Open Education & Connectivist MOOCs


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A presentation given to the CTLT Institute (Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology) at the University of British Columbia in May, 2013. In it I introduce open education, MOOCs, xMOOCs vs cMOOCs, and discuss ETMOOC--a cMOOC I participated in in 2013--as an example of a cMOOC to better explain what (some) cMOOCs are like.

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  •“A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.”Open Content definition - the right to reuse the content in its unaltered / verbatim form (e.g., make a backup copy of the content)Revise - the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)Remix - the right to combine the original or revised content with other content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)Redistribute - the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)Free software definition freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  • Wiley’s 4 Rs—adapt and improve the OER so it better meets your needs.Remix—combine or "mash up" the OER with other OER to produce new materials.Reuse—use the original or your new version of the OER in a wide range of contexts.Redistribute—make copies and share the original OER or your new version with others.Wiki educator on defining OER 1Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge (Atkins, Brown, & Hammond 2007[1]).Option 2Open Educational Resources (OER) are materials used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modified and shared by anyone (Downes 2011[2]). Option 3Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others (Creative Commons[3]). UNESCO on OER“Open Educational Resources are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and distribution. “OER link is toJISC guide to OER:“Open educational resources (OER) are learning and teaching materials, freely available online for anyone to use. Examples include full courses, course modules, lectures, games, teaching materials and assignments. They can take the form of text, images, audio, video and may even be interactive.”“Once released, the resources can be used by a learner, reused by a teacher, remixed with other resources or repurposed to create new educational materials. While it is not essential to embrace all aspects – release, use, reuse and repurposing – involvement with one aspect tends to lead naturally to another.”“Releasing open educational resources is not simply about putting learning and teaching material online; it involves making the material available in a genuinely open way. Creative Commons or similar licenses are used so that the creator of the resources can retain copyright, while others can copy, distribute, and make some uses of their work.”
  • Second bullet piont: is“For certain courses, students will be able to access all or parts of textbooks for free. The materials are restricted by DRM: students will not be able to copy-paste or print, and access to the textbooks will be revoked when the course ends. As the press release reads, of course, “students will also be able to purchase full versions of e-textbooks provided by publishers for continued personal learning.”“Unlike its popular textbook rental service, the Chegge-reader that Coursera will utilize has almost all of the features that students continually report that they dislike: namely, locked-down content that expires and an inability to share notes, highlights or the books themselves.”“Because the free versions of the books will be read through an e-reader, we’ll also get information about usage. How students use the electronic text, how they use the material, will be tracked through software.””
  • Downes inventing the termsComment on this post:“I did indeed coin these two terms (the distinction itself was immediately and obviously evident to everyone), and I used the terms first in OLDaily itself. But not at the same time - I first used the term xMOOC, and only later used the term cMOOC. That's why it's so hard to find where I first coined them. My first _announcement_ of the terminology (not to be confused with first use) is here: “Downes G+ post, April 10, 2013“What the 'x' in 'xMOOC' stands forIn case you were wondering...If anything, it stands for ‘eXtended’. The origin of the ‘x’ is the use of ‘x’ in things like ‘TEDx’ or ‘MITx’ to indicate programs that aren’t part of the core offering, but which are in some way extensions. I noticed this use of ‘x’ in the U.S. MOOCs, for example, ‘EdX’. So I started calling any of the MOOCs from Coursera, Udacity and EdX ‘xMOOCs’. It was only later on that I started calling the others ‘cMOOCs’. It should be clear here that the ‘xMOOC’ sense is not of “eXtended MOOC” but rather “MOOC as eXtension of something else”.”
  • Go to siteEach blog post has announcements re: each topic, including presentations, suggested activitieseach week had the following (Distributed!) -- synch presentations -- a twitter chat -- suggested activities/things to blog about -- lists of resources -- Google+ discussions -- Diigo group that people added links to -- ppl tweeting about things relevant to course with #etmoochashtag -- blogs: write, read others’ and comment; respond to comments on yoursEach could have own path-- It was emphasized that you could drop in and out however you wanted. New topic every two weeks so new ppl could join anytime; didn’t matter if missed earlier parts.-- could watch what you wanted, do whichever activities you wanted (or none), blog about whatever you wanted-- way too much info: presentations, tweets, blogs, links—so had to pick and choose what wanted to focus on2. Blog hub3. Twitter archive-- #etmooc still being usedHow I went through the course-- watched sessions; had chats in them, participatory too-- chose something to blog about, once a week-- read several blogs by others each week; focused on those by ppl I enjoyed reading and those I didn’t know; tried to put comments on ones that had no comments as much as possible-- participated in Twitter chats every week-- participated in G+ discussions-- saved links to Diigo
  • Tried to tell the story of my participation in ETMOOC, and the things that resonated with me the most, on a Storify site. Going to embed in blog.
  • What I got out of ETMOOCChanged my life! Became much more connected.Blogging: --many more comments -- comment on ppl’s blogs, including those I don’t know -- engage in many more meaningful conversations online this way, with more ppl2. Twitter-- used to just use it to get resources, links from others-- occasionally I’d sent out links myself-- now I actually connect w/other people, talk with them, engage in conversations, get to know them-- have some ppl I now consider friends that I only talk to on twitter and other online places like Google+ or email3. Value of connections: PLN-- ask q on twitter or G+ and gets answered right away-- get lots of helpful resources on things I’m interested in, b/c I know ppl who are interested in those things too, and I follow many of the same ppl they do; also follow hashtags to get that info, and more ppl to follow-- read many more blogs that have good ideas and info-- work with ppl I’ve met on various projects—setting up an etmooc like course for others for next year, collaborating on a couple of other sites with someone I met-- working with some of them on research projects4. Etmooc is continuing with a blog reading group on Google+ and Twitter5. New things I’ve learned about that I’m excited about-- open education-- cMOOCs & pedagogical theories behind them-- making videos, images, other digital artifacts
  • See also, for Bryan Jackson’s course: he broadcasted lectures (ds106 radio?), uploaded audio & notes of discussions, had a blog hub for student and open online participants’ blogs and encouraged each to comment on each others’Couldn’t figure out how he dealt with the readings; had a textbook
  • Open Education & Connectivist MOOCs

