Ionic bonding binary


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Ionic bonding binary

  1. 1. Ionic Bonding - Binary by S. Sherman
  2. 2. Composition <ul><li>Ionic compounds consist of metal cations bonded with nonmetal anions </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons lost by cation are gained by anion </li></ul><ul><li>The cation and anions surround each other </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest particle is a formula unit </li></ul>
  3. 3. Properties (of an ionic compound) <ul><li>Solid state </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be crystalline </li></ul><ul><li>High melting points </li></ul><ul><li>Electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds are very strong </li></ul><ul><li>High electronegativity differences </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of ionic bond is always exothermic </li></ul>
  4. 4. Review <ul><li>Cations are positive ions formed from the loss of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Anions are negative ions formed from the gain of electrons </li></ul>
  5. 5. Oxidation States <ul><li>Cations with only one oxidation number are named with the name of the element followed by the word ion (groups 1, 2, 13,14)* </li></ul><ul><li>*Note: need to know that lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) have multiple charges (both can be 2+ or 4+) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon in group 14 does not form ions - it forms covalent bonds (share) instead. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cations with multiple oxidation states ( transition metals ) are named with the metal name followed by a roman numeral representing the oxidation state and the word ion *Note: Silver is always +1, Cadmium and Zinc are always +2 : learn these transition metal exceptions!
  7. 7. Review <ul><li>Nonmetal ions are named with the nonmetal name followed by an –ide </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur  sulfide, phosphorous  phosphide, nitrogen  nitride etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Review – Name these ions <ul><li>Na + </li></ul><ul><li>Ca 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>Al 3+ </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 3+ </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>Pb 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>Zn 2+ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Answers: <ul><li>Sodium ion </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium ion </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum ion </li></ul><ul><li>Iron (III)ion </li></ul><ul><li>Iron (II)ion </li></ul><ul><li>Lead (II) ion </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc ion </li></ul>
  10. 10. Review – Name these: <ul><li>P 3- </li></ul><ul><li>S 2- </li></ul><ul><li>N 3- </li></ul><ul><li>O 2- </li></ul><ul><li>F - </li></ul><ul><li>Cl - </li></ul><ul><li>I- </li></ul>
  11. 11. Answers (make sure you spelled correctly!): <ul><li>Phosphide ion </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfide ion </li></ul><ul><li>Nitride ion </li></ul><ul><li>Oxide ion </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoride ion </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride ion </li></ul><ul><li>Iodide ion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Writing Ionic Formulas <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>balance the electrons lost and gained </li></ul><ul><li>Write formula with lowest possible ratio with this balance of electron transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Final formula is neutral </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two types of Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Binary ionic bonding: </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of two elements </li></ul><ul><li>One cation and one anion – both monatomic </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary ionic bonding: </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of three or more elements </li></ul><ul><li>One cation and one anion – must contain at least one polyatomic ion (will discuss later) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Writing Formulas - Binary <ul><li>Sodium chloride  comes from the sodium atom and chlorine atom combined (forming ions in process): </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium ion  Na + (losing one electron) </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride ion  Cl - (gaining one electron) </li></ul><ul><li>The electron lost by the sodium atom to transferred to the chloride ion </li></ul>
  15. 15. Picture Explanation (use your dot diagrams) <ul><li>Copy from board! </li></ul><ul><li>Na Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Final chemical formula: NaCl (1:1 ratio) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Barium Chloride – writing formula <ul><li>Composed of barium atom combined with chlorine atom (forming ions in process) </li></ul><ul><li>Barium ion  Ba 2+ (loses two electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride ion  Cl - (gains one electron) </li></ul><ul><li>You need two of the chlorine atoms to each gain one electron to combine with one atom of barium losing two electrons to balance the transfer of electrons! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Picture Explanation <ul><li>Ba Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Final formula: BaCl 2 (1:2) ratio </li></ul>
  18. 18. Aluminum Sulfide <ul><li>Comes from the aluminum atom combining with the sulfur atom (forming ions in process): </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum ion  Al 3+ (loses 3 electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfide ion  S 2- (gains 2 electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Must balance the charges – find lowest common denominator  need to lose 6 and gain 6 total </li></ul><ul><li>Need 2 Al atoms each losing 3 electrons to balance with 3 sulfur atoms each gaining 2 electrons! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Picture Explanation <ul><li>Al S </li></ul><ul><li>Al S </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>Final formula Al 2 S 3 (2:3 ratio) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Practice! Write formula for: <ul><li>Magnesium + Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium + Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Barium + Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum + Bromine </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tin (IV) + Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Make columns for: cation, anion, formula and name (will add later) in your notebook </li></ul>
  21. 21. Elements Cation Anion Formula Magnesium and Oxygen Mg 2+ O 2- MgO Sodium and Nitrogen Na + N 3- Na 3 N Barium and Phosphorus Ba 2+ P 3- Ba 3 P 2 Aluminum and Bromine Al 3+ Br - AlBr 3 Tin (IV) and Sulfur Sn 4+ S 2- SnS 2
  22. 22. Writing Names <ul><li>For formulas with cations that only have one charge, just write the name of the two ions without the word ion </li></ul><ul><li>For formulas with cations that have multiple charges (transition metals) you need to look at the charge on the anion to determine the charge of the cation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Examples <ul><li>MgO  magnesium oxide (only 1 possible charge so no roman numeral) </li></ul><ul><li>MnO  manganese (II) oxide (multiple charges need roman numeral)  </li></ul><ul><li>Oxide ion is O 2- , and there is a 1:1 ratio of ions in the formula MnO therefore the charge on Mn must be +2 to balance the charge and get that formula </li></ul>
  24. 24. Examples <ul><li>MnO 2  manganese (IV) oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Oxide ion is O 2- (gains 2 electrons) and you have two atoms of oxygen in the formula so the total electrons gained is x 2 = 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the one atom of manganese needs to lose 4 electrons! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Picture example <ul><li>MnO comes from  Mn O </li></ul><ul><li>+2 cation = manganese (II) </li></ul><ul><li>MnO 2 comes from  Mn O </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>+ 4 cation = manganese (IV) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Naming Practice: <ul><li>1-5. Go back and name the formulas on the previous practice! </li></ul><ul><li>Also Name: </li></ul><ul><li>6. ReS 3 </li></ul><ul><li>7. CaS </li></ul><ul><li>8. PbO </li></ul><ul><li>9. Ag 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>10. FeF 3 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Answers – Check your spelling! Elements Cation Anion Formula Name Magnesium and Oxygen Mg 2+ O 2- MgO Magnesium Oxide Sodium and Nitrogen Na + N 3- Na 3 N Sodium Nitride Barium and Phosphorus Ba 2+ P 3- Ba 3 P 2 Barium Phosphide Aluminum and Bromine Al 3+ Br - AlBr 3 Aluminum Bromide Tin (IV) and Sulfur Sn 4+ S 2- SnS 2 Tin (IV) Sulfide
  28. 28. Answers (spelling counts!): Formula Cation Anion Name ReS 3 Re 6+ S 2- Rhenium (VI) Sulfide CaS Ca 2+ S 2- Calcium Sulfide PbO Pb 2+ O 2- Lead(II) Oxide Ag 2 O Ag + O 2- Silver Oxide FeF 3 Fe 3+ F - Iron (III) Fluoride
  29. 29. Independent Practice <ul><li>Complete the binary ionic bonding practice handout – by yourself! </li></ul><ul><li>You should only use the periodic table you were provided. </li></ul>