhole, 14913 Foxville Deerfield Rd,Sabillasville12,600 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Sabillasville Pump, Manahan Road, Sabillasville 2,700 heavy precipitation untreatedMD SalisburySalisbury Sewage Treatment, MarineRoad, Salisbury500,694 heavy precipitation untreatedMD San Mar Manhole, Route 66, San Mar 16,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD SavageLittle Patuxent Water ReclamationFacility, Greenwood Place, Little Patuxent19,500,000 power loss partially treatedMD Sparrows Point Pump, Penwood Ave, Sparrows Point 12,139 heavy precipitation untreatedMD St. Mary’s County Naval Air Station Sewer, Patuxent River 50,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD St. MichaelsTwo manholes, Riverview Terrace, St.Michaels201,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Town of Snow HillSnow Hill Wastewater Treatment Facility,Cypress Street, Town of Snow Hill2,420,040 heavy precipitation partially treatedMD Upper Marlboro Sewer main, Pitman Ave, Upper Marlboro 451 blockage untreatedMD WilliamsportConococheague WWTP, Elliott Parkway,Williamsport2,000,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Somerset CountyDeal Island Pump Station, SomersetCounty2,000 heavy precipitation untreatedMD Capitol HeightsManhole, 6911 Central Ave, CapitolHeights1,065 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Atlantic Avenue, AtlanticCity20 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Madison Avenue,Atlantic City20 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Virginia Avenue, AtlanticCity15 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Atlantic Avenue, AtlanticCity10 blockage untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 32NJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Madison Avenue,Atlantic City6 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityIowa Avenue Pump Station, AtlanticAvenue10 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityAtlantic City Sewerage Company, LoganAvenue, Atlantic City10 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Raleigh Avenue, AtlanticCity6 blockage untreatedNJ Atlantic CityPrivate address, Raleigh Avenue, AtlanticCity5 blockage untreatedNJ Avalon BoroughPrivate address, Ocean Avenue, AvalonBorough1,000 power loss untreatedNJ Bayonne City Line pump station, Bayonne 50,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Bayonne 1st Street Pump Station, Bayonne 10,000 power loss untreatedNJ Bergenfield BoroughPrivate address, Spring Avenue,Bergenfield Borough100 other/unknown untreatedNJ Berkeley TownshipGem Avenue pump station, BerkeleyTownship250,000 power loss partially treatedNJBridgewaterTownshipManhole, Easy Street,Bridgewater Township300 other/unknown untreatedNJ BrigantineMill Road Pump Station,Hagen Road, Brigantine500 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Brigantine CityHagen Road Pump Station, BrigantineCity500 equipment failure untreatedNJ Brigantine CityJenkins Parkway Pump Station,Brigantine City500 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Brigantine CityNorth Shore Drive Pump Station,Brigantine City500 equipment failure untreatedNJ Cape MayPrivate address, Wildwood Avenue, CapeMay30 equipment failure untreatedNJ Cherry Hill Manhole, Caldwell Rd., Cherry Hill 1,000 heavy precipitation untreatedNJ East BrunswickManhole, Somervilee Road,East Brunswick75 power loss untreatedNJ Eatontown BoroughManhole, Main Street,Eatontown Borough200 blockage untreatedNJ Eatontown BoroughManhole, Eaton Crest Road, EatontownBorough150 blockage untreatedNJ Evesham Manhole, Lincoln Drive, Evesham 50 blockage untreatedNJ Evesham TownshipManhole, Yardmouth Road, EveshamTownship1,000 equipment failure untreatedNJ Evesham TownshipPrivate address, Lincoln Drive, EveshamTownship100 blockage untreatedNJ Evesham TownshipLichenthan Street Pump Station,Evesham Township50 other/unknown untreatedNJ Greenwich Township Pump Station, Greenwich Township 40,000 other/unknown untreatedNJHackettstownTownshipPrivate address, High Street,Hackettstown Township5 other/unknown untreatedNJ Hoboken Private address, Madison St., Hoboken 10,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Holmdel TownshipPrivate address, Route 54, HolmdelTownship3,000 equipment failure partially treatedNJ Lacey Township Manhole, Fairview Lane, Lacey Township 100 blockage untreatedNJ Lumberton TownshipMount Holly Municipal Utilities Authority,Maple Avenue, Lumberton Township200 other/unknown partially treatedNJ Manalapan TownshipPrivate address, BloomfieldRoad,Manalapan Township300 blockage untreatedNJ Mantua TownshipPrivate address, Delsea Drive, MantuaTownship100 blockage untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 33NJ Marlboro TownshipPrivate address, Newmans Springs Rd,Marlboro Township100,000 equipment failure untreatedNJ MetuchenSewer outfall, McPherson Avenue,Metuchen50 equipment failure untreatedNJ Middleton TownshipPrivate address, Main Street, MiddletonTownship290 other/unknown untreatedNJ Morrison TownshipManhole, Erskine Drive, MorrisonTownship2,000 equipment failure untreatedNJ Neptune Township Manhole, Route 33, Neptune Township 500 blockage untreatedNJ Neptune TownshipManhole, Oxonia Road, NeptuneTownship500 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Neptune TownshipNeptune Township Sewer Department,Heck Avenue, Neptune Township250 power loss untreatedNJ NewarkPassaic Valley Sewerage Commission,Wilson Avenue, Newark3,080,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNJ NewarkPassaic Valley Sewerage Commission,Wilson Avenue, Newark840,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Ocean Private address, Ocean Avenue, Ocean 50 other/unknown untreatedNJ Ocean City Manhole, 5th street, Ocean City 100 blockage untreatedNJ Ocean CityPrivate address, Asbury Avenue, OceanCity50 blockage untreatedNJ Patterson Passaic River at Market Street, Patterson 5,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Princeton Private address, Stockton St., Princeton 1,500 blockage untreatedNJ SayrevilleTwo pump stations, Middlesex CountyUtilities Authority, Sayreville1,135,415,490 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJSouth MonmouthCountyTwo pump stations near Lake Como,South Monmouth County2,852,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Tuckerton BoroughCarol Avenue Pump Station, TuckertonBorough500 storm surge and flooding untreatedNJ Vineland Manhole, Delsea Drive, Vineland 250 blockage untreatedNJ Vineland Private address, Lincoln Avenue, Vineland 250 blockage untreatedNJ Warren TownshipPrivate address, Mountain Boulevard,Warren Township25 blockage untreatedNJ Warren TownshipHeather Lane Pump Station, WarrenTownship25 equipment failure untreatedNJ Warren TownshipWilliam Penn Road Pump Station, WarrenTownship10 equipment failure untreatedNJ Wharton BoroughPrivate address, Main Street, WhartonBorough100 blockage untreatedNJ Winslow TownshipPrivate Address, Eastmont Lane, WinslowTownship150 blockage untreatedNJ Winslow Township Manhole, Tara Drive, Winslow Township 50 blockage untreatedNJ Winslow TownshipPrivate address, Helmwood Court,Winslow Township50 blockage untreatedNJ Winslow TownshipManhole, Pinewood Land, WinslowTownship50 heavy precipitation untreatedNJ Atlantic CityMichigan Avenue Pump Station, AtlanticCity15 blockage untreatedNY Bay ParkBay Park Sewage Treatment Plant, HarborRoad, Bay Park2,200,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY Bay ParkBay Park Sewage Treatment Plant, HarborRoad, Bay Park104,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Bay ParkTwo Pump Stations, Barnes Avenue andParsonage Creeek1,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BronxHunt’s Point Wastewater Treatment Plant,Ryawa Avenue, Hunts Point, Bronx153,750,000 storm surge and flooding untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 34NY BronxConner Street Pump Station, Hunts Point,Bronx1,210,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BronxZerega Avenue Pump Station, HuntsPoint, Bronx230,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BronxOrchard Beach Pump Station, HuntsPoint, Bronx120,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BronxEly Avenue Pump Station, Hunts Point,Bronx30,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BrooklynConey Island Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn284,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY BrooklynConey Island Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn213,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BrooklynNewtown Creek Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Greenpoint Avenue, Brooklyn143,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Brooklyn26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant,Van Siclen Avenue, Brooklyn89,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY BrooklynOwls Head Wastewater Treatment Plant,Bay Ridge, Brooklyn76,200,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY BrooklynGowanus Street Pump Station, Red Hook,Brooklyn9,510,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BrooklynBush Terminal Pump, Sunset Park,Brooklyn2,840,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Brooklyn 2nd Avenue Pump, Sunset Park, Brooklyn 1,080,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Brooklyn49th Street Pump Station, MaspethCreek, Brooklyn1,040,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BrooklynNevins Street Pump Station, Red Hook,Brooklyn540,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY BrooklynVan Brunt Street Pump Station, RedHook, Brooklyn450,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY New YorkNorth River Wastewater Treatment Plant,Henry