    1. 1. Open Education&ConnectivistMOOCsChristina Hendricks, Sr. Instructor, Philosophy &Arts One, UBCCTLT Institute, UBC, May 27, 2013Slides licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Canada license (CC-BY)
    2. 2. Openness• Open source (software)• Open access (publishing)• Open data• Open government• Open business• Open schools• Open education, open educational resourcesPossible to have definition for openness generally?• Free & full access, ability to reuse, revise, remix, redistributeSee, e.g.,
    3. 3. Open Education(some suggested characteristics)Open Content• Free & open educational materials & courses: no costaccess, licensed to allow reuse & modification• Often called “open educational resources” (OER)(see, e.g.,• David Wiley’s “4 R’s” for OER (• Reuse• Revise• Remix• Redistribute
    4. 4. Open Education(some suggested characteristics)Opencontent, cont’d• Free and open instruction, such as lectures,demonstrations being available to watch andrevise/remixStephen Downes’ blog (2010)• Assigned readings free and open: e.g., opentextbooks that students can not only read for freebut copy/paste, print, take notes on, etc.David Wiley’s open course on Open Education:
    5. 5. Open Education(some suggested characteristics)Student work and discussions• Asking students to post some work on publiclyavailable blogs, wikis, video sites, etc.• Some course discussion may be open: e.g.,recording lecture/discussion & posting online,blogs &comments, wikis, Twitter & other socialmedia toolsDavid Wiley’s open course on Open Education:
    6. 6. MOOCs• Massive• Open• Online• Course• MOOC enrollment &completionrates• Some more than others;depends on mng of “open”• Depends on mng of“course”
    7. 7.
    8. 8. xMOOCs&cMOOCs(Terms introduced by Stephen Downes)xMOOCs• Focus is on learning content• Instructors at centre, providing, organizingcontent & assessments• Students encouraged to go through courseuniformly & linearly• Course is housed in one “place” on the web
    9. 9. xMOOCs&cMOOCsConnectivistMOOCs (cMOOCs)• Major focus is on developing connections betweenparticipants to promote learning from each other• Instructors facilitate connections rather than acting asthe main, centralized sources of knