EUCALYPTUS: An Open Source Infrastructure for Elastic Computing Research Rich Wolski Chris Grzegorczyk, Dan Nurmi, Grazian...
Exciting Weather Forecasts
Commercial Cloud Formation
What is a Cloud? SLAs Web Services Virtualization
How do they work? <ul><li>What can and cannot easily be hosted in a cloud? </li></ul><ul><li>What extensions or modificati...
The Skies are Opening <ul><li>Nimbus (Freeman and Keahey, University of Chicago) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-side cloud-c...
<ul><li>E lastic  U tility  C omputing  A rchitecture  L inking  Y our  P rograms  T o  U seful  S ystems </li></ul><ul><l...
Goals for Eucalyptus <ul><li>Foster research in elastic/cloud/utility computing  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>models of service p...
Challenges <ul><li>Extensibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple architecture and open internal APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C...
Eucalyptus Architecture: WS-Cloud Client-side API Translator Cloud Controller Cluster Controller Node Controller Amazon EC...
EC2 Compatibility <ul><li>Interface is based on Amazon’s published WSDL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 compliant except for  <...
Networking <ul><li>Eucalyptus  does not assume that all worker nodes will have publicly routable IP addresses </li></ul><u...
Virtual Network: Ethernet Overlay ssl vde vde vde vde vde vde vde vde
Performance of the Virtual Network
Security <ul><li>All  Eucalyptus  components use WS-security for authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption of inter-...
Packaging, Installation, and Deployment <ul><li>Rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One-button” install per cluster </li></ul></...
What’s it Made Out Of? <ul><li>Axis2 and Axis2c version 1.4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Hibernate 3.2.2 </li></ul><ul><li>HSQLDB 1...
Eucalyptus Public Cloud <ul><li>Free, time limited access to a  Eucalyptus  installation at UCSB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onl...
EC2 and EPC Throughput
EC2 and EPC RTT
Single Instance
Four Instances
Eight Instances
Version History <ul><li>Eucalyptus  version 1.0 became available for public release 5/28/08 (Rocks binary only) </li></ul>...
Next Releases <ul><li>Version 1.4 (expected 11/5/2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S3 support uses local file system </li></ul><...
Next Generation Eucalyptus Networking <ul><li>Multiple networking implementations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source + acad...
More Plans <ul><li>Hypervisor religiosity and secularism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current implementation uses a subset of the...
Ancillary Projects <ul><li>Google App Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppDrop will run App Engine inside EC2 </li></ul></ul><...
Clouds Versus Grids <ul><li>Clouds and Grids are distinct </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full private clust...
Lessons Learned so Far <ul><li>Open source for cloud computing constrains design more than we thought it would </li></ul><...
Thanks, More Information, and Help! <ul><li>National Science Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VGrADS Project </li></ul></u...
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Eucalyptus: Open Source for Cloud Computing

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Rich Wolski, professor of Computer Science at UC Santa Barbara, presents Eucalyptus: an Open Source Infrastructure for Elastic Computing Research

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  • Transcript of "Eucalyptus: Open Source for Cloud Computing"

    1. 1. EUCALYPTUS: An Open Source Infrastructure for Elastic Computing Research Rich Wolski Chris Grzegorczyk, Dan Nurmi, Graziano Obertelli, Shriram Rajagopalan, Sunil Soman, Lamia Youseff, Dmitrii Zagorodnov Computer Science Department University of California, Santa Barbara
    2. 2. Exciting Weather Forecasts
    3. 3. Commercial Cloud Formation
    4. 4. What is a Cloud? SLAs Web Services Virtualization
    5. 5. How do they work? <ul><li>What can and cannot easily be hosted in a cloud? </li></ul><ul><li>What extensions or modifications are required to support a wider variety of services and applications? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplayer gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can cloud computing be coupled with other distributed software systems and infrastructure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should clouds and mobile devices (e.g. cell phones) interact? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Source Cloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on widely available and popular technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to install and maintain </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Skies are Opening <ul><li>Nimbus (Freeman and Keahey, University of Chicago) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-side cloud-computing interface to Globus-enabled TeraPort cluster at U of C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on GT4 and the Globus Virtual Workspace Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of cool features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great if local resources are GT4 proficient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorials and documentation in “grid space” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Enomalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start-up company distributing open source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REST APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User “dashboard” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-virtulaization support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost of extended cloud services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta version now available for download from SourceForge </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>E lastic U tility C omputing A rchitecture L inking Y our P rograms T o U seful S ystems </li></ul><ul><li>Web services based implementation of elastic/utility/cloud computing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux image hosting ala Amazon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we know if it is a cloud? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try and emulate an existing cloud: EC2 + S3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with command-line tools from Amazon w/o modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables leverage of emerging EC2 value-added service venues (e.g. Rightscale) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions as a software overlay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing installation should not be violated (too much) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ One-button” install using Rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ System Administrators are people too.” </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Goals for Eucalyptus <ul><li>Foster research in elastic/cloud/utility computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>models of service provisioning, scheduling, SLA formulation, hypervisor portability and feature enhancement, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimentation vehicle prior to buying commercial services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tech Preview” using local machines with local system administration support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide a debugging and development platform for EC2 (and other clouds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the environment to be set up and tested before it is instantiated in a for-fee environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide a basic software development platform for the open source community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the “Linux Experience” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a designed as a replacement technology for EC2 or any other cloud service </li></ul>
