Ready, Set, React!Getting the most out of peer  instruction with clickers     Peter Newbury     Center for Teaching Develo...
Typical Peer Instruction Episode           1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging              multiple-choice que...
Peer Instruction       In effective peer instruction,         • students teach each other            immediately, while th...
Peer Instruction       Effective peer instruction requires         1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions            ...
Example Questions                     Don’t concentrate only on the content                           of the example quest...
Clicker question       The amplitude and frequency       A)       of 4 light waves are shown.       The waves are represen...
Clicker question                          X      Are features X and Y                                 ridges or valleys?  ...
Clicker choreography       To be effective, the instructor needs to run the peer       instruction in a way that gives stu...
Clicker choreography       1. Present the question. Don’t read it aloud.                     Reasons for not reading the q...
Clicker choreography       2. “Please answer this on your own.”                     Goals of the first, solo vote:        ...
Clicker choreography       2. “Please answer this on your own.”                     Students may be reluctant to quietly t...
Clicker choreography       3. Don’t start the i>clicker poll. Instead give the          students sufficient time to make a...
Clicker choreography       4. When you have made a choice or when you see the          class getting restless, ask the stu...
Clicker choreography       6. “Please vote.”                     If you’ve given them sufficient time to commit to a      ...
Clicker choreography       7. Check distribution of votes on the i>clicker receiver.                     Don’t show the hi...
Clicker choreography       8. Depending on the distribution of votes, proceed.                     We’ll discuss reacting ...
Clicker choreography       9. At the end, confirm the answer(s) and continue          with the class.                     ...
Reacting to their votes       You don’t know what’s going to happen but you can       anticipate and prepare yourself for ...
What do you think you should do       with this first-vote distribution?       (C is the correct answer)                  ...
What do you think you should do       with this first-vote distribution?                                                  ...
What do you think you should do       with this first-vote distribution?                                            A B C ...
What do you think you should do       with this first-vote distribution?       (C is not the correct answer)              ...
What do you think you should do if       this is the second-vote distribution?                                            ...
Reacting to their votes       When you know the first-vote distribution (but they       don’t) there are many options. You...
Resources     www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/clickers.htm     (with links to collections of peer instruction questions)     pe...
Practice peer instruction questions:    Physics, Astronomy, Biology
Clicker question   A ball is rolling                      C   around the                      B              D   inside of...
Clicker question       Suppose you pass white light through a prism and all of       the colours of the spectrum are proje...
Clicker question       If this is the phase of the Moon when it rises:       what is the phase of the Moon 12 hours later?...
Clicker question       Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes up       and then falls back into her hand 2 ...
Which one is the closest match to your graph?  velocity                                velocity             A             ...
Clicker question       John is walking to school. This graph shows his position       as a function of time. When is John ...
Clicker question       Which of the following is an incorrect step when using       the substitution method to evaluate th...
Clicker question       To minimize the work you do getting a heavy bag of       groceries from the first floor to the seco...
Clicker question       For the data set displayed in the following histogram,       which would be larger, the mean or the...
Clicker question       An ice cube is floating in a glass of water       that is filled entirely to the brim. As the      ...
Question    If you lower a 1.5 kg mass on a string into a    5 kg beaker filled with water, what happens    to the reading...
Demo: prediction       A cup filled with water has a hole in the side through which       the liquid is flowing out. If th...
Clicker Question    Consider a block of wood that has varying dimensions. Does    the pressure exerted on the table from t...
The molecules making up the dry mass of wood          that forms during the growth of a tree largely                      ...
The figure shows a tRNA molecule that    recognizes and binds a specific amino   acid. Which codon on the mRNA strand     ...
Clicker QuestionHow many of the following statements about selection are true?Plants:        During their lifetime, plants...
Question  Suppose that in the tree below new data wereuncovered indicating that taxon E is sister to a groupconsisting of ...
Which one is the closest match to yourAnswer A                                    – phylogeny?  a)                       b...
PO2 in the lungs is typically about 100 mm Hg, while PO2 in resting            muscles is about 40 mm Hg. Hemoglobin leavi...
QuestionWhich point on the phylogenetic tree represents       the closest relative of the frog?   A       B               ...
Question                 Which experiment will produce 18O2?                                   Experiment 1:              ...
Question            Fill in the blanks. All the somatic cells in your              body contain ______ DNA sequences and  ...
Suppose a plant has a photosynthetic pigment thatmakes the leaves appear to be reddish yellow. Which wavelengths of visibl...
Question             One of the somatic (i.e., not gametes) cells             represented below is diploid. Which one?    ...
Question          If an organism makes an abnormal protein, the            error that led to this abnormality most likely ...
Clicker Question         Draw a cell’s plasma membrane using circles and lines         to represent the two “ends” of the ...
Which of the following illustrations looks most                     like your own drawing? A.        Outside           of ...
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Ready, Set, React! Getting the most out of peer instruction with clickers

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  • SHOULD E be ‘SOMETHING ELSE” and NOT show the right answer. This might force students to trust themselves …
  • Answer: D Topic: Concept 17.4 Skill: Application/Analysis
  • Answer: D (Mammal example is false)
  • Answer: C
  • Answer: B Topic: Concept 10.2 Skill: Application/Analysis
  • Answer: C
  • Answer: A
  • Answer: C
  • Answer: C
  • Ready, Set, React! Getting the most out of peer instruction with clickers

    1. 1. Ready, Set, React!Getting the most out of peer instruction with clickers Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca Cynthia Heiner Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative, University of British Columbia cynthia.heiner@gmail.com
    2. 2. Typical Peer Instruction Episode 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, coloured cards, ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes. (We’ll be discussing different reactions today.)Ready, Set, React! 2
    3. 3. Peer Instruction In effective peer instruction, • students teach each other immediately, while they may still students learn hold or remember their novice and practice misconceptions how to think, communicate • students discuss the concepts in like scientists their own language • the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reactsReady, Set, React! 3
    4. 4. Peer Instruction Effective peer instruction requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions before 2. creating multiple-choice questions that class require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion during class 4. resolving the misconceptionsReady, Set, React! 4
    5. 5. Example Questions Don’t concentrate only on the content of the example questions. Watch the “choreography”, too.Ready, Set, React! 5
    6. 6. Clicker question The amplitude and frequency A) of 4 light waves are shown. The waves are representative B) of one instant in time and are all travelling in vacuum. Which wave travels the fastest? C) D) E) all the same speedReady, Set, React! 6
    7. 7. Clicker question X Are features X and Y ridges or valleys? A) X=ridge, Y=valley B) X=valley, Y=ridge C) both are ridges Y D) both are valleysReady, Set, React! 7
    8. 8. Clicker choreography To be effective, the instructor needs to run the peer instruction in a way that gives students sufficient time to think about, discuss and resolve the concepts. We want students to participate without ever having to stop and think, “What am I supposed to do now?”Ready, Set, React! 8
    9. 9. Clicker choreography 1. Present the question. Don’t read it aloud. Reasons for not reading the question aloud: • your voice may give away key features or even the answer • you might read the question you hoped to ask, not the words that are actually there • the students are not listening anyway – they’re trying to read it themselves and your voice may, in fact, distract themReady, Set, React! 9
    10. 10. Clicker choreography 2. “Please answer this on your own.” Goals of the first, solo vote: • get the students to commit to a choice in their own minds • get the students to commit to a choice so they’ll be curious about the answer • get the students prepared to have a discussion with their peers, if necessary If they discuss the question right way: • students are making choices based on someone else’s reasoning • those students cannot contribute to the peer instruction as they have no ideas of their ownReady, Set, React! 10