Hudson Parkway, New York83,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY New YorkWards Island Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Wards Island, New York1,765,620 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY New York Canal Street Pump Station, New York 550,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Nyack Nyack Pump Station, Spear Street, Nyack 2,700,000 equipment failure untreatedNY OrangePump station, Iron Wood Road, WarwickCounty, Orange1,100 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensRockaway Wastewater Treatment Plant,Rockaway Freeway, Queens165,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY QueensRockaway Wastewater Treatment Plant,Rockaway Freeway, Queens36,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensHoward Beach Pump Station, Jamaica,Queens12,010,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensNameoke Avenue Pump Station,Rockaway, Queens10,700,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensTallman Island Wastewater TreatmentPlant, 128th Street, Queens7,500,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Queens Rosedale Pump Station, Jamaica, Queens 6,800,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensSeagirt Avenue Pump Station, Rockaway,Queens5,160,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensBayswater Avenue Pump Station,Rockaway, Queens2,010,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensBroad Channel Pump Station, Rockaway,Queens740,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensLittle Neck Pump Station, Little Neck,Queens240,000 storm surge and flooding untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 35NY QueensDoug Bay Pump Station, Little Neck,Queens200,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY QueensWarnerville Pump Station, Jamaica,Queens90,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Roosevelt IslandRoosevelt Island North Pump Station,Roosevelt Island1,150,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Roosevelt IslandRoosevelt Island South Pump Station,Roosevelt Island740,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten IslandOakwood Beach Water Pollution ControlPlant, Mill Road, Staten Island237,500,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY Staten IslandPort Richmond Water Pollution ControlPlant, Richmond Terrace, Staten Island30,000,000 power loss partially treatedNY Staten IslandHannah Street Pump Station, StatenIsland21,360,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten IslandRichmond Hill Road Pump Station,Oakwood, Staten Island7,170,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten IslandMason Avenue Pump Station, Oakwood,Staten Island3,510,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten IslandNautilus Court Pump Station, StatenIsland1,850,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten Island South Beach Pump Station, Staten Island 790,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten IslandMelvin Avenue Pump Station, StatenIsland390,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten IslandCannon Avenue Pump Station, StatenIsland170,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Staten Island Mark Street Pump Station, Staten Island 60,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Stony PointStony Point Sewage Treatment Plant,North Street, Stony Point600,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY YonkersYonkers Joint Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Yonkers1,174,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedNY YonkersYonkers Joint Wastewater TreatmentPlant, Yonkers49,000,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedNY Yonkers North Yonkers Pump Station, Yonkers 8,000,000 storm surge and flooding partially treatedPA Bally Borough Manhole, Walnut Street, Bally Borough 11,250 heavy precipitation untreatedPA Bally Borough Manhole, Main street, Bally Borough 8,280 heavy precipitation untreatedPA Blossburg Blossburg Municipal Authority 1,750,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPA BrookvilleBrookville Sewage Treatment Plant,Brookville76,000 power loss partially treatedPA ClarionAmerican Clarion Sewage TreatmentPlant524,000 other/unknown untreatedPA Crawford CountyNorthwest Crawford County SewageAuthority501,000 other/unknown untreatedPA DouglassvilleAmity Township WastewaterTreatment Plant, Old Philadelphia Pike,Douglassville11,000 power loss partially treatedPA Dover Delwood Pump Station, Dover 47,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPA Dover Township Eight various manholes, Dover Township 240,660 heavy precipitation untreatedPAEast ManchesterTownshipManhole, East Manchester Township 20,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPAEast PennsboroTownshipNorfolk Southern Wastewater TreatmentPLant, East Pennsboro