    9. 9. Challenges <ul><li>Extensibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple architecture and open internal APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client-side interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon’s EC2 interface and functionality (familiar and testable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual private network per cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must function as an overlay => cannot supplant local networking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be compatible with local security policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Packaging, installation, maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system administration staff is an important constituency for uptake </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Eucalyptus Architecture: WS-Cloud Client-side API Translator Cloud Controller Cluster Controller Node Controller Amazon EC2 Interface Database
    11. 11. EC2 Compatibility <ul><li>Interface is based on Amazon’s published WSDL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 compliant except for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>static IP address assignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Availability” zones correspond to individual clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the EC2 command-line tools downloaded from Amazon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REST interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S3 support/emulation: not yet, but on its way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images accessed by file system name instead of S3 handle for the moment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless user wants to use the actual S3 and pay for the egress charges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>System administration is different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus defines its own Cloud Admin. tool set for user accounting and cloud management </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Networking <ul><li>Eucalyptus does not assume that all worker nodes will have publicly routable IP addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cloud allocation will have one or more public IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cloud images have access to a private network interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of networks internal to a cloud allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual private network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses VDE interfaced to Xen that is set up dynamically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial performance hit within a cluster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a cloud allocation to span clusters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-performance private network (availability zone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bypasses VDE and uses local cluster network for each allocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runs at “native” network speed (I.e. with Xen) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud allocations cannot span clusters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability zone approach fits with Amazon’s high-level semantics </li></ul>
    13. 13. Virtual Network: Ethernet Overlay ssl vde vde vde vde vde vde vde vde
    14. 14. Performance of the Virtual Network
    15. 15. Security <ul><li>All Eucalyptus components use WS-security for authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption of inter-component communication is not enabled by default </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration option </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ssh key generation and installation ala EC2 is implemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud controller generates the public/private key pairs and installs them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User sign-up is web based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User specifies a password and submits sign-up request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cert is generated but withheld until admin. approves request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User gains access to cert. through password-protected web page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to EC2 model without the credit cards </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Packaging, Installation, and Deployment <ul><li>Rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One-button” install per cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Rocks V (the most current release) for Xen support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you know what you are doing, RPMs can be extracted and installed manually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple clusters requires a configuration file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-cluster configuration tools ala Rocks not readily available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Build-from-source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Many-button” install </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions, scripts, rsync, and perseverance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-machine “cloud” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All components run in dom0 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to resolve port-conflicts by hand </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What’s it Made Out Of? <ul><li>Axis2 and Axis2c version 1.4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Hibernate 3.2.2 </li></ul><ul><li>HSQLDB 1.8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>jetty 6.1.9 </li></ul><ul><li>JiBX (March 30th sourceforge) </li></ul><ul><li>Mule 2.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Rampart version 1.3 </li></ul><ul><li>libvirt version 0.4.2 </li></ul><ul><li>socat-1.6.0 </li></ul><ul><li>VDE version 2.2.0-pre2 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Eucalyptus Public Cloud <ul><li>Free, time limited access to a Eucalyptus installation at UCSB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only installed images can be run (i.e. no image uploading) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 VM limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 hour limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Pentium Xeon processors (3.2 GHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 GB of memory per image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36 GB of disk space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Gb enet interconnect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local availability zone only (i.e. no VDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debian 4.0, Linux v2.6.18-xen-3.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xen 3.2 </li></ul></ul>Demo
    19. 19. EC2 and EPC Throughput
    20. 20. EC2 and EPC RTT
    21. 21. Single Instance
    22. 22. Four Instances
    23. 23. Eight Instances