    11. 11. Clicker choreography 2. “Please answer this on your own.” Students may be reluctant to quietly think on their own. After all, they have a better chance of picking the right choice after talking to their friends. If you’re going to impose a certain behaviour on the students, getting their “buy-in” is critical. Explain to them why the solo vote is so important. Explain it to them early in the term and remind them when they start drifting to immediate discussions. www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/SEI_video.htmlReady, Set, React! 11
    12. 12. Clicker choreography 3. Don’t start the i>clicker poll. Instead give the students sufficient time to make a choice. What is sufficient? • Turn to the screen, read and answer the question as if you are one of your students. • Another possibility: keep facing the class, helping those with confused stares. • Another possibility: model how to think about the question by “acting it out.” • When you notice students picking up their clickers and getting restless, they are prepared to vote.Ready, Set, React! 12
    13. 13. Clicker choreography 4. When you have made a choice or when you see the class getting restless, ask the students, “Do you need more time?” If many students are not ready to vote, they will not have committed to a choice and will be unprepared to discuss the question. Some students may be uncomfortable asking for more time. Make it clear, from the first class, that you’ll honour the request with no repercussions to the student who asked. 5. “Yes!” Give them a few more seconds. “*silence+” Ask them to prepare to vote.Ready, Set, React! 13
    14. 14. Clicker choreography 6. “Please vote.” If you’ve given them sufficient time to commit to a choice, the voting should take very little time. Another option: watch the number of votes and when most of the votes are in say, “Can I have your final answers, please?” Don’t wait for every last student to vote. Some may be choosing not to vote.Ready, Set, React! 14
    15. 15. Clicker choreography 7. Check distribution of votes on the i>clicker receiver. Don’t show the histogram to the class (yet): • if there is a popular choice, students are apt to choose it in a 2nd vote, without reasoning why. • a student who picked an unpopular choice is unlikely to participate in peer or class discussion You can motivate students without showing the histogram, e.g., by saying “there seem to be two popular answers” The students’ behaviours will change when they see the histogram, probably not for the right reasons.Ready, Set, React! 15
    16. 16. Clicker choreography 8. Depending on the distribution of votes, proceed. We’ll discuss reacting to various distribution scenarios in a few moments.Ready, Set, React! 16
    17. 17. Clicker choreography 9. At the end, confirm the answer(s) and continue with the class. Even if more than 80–90% of the students have picked the correct choice, some students are still not sure why that choice is correct. Briefly confirm the correct choice: • explain why the correct choice is correct • explain why popular distractors are incorrect • allows those who chose the correct answer to make sure they had the correct reasoningReady, Set, React! 17
    18. 18. Reacting to their votes You don’t know what’s going to happen but you can anticipate and prepare yourself for the likely outcomes. When you know the first-vote distribution (but they don’t) you have lots of options. This is where you show your “agility.”Ready, Set, React! 18
    19. 19. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? (C is the correct answer) A B C D E A) “Turn to your neighbours and convince them you’re right” B) move on – everyone got it C) confirm correct answer and move on D) “Can someone who answered C tell us why they made that choice?” E) otherReady, Set, React! 19
    20. 20. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? A B C D E A) “Turn to your neighbours and convince them you’re right” B) confirm correct answer and move on C) “Can someone who answered B tell us why they made that choice?” D) “Would someone like to explain why they picked the answer they did?” E) otherReady, Set, React! 20
    21. 21. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? A B C D EReady, Set, React! 21
    22. 22. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? (C is not the correct answer) A B C D EReady, Set, React! 22
    23. 23. What do you think you should do if this is the second-vote distribution? A B C D EReady, Set, React! 23
    24. 24. Reacting to their votes When you know the first-vote distribution (but they don’t) there are many options. You can • confirm and move on • ask the students to discuss with their peers • ask students to advocate for the choices they made • check that the question made sense • eliminate one or more choices before re-voting • and more... This is where you show your “agility”.Ready, Set, React! 24
