April 22, 2011 MIT talk
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April 22, 2011 MIT talk

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Slides from my talk at MIT CSAIL. The topic is user motivations in online communities.

Slides from my talk at MIT CSAIL. The topic is user motivations in online communities.

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April 22, 2011 MIT talk April 22, 2011 MIT talk Presentation Transcript

  • “Earn Your Bull$&!*”: User Lifecycles in Social Media Cliff Lampe Michigan State University April 22, 2011
  • Cliff LampeCollege of CommunicationArts and SciencesDept. of Telecommunication,Information Studies, andMediaACM researcher with acrunchy Communicationcoating“Socio-technical” Researcher 2
  • How can socio-technicalsystems be used to facilitate collective action? 3
  • Defining terms Socio-technical systems Social Media Social Computing 4
  • Collective Action Collective Action Support Social capitalShared creation “offline” generation outcomes 5
  • Study existing STSHow can STS beused to facilitate Changecollective action? existing STS Make new STS 6
  • Other STS Research
  • Study existing STS Facebook Research The Online Interaction Lab
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  • Creating New STS Social Media Research Lab
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  • Everything2.comFounded in 1998 as everything.blockstackers.comSpin off of the Slashdot teamVictim of the first dot-com crash 17
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  • Key E2 featuresWrite-ups = article contributionNoder = registered site memberVote = +/- user rating of contentCool = tag applied by high level usersCatbox = Synchronous chatMessage = asynchronous individual andgroup msgs 25
  • Earn your Bull%&!* Earn your bullshit. Node for the other users and not for yourself. Dont let it be an "attention" node. Once you do a little noding for the higher cause feel free to take a few nodes to make fun of the French or take a cheap shot at the Dave Matthews Band or whatever wack idea you wish to spread throughout the database.In other words, if youve been a user here for two weeks and have seventy-three very short writeups youd best protect yo neck...especially if 90% of themdeal with feces, masturbation or the hallucinatory revelation that came to youwhile eating your morning toast...again. If you do that user search on yourselfyou may be surprised as to how many have disappeared. We dont need thatanymore! "Be Cool" 26
  • Motivations toParticipate in Online Communities
  • 28
  • Motivation and participation Theoretical perspectives Uses and Gratifications Organizational Commitment User types “Guest” vs. registered Participation Future vs. present vs. actual 29
  • DataSurvey 295 anonymous, 304 registered usersServer Logs Matched for registered users 30
  • Current Future Future use Use Contribution Get Info 0.05 0.19 *** -0.03 Provide Info -0.20 ** 0.16 * 0.53 *** Social -0.13 . -0.09 0.10EnhancementMaintaining -0.04 -0.13 0.04ConnectivitySelf Discovery 0.08 0.09 0.02Entertainment 0.22 *** 0.38 *** 0.02 Analysis: OLS Regression, with many controls. R2=0.49, 0.48, 0.56 31
  • ImplicationsUsability and efficacy didn’t affect the modelsMotivations varied widely within both anonymous andregistered usersMotivations were tied to differences in perceived andactual behavior 32
  • Latent Users and Motivational Consistency
  • Two competing viewsof user lifecycles“Born not made” Panciera et al. 2009, Panciera et al. 2010“Reader to Leader” Preece and Shneiderman 2009 34
  • “Born Not Made”Users come to a site with role predilectionLittle change between rolesPeople fill niches within a type of role 35
  • “Reader to Leader”Users are socialized into more “weighty”rolesUsers can stop in rolesRoles vs. types 36
  • Method - Interviews30 active users Snowball sample to near-saturation Server log analysis to avoid homophilySemi-structured phone interviewsTheme assignment using Atlas.ti Data matrix 37
  • Inherent UsersUsers had made major changes to theirparticipation practices Site changes, life changes, user conflictPreviously active participants Skills, efficacy, context intactNot lurkers! 38
  • Motivational Consistency Users reported consistent motivations to participate over time Status builders Personal relationship builders Community builders Human capital builders 39
  • Status Builders‘[...] they were constantly sayingthings like ‘you’re doing a great job’,‘you’re a fantastic writer’ […], that’sa tremendous amount of motivationfor that sort of material.’ (Rob) 40
  • Personal Relationship Builders ‘I think that I started to see the sort of the social element was much more prevalent in the content itself, there were many insider jokes and many more references of the other people or nodes that referenced other people […], very soon I got a real sense of the personalities and I found those people very attractive. I wanted to have relationships with them […] that kept me going.’ (Jack). 41
  • Community Builders‘I guess you’d call it a writing community[…] everybody reading material, offeringcomments, and in turn helpingeverybody else becomes a better writer.[…] It was a great place to basically talkwith like minded people all centeredaround writing.’ (Henry). 42
