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    Ionic bonding   binary Ionic bonding binary Presentation Transcript

    • Ionic Bonding - Binary by S. Sherman
    • Composition
      • Ionic compounds consist of metal cations bonded with nonmetal anions
      • Transfer of electrons
      • Electrons lost by cation are gained by anion
      • The cation and anions surround each other
      • Smallest particle is a formula unit
    • Properties (of an ionic compound)
      • Solid state
      • Tend to be crystalline
      • High melting points
      • Electrically neutral
      • Ionic bonds are very strong
      • High electronegativity differences
      • Formation of ionic bond is always exothermic
    • Review
      • Cations are positive ions formed from the loss of electrons
      • Anions are negative ions formed from the gain of electrons
    • Oxidation States
      • Cations with only one oxidation number are named with the name of the element followed by the word ion (groups 1, 2, 13,14)*
      • *Note: need to know that lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) have multiple charges (both can be 2+ or 4+)
      • Carbon in group 14 does not form ions - it forms covalent bonds (share) instead.
    • Cations with multiple oxidation states ( transition metals ) are named with the metal name followed by a roman numeral representing the oxidation state and the word ion *Note: Silver is always +1, Cadmium and Zinc are always +2 : learn these transition metal exceptions!
    • Review
      • Nonmetal ions are named with the nonmetal name followed by an –ide
      • Sulfur  sulfide, phosphorous  phosphide, nitrogen  nitride etc.
    • Review – Name these ions
      • Na +
      • Ca 2+
      • Al 3+
      • Fe 3+
      • Fe 2+
      • Pb 2+
      • Zn 2+
    • Answers:
      • Sodium ion
      • Calcium ion
      • Aluminum ion
      • Iron (III)ion
      • Iron (II)ion
      • Lead (II) ion
      • Zinc ion
    • Review – Name these:
      • P 3-
      • S 2-
      • N 3-
      • O 2-
      • F -
      • Cl -
      • I-
    • Answers (make sure you spelled correctly!):
      • Phosphide ion
      • Sulfide ion
      • Nitride ion
      • Oxide ion
      • Fluoride ion
      • Chloride ion
      • Iodide ion
    • Writing Ionic Formulas
      • Objectives:
      • balance the electrons lost and gained
      • Write formula with lowest possible ratio with this balance of electron transfer
      • Final formula is neutral
    • Two types of Ionic Bonding
      • Binary ionic bonding:
      • Composed of two elements
      • One cation and one anion – both monatomic
      • Ternary ionic bonding:
      • Composed of three or more elements
      • One cation and one anion – must contain at least one polyatomic ion (will discuss later)
    • Writing Formulas - Binary
      • Sodium chloride  comes from the sodium atom and chlorine atom combined (forming ions in process):
      • Sodium ion  Na + (losing one electron)
      • Chloride ion  Cl - (gaining one electron)
      • The electron lost by the sodium atom to transferred to the chloride ion
    • Picture Explanation (use your dot diagrams)
      • Copy from board!
      • Na Cl
      • Final chemical formula: NaCl (1:1 ratio)
    • Barium Chloride – writing formula
      • Composed of barium atom combined with chlorine atom (forming ions in process)
      • Barium ion  Ba 2+ (loses two electrons)
      • Chloride ion  Cl - (gains one electron)
      • You need two of the chlorine atoms to each gain one electron to combine with one atom of barium losing two electrons to balance the transfer of electrons!
    • Picture Explanation
      • Ba Cl
      • Cl
      • Final formula: BaCl 2 (1:2) ratio
    • Aluminum Sulfide
      • Comes from the aluminum atom combining with the sulfur atom (forming ions in process):
      • Aluminum ion  Al 3+ (loses 3 electrons)
      • Sulfide ion  S 2- (gains 2 electrons)
      • Must balance the charges – find lowest common denominator  need to lose 6 and gain 6 total
      • Need 2 Al atoms each losing 3 electrons to balance with 3 sulfur atoms each gaining 2 electrons!
    • Picture Explanation
      • Al S
      • Al S
      • S
      • Final formula Al 2 S 3 (2:3 ratio)
    • Practice! Write formula for:
      • Magnesium + Oxygen
      • Sodium + Nitrogen
      • Barium + Phosphorus
      • Aluminum + Bromine
      • 5. Tin (IV) + Sulfur
      • Make columns for: cation, anion, formula and name (will add later) in your notebook
    • Elements Cation Anion Formula Magnesium and Oxygen Mg 2+ O 2- MgO Sodium and Nitrogen Na + N 3- Na 3 N Barium and Phosphorus Ba 2+ P 3- Ba 3 P 2 Aluminum and Bromine Al 3+ Br - AlBr 3 Tin (IV) and Sulfur Sn 4+ S 2- SnS 2
    • Writing Names
      • For formulas with cations that only have one charge, just write the name of the two ions without the word ion
      • For formulas with cations that have multiple charges (transition metals) you need to look at the charge on the anion to determine the charge of the cation
    • Examples
      • MgO  magnesium oxide (only 1 possible charge so no roman numeral)
      • MnO  manganese (II) oxide (multiple charges need roman numeral) 
      • Oxide ion is O 2- , and there is a 1:1 ratio of ions in the formula MnO therefore the charge on Mn must be +2 to balance the charge and get that formula
    • Examples
      • MnO 2  manganese (IV) oxide
      • Oxide ion is O 2- (gains 2 electrons) and you have two atoms of oxygen in the formula so the total electrons gained is x 2 = 4
      • Therefore, the one atom of manganese needs to lose 4 electrons!
    • Picture example
      • MnO comes from  Mn O
      • +2 cation = manganese (II)
      • MnO 2 comes from  Mn O
      • O
      • + 4 cation = manganese (IV)
    • Naming Practice:
      • 1-5. Go back and name the formulas on the previous practice!
      • Also Name:
      • 6. ReS 3
      • 7. CaS
      • 8. PbO
      • 9. Ag 2 O
      • 10. FeF 3
    • Answers – Check your spelling! Elements Cation Anion Formula Name Magnesium and Oxygen Mg 2+ O 2- MgO Magnesium Oxide Sodium and Nitrogen Na + N 3- Na 3 N Sodium Nitride Barium and Phosphorus Ba 2+ P 3- Ba 3 P 2 Barium Phosphide Aluminum and Bromine Al 3+ Br - AlBr 3 Aluminum Bromide Tin (IV) and Sulfur Sn 4+ S 2- SnS 2 Tin (IV) Sulfide
    • Answers (spelling counts!): Formula Cation Anion Name ReS 3 Re 6+ S 2- Rhenium (VI) Sulfide CaS Ca 2+ S 2- Calcium Sulfide PbO Pb 2+ O 2- Lead(II) Oxide Ag 2 O Ag + O 2- Silver Oxide FeF 3 Fe 3+ F - Iron (III) Fluoride
    • Independent Practice
      • Complete the binary ionic bonding practice handout – by yourself!
      • You should only use the periodic table you were provided.