    25. 25. Resources www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/clickers.htm (with links to collections of peer instruction questions) peerinstruction4cs.org Beth Simon and Cynthia Lee, UCSD (excellent guide to what to do before term, on the first day, how to get student buy-in, and more.) CWSEI Eric Mazur Derek Bruff Doug Duncan (1996) (2009) (2004, 2005)Ready, Set, React! 25
    26. 26. Practice peer instruction questions: Physics, Astronomy, Biology
    27. 27. Clicker question A ball is rolling C around the B D inside of a A E circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. P Which path does the ball follow? (Mazur)Ready, Set, React! 27
    28. 28. Clicker question Suppose you pass white light through a prism and all of the colours of the spectrum are projected on a screen. If you then put a red filter over your eye and look at the spectrum, what colours do you see? A) you see mostly red light; the blue and green disappears B) you see mostly blue light; the other colours disappear C) all of the colours turn red (Duncan)Ready, Set, React! 28
    29. 29. Clicker question If this is the phase of the Moon when it rises: what is the phase of the Moon 12 hours later? A B C D E (Prather)Ready, Set, React! 29
    30. 30. Clicker question Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes up and then falls back into her hand 2 seconds later. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball from the moment it leaves her hand until she catches it again. velocity time 0 2 sec (UBC CWSEI)Ready, Set, React! 30
    31. 31. Which one is the closest match to your graph? velocity velocity A B time time 0 2 sec 0 2 sec velocity velocity C D time time 0 2 sec 0 2 sec (UBC CWSEI)Ready, Set, React! E) some other graph 31
    32. 32. Clicker question John is walking to school. This graph shows his position as a function of time. When is John moving with the greatest velocity? position time A B C D E (UBC CWSEI)Ready, Set, React! 32
    33. 33. Clicker question Which of the following is an incorrect step when using the substitution method to evaluate the definite integral 4 2 3 x 1 x dx 0 3 1 4 A) u 1 x C) u du 3 0 du 2 B) x dx D) none of the above 3 (Bruff)Ready, Set, React! 33
    34. 34. Clicker question To minimize the work you do getting a heavy bag of groceries from the first floor to the second floor of a building, you should A. carry the bag up the stairs B. carry the bag up in an elevator C. put the bag on the floor of an elevator, ride up with it, and then pick up the bag again D. carry the bag up a ramp E. put the bag in a cart and push it up a ramp (Chasteen)Ready, Set, React! 34
    35. 35. Clicker question For the data set displayed in the following histogram, which would be larger, the mean or the median? A) mean B) median C) can’t tell from the given histogram (Peck, mathquest.carroll.edu/resources.html)Ready, Set, React! 35
    36. 36. Clicker question An ice cube is floating in a glass of water that is filled entirely to the brim. As the ice cube melts, the water level will A) stay the same, remain at the brim. B) rise, causing the water to spill. C) fall to a level below the brim. D) cannot say without knowing the density of ice. (UBC CWSEI)Ready, Set, React! 36
    37. 37. Question If you lower a 1.5 kg mass on a string into a 5 kg beaker filled with water, what happens to the reading on the scale? A) increases to 6.5 kg B) increases to a value < 6.5 kg C) increases to a value > 6.5 kg D) stay the same (UBC CWSEI)Ready, Set, React! 37
    38. 38. Demo: prediction A cup filled with water has a hole in the side through which the liquid is flowing out. If the cup is dropped for a height, what will happen to the water flowing from the cup? A. It will keep on coming out, flowing the same as before B. It will keep coming out, but it will flow a bit slower than before C. It will keep coming out, but start to flow upwards D. It will keep coming out, flowing horizontally with the falling cup E. It will stop flowing (Heiner)Ready, Set, React! 38
    39. 39. Clicker Question Consider a block of wood that has varying dimensions. Does the pressure exerted on the table from the block depend on the blocks position? If so, which way produces the greatest pressure? If not, why not? A) B) C) D) The block of wood has the same density, so it doesn’t matter which way it is positioned. E) The block of wood has the same mass, so it doesn’t matter which way it is positioned.Ready, Set, React! (Heiner) 39
    40. 40. The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from a) sunlight. b) the air. c) the seed. d) the soil.Ready, Set, React! 40 Question credit: Bill Wood
    41. 41. The figure shows a tRNA molecule that recognizes and binds a specific amino acid. Which codon on the mRNA strand codes for the amino acid? A) UGG B) GUG C) GUA D) UUC E) CAUReady, Set, React! 41 Question credit: Pearson Education, Inc.