  • Human Capital Builders ‘To hone my technical writing skills and […] to learn more about science things.’ (Kim) ‘Like a training wheel for writing.’ (Rob) 43
  • Exogenous events leadto behavior changes Life events (Job, marriage, kid) Site changes (Raising the Bar, copyright change) Other site changes (Wikipedia and LiveJournal) Other user conflicts 44
  • Latent user behaviors Status builders Personal relationship builders Community builders Human capital builders 45
  • Status buildersRemained regular readers “I was looking to see if I was missed.” - Oscar 46
  • Relationship Builders Reading, direct messaging, other channels ‘Most of my friends I got from [Everything2] are friends in real life, but there are certainly still people out there that I only see through the site […] and it’s probably the only way I would have to connect with. […] I’d written this thing and thought that maybe I should uh try it again, post it you know let some old friends know what’s going on.’ (Alice). 47
  • Community BuildersMove to admin roles, live chat ‘The style of writing that I was good at, was no longer the style we were focusing on. [I] started moving towards editing. I would help people improve their writing instead of trying to put up Write-ups of my own.’ (Patrick). 48
  • Human capital builders Feedback to other users ‘So you read some interesting article and you felt wow! So you give the authors some feedback email.’ (Bob) 49
  • Born vs. MadeRoles do change, but due toexogenous factorsThere is socialization within rolesMotivation matters 50
  • ImplicationsIdentify, don’t socializeUse vs. motivationMatch incentives to motivationsMatch tools to motivations Types vs. Roles 51
  • Everything2 studies in development
  • Study 1:Effects of User Tenure Chandan Sarkar
  • Research QuestionHow does the time spent on the site relateto the pattern of participation over time? 54
  • Method40,324 users divided into 3 categories based ondifference between account creation and last login (timelagged)Categories Short users - 1-87 days Latent Committed - 88-502 days Committed - 503-3484 days 55
  • Write-ups trends in first six months from account creation date 56
  • Multinomial regression The probability of first write-ups deletion is much higher for the short-term tenure group, compared to the mid- term tenure group (Odds ratio= 2.478, p = .03 < .05). The submission of a second write-up within the community has a significant effect on the members’ long- term tenure, compared to mid-term tenure. (Odds ratio= 3.36, p = .001 < .05). 57
  • Early Interpretations May be a propensity for tenure as soon as people hit the site How much do early experiences shape long term participation? When are habits formed? 58
  • Study 2:Predicting Changes in Productivity Tor Bjornrud
  • Research QuestionCan we predict how much content will beposted to the site in the near term future? 60
  • Exploratory AnalysisDistributed lag time series predicting change in next week’s number of writeups. coef p(v) mean std. deviation(Intercept) 186.17888 ***New Writeups 0.67468 *** 2094 8180Deleted Writeups/100 2.60495 * 1115 3234Message Recipients/100 -9.71485 * 579 238Message Senders/100 -18.16299 * 247 115Accounts Abandoned/100 0.04421 0.4986 208 100Total Messages/100 -0.20698 0.6101 3921 2196New Cools/100 30.75921 *** 647 356 2Adjusted R : 0.9507 ***Signif. codes: *** < 0.001, ** < 0.01, * < 0.05 61
  • New Writeups Per Week 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 100 200 300 Time in Weeks 400 50062
  • Next stepsFigure out some more about whythese features are related. 63
  • Study 3:Habitual Use of Online Communities Alcides Velasquez and Elif Ozkaya
  • HabitDewey (1921) - Habits, emotion and cognition have rolesin behaviorBandura (1975) - Socio-cognitive theoryLaRose and Eastin (2000) - Internet Self EfficacyOzkaya and LaRose (2011) - Internet Habitual Use 65
  • Using everything2.com is something… I do automatically. I do without having to consciously remember. That makes me feel weird if I do not do it. I do without thinking. That would require effort not to do it. I start doing before I realize I’m doing it. I would find hard not to do. I have no need to think about doing. That expresses my personal style 66
  • Other E2 studies...Detecting roles based on message networkcharacteristicsExperiments on converting readers tocontributorsAnalysis of the effects of meeting offline onNodersResponses to the content rating system as asocial behavior feedback mechanism 67
  • “LivingLaboratories”
  • Definition ofLiving LabsAccess to server logsAccess to usersAccess to feature changesActive user base 69
  • Chi definitionsBuilding a system, and studying it in thelaboratoryAdopting a system, and studying it in thelaboratoryBuilding a system, and studying it in thewildAdopting a system and studying it in thewild 70
  • ExamplesMovieLensCyclopathBeehive/Social BlueDog EarWiki Dashboard?? 71
  • Pros and ConsExternal validity ExpensiveTriangulated Riskydata GeneralizabilityPersistent trove EthicalKnown context considerations of the community 72
  • E2 Research Team Rick Wash Tor Bjornrud Chris Hamrick Alcides VelasquezAkshaya Sreenivasan Elif Ozkaya Chandan Sarkar Yvette Wohn 73
  • Thanks!!Cliff Lampelampecli@msu.eduhttp://clifflampe.orgTwitter: @clifflampeSlideshare:clifflampe 74