Township688,000 power loss untreatedPA EmlentonBlue Ridge Pump Station, EmlentonSewage Treatment Plant, Emlenton6,714 power loss untreatedPA EverettEverett Wastewater Treatment Plant,Sewer Plant Road, Everett2,263,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPA Fort IndiantownFort Indiantown Gap Sewage TreatmentPlant, Coulter Rd , Fort Indiantown Gap52,713 power loss untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 36PA Girard Borough Girard Borough Sewage Treatment Plant 26,000 power loss untreatedPA Greene Township Three manholes, Greene Township 194,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPA Greenwich Township Highland Estates, Greenwich Township 376,000 power loss untreatedPA HanoverTwo manholes, Hanover Boroughwastewater treatment plant, O’BrienLane, Hanover11,030,000 power loss untreatedPAHarborcreekTownshipPump station, Harborcreek TownshipSewer Authority,750,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPA HarrisburgHarrisburg Advanced WastewaterTreatment Facility, South Cameron Street,Harrisburg22,827,000 power loss partially treatedPA HerefordHereford Estates pump station,Seisholtzville Road, Hereford140,000 power loss partially treatedPA Hereford TownshipWoodland Estates pump station,Hereford Township26,300 power loss untreatedPA LancasterLancaster City Wastewater TreatmentPlant, New Danville Pike, Lancaster1,400,000 heavy precipitation untreatedPA LetterkennyFranklin County General Authority,Letterkenny7,500 heavy precipitation untreatedPALongswampTownshipPump station, Mount Village MobileHome Park, Longswamp Township84,000 power loss partially treatedPA Millerstown BoroughMillerstown Wastewater Treatment plant,Millerstown Borough8,000 power loss untreatedPAMontgomeryTownshipValley Creek Estates Pump Station,Montgomery Township29,000 power loss untreatedPA Mount UnionMt. Union Sewage Treatment Plant,North Drake Street, Mount Union50,000 power loss untreatedPA Mt. Carmel BoroughMt. Carmel Borough sewer collectionsystem20,054 heavy precipitation untreatedPA South Wayne County South Wayne County Sewage Authority 100,000 power loss untreatedPA South WilliamsportMain Street Pump Station, SouthWilliamsport256,607 heavy precipitation untreatedPAWashingtonTownship72,000 power loss untreatedPA YorkYork City Wastewater Treatment Plant,Toronita Street, York12,487,500 power loss partially treatedPA Zerbe Township Manhole, Zerbe Township 500 heavy precipitation untreatedRI East ProvidenceBucklin Point Wastewater TreatmentFacility, Campbell Avenue, EastProvidence17,540,000 other/unknown partially treatedRI MiddletownMiddletown Wastewater TreatmentFacility, Middletown75,000 power loss untreatedRI NewportSewer Outfall, Wellington Avenue,Newport762,000 storm surge and flooding untreatedVA Front RoyalFront Royal Waste Water Treatment Plant,Manassas Avenue, Front Royal5,261,000 heavy precipitation untreatedVA SuffolkSuffolk Pump Station, Wilroy Road,Suffolk18,285,000 equipment failure untreated
    • Sewage Overflows From Hurricane Sandy l 37Table A3. Locations of Known Spills For Which No Data Was AvailableAppendixState City FacilityCT East Windsor East Windsor Water Pollution Control AuthorityCT Fairfield Fairfield Water Pollution Control AuthorityCT MiddletownDE Rehoboth Beach City of Rehoboth Beach Wastewater Treatment FacilityNJ Brick Township Laurelton Pump Station, Bricktownship Municipal Utilities AuthorityNJ Mercer County Stony Brook Regional Sewerage AuthorityNJ Millville Millville Wastewater Treatment Plant, Fowser Road, MillvilleNJ Montgomery Township Montgomery Township Water PlantNJ North Bergen Woodcliff Treatment PlantNJ Secaucus Secaucus Utilities AuthorityNJ Union Beach Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority, Union BeachNY Cedar Creek Cedar Creek Water Pollution Control PlantNY Glenn Cove Glenn Cove’s Water Pollution Control/Nassau CountyNY Hudson River Cornwall Sewage Treatment Plant Cornwall Sewage Treatment PlantNY Jones Beach Jones Beach Waste Water Treatment PlantNY Kingston Kingston Wastewater FacilityNY Long Beach Long Beach Water Pollution Control PlantNY New Windsor New Windsor Wastewater FacilityNY Peeskill Peeskill Wastewater Treatment PlantNY Target Hill Target Hill Wastewater Treatment PlantNY Town of Babylon Town of BabylonNY Town of Hempstead Hempstead Municipal Sewer District/Nassau CountyNY Town of Orangetown Orangetown Wastewater Treatment FacilityNY Village of Buchanan Village of Buchanan WWTPPA Elizabethville Borough Elizabethville Sewage Treatment PlantPA Millcreek Township Millcreek Township Sewer DepartmentPA Punxsutawney Punxsutawney Sewage Treatment PlantPA Quincy Township South Mt. Restoration CenterPA Williamstown Borough Williamstown Borough Sewage Treatment PlantPA North East Borough North East Borough Sewage Treatment Plant
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