    42. 42. Clicker QuestionHow many of the following statements about selection are true?Plants: During their lifetime, plants may experience many different sources of selectionInsects: Insects often experience a different type ofselection as larvae than as adultsBirds: Birds can experience different directions ofselection in different yearsMammals: Selection in mammals always operates morestrongly on survival than on reproductionA) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 4 Ready, Set, React! 42
    43. 43. Question Suppose that in the tree below new data wereuncovered indicating that taxon E is sister to a groupconsisting of taxa D and F. Draw the new phylogeny. 43 Ready, Set, React!
    44. 44. Which one is the closest match to yourAnswer A – phylogeny? a) b) – Answer B c) d) Some other phylogeny – Answer C 44 Ready, Set, React!
    45. 45. PO2 in the lungs is typically about 100 mm Hg, while PO2 in resting muscles is about 40 mm Hg. Hemoglobin leaving the lungs is nearly saturated with O2. When that fully oxygenated hemoglobin arrives in capillaries near muscle tissue at rest, what percent of its O2 is released? 100 O2 saturation of hemoglobin (%) A. 10% 80 B. 15% 60 C. 30% D. 70% 40 E. 85% 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 P O2(mm Hg)Ready, Set, React! 45 Question credit: Pearson Education, Inc.
    46. 46. QuestionWhich point on the phylogenetic tree represents the closest relative of the frog? A B E D C 46 Ready, Set, React!
    47. 47. Question Which experiment will produce 18O2? Experiment 1: H218O + CO2 A. experiment 1 B. experiment 2 Experiment 2: C. both experiments H2O +C18O2 D. neitherReady, Set, React! 47
    48. 48. Question Fill in the blanks. All the somatic cells in your body contain ______ DNA sequences and ______ proteins. A. The same DNA sequences, the same proteins. B. Different DNA sequences, different proteins. C. The same DNA sequences, different proteins. D. Different DNA sequences, the same proteins.Ready, Set, credit: CWSEI, SEIQuestion React! 48
    49. 49. Suppose a plant has a photosynthetic pigment thatmakes the leaves appear to be reddish yellow. Which wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment? A) red and yellow B) blue and violet C) green and yellow D) blue, green, and red E) green, blue, and yellow 49 Ready, Set, React!
    50. 50. Question One of the somatic (i.e., not gametes) cells represented below is diploid. Which one? A. B. C.Ready, Set, React! 50 Question credit: Carol Pollock
    51. 51. Question If an organism makes an abnormal protein, the error that led to this abnormality most likely originated A. during the replication of the corresponding gene B. during transcription of the corresponding gene to make the corresponding mRNA C. during translation of the corresponding mRNA to make the proteinReady, Set, React! 51 Question credit: CWSEI, SEI
    52. 52. Clicker Question Draw a cell’s plasma membrane using circles and lines to represent the two “ends” of the phospholipids that comprise the membrane. Indicate the inside and outside of the cell with respect to the membrane. example phospholipidReady, Set, React! 52 Question credit: CWSEI, SEI
    53. 53. Which of the following illustrations looks most like your own drawing? A. Outside of cell Inside of cell C. Outside of cell Inside of cell B. Outside of cell Inside of cell D. Outside of cell Inside of cell E. My drawing looks differentReady, Set, React! 53 Question credit: CWSEI, SEI
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