    24. 24. Version History <ul><li>Eucalyptus version 1.0 became available for public release 5/28/08 (Rocks binary only) </li></ul><ul><li>Version is 1.1 shipped 7/1/2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bug fixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decent WS-security implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REST interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build-from source “guidance” scripts and instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Version 1.2 shipped 8/1/2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily a bug-fix release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade mechanism (instead of re-install) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Version 1.3 shipped 8/23/2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon changed their client-side tools </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Next Releases <ul><li>Version 1.4 (expected 11/5/2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S3 support uses local file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator definable SLAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross cluster layer 2 networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic IPs and security groups, metadata service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-defined image management and registration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Version 1.5 (expected 1/1/09) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic Block Store (EBS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VLAN safe layer 3 networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credential federation support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DB managed configuration support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed DB state management (maybe) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be fully 2008 interface compatible in Release 1.5 </li></ul>
    26. 26. Next Generation Eucalyptus Networking <ul><li>Multiple networking implementations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source + academic environment == overlay or nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sites are willing to tolerate a more invasive networking approach in exchange for performance and scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three different approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit Xen network interface isolation and VLANS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ software only approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- will make Eucalyptus more Xen dependent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP-tables and NATs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ high-level software only approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- possible conflicts with existing IP-tables configuration(s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware-supported VLANs and trunking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ fast and scalable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- requires on-line access to VLAN configuration interface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. More Plans <ul><li>Hypervisor religiosity and secularism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current implementation uses a subset of the libvirt interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xen, VMWare, kvm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus + Xen + VMWare “works” but is clearly not the right answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HyperV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial study makes it look quite doable for virtualization support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the networking is next on the list </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Port of the Eucalyptus components to .Net </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UCSB Campus Cloud(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UC Cyberinfrastructure pilot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test installation up at California Nanosystems Institute (CNSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage UCSB VMWare installation and Eucalyptus installation at SDSC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a very rich user accounting system </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Ancillary Projects <ul><li>Google App Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppDrop will run App Engine inside EC2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port AppDrop to Eucalyptus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port App Engine to Hbase and/or Hypertable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should provide an interesting research vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rightscale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local enterprise focused on providing Ruby-on-Rails infrastructure for EC2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Turing Test” for Eucalyptus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Rightscale “tell” that it isn’t talking to EC2? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that the REST interface be solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing now against the EPC </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Clouds Versus Grids <ul><li>Clouds and Grids are distinct </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full private cluster is provisioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual user can only get a tiny fraction of the total resource pool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No support for cloud federation except through the client interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opaque with respect to resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built so that individual users can get most, if not all of the resources in a single request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middleware approach takes federation as a first principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are exposed, often as bare metal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These differences mandate different architectures for each </li></ul>
    30. 30. Lessons Learned so Far <ul><li>Open source for cloud computing constrains design more than we thought it would </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More of the technical challenge centers on dealing with local configuration choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-cluster service ensemble really isn’t a typical open source tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do we really need a laptop edition? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrators in the “real world” still build clusters by hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We thought the use of Rocks early on would make us heroes -- it hasn’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In HPC space, admin time is *really* expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are few, if any, cloud configuration tools available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat, Debian, CentOS, Ubuntu => linux packaging and deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocks => cluster packaging and deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>??? => cloud packaging and deployment? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Thanks, More Information, and Help! <ul><li>National Science Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VGrADS Project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SDSC, CNSI, IU, Rice University </li></ul><ul><li>RightScale.com </li></ul><ul><li>The Eucalyptus Development Team at UCSB is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chris Grzegorczyk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dan Nurmi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graziano Obertelli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shriram Rajagopalan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunil Soman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamia Youseff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dmitrii Zagordnov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich<no_spam>@cs.ucsb.edu </li></ul><ul><li>http://eucalyptus.cs.ucsb.edu </li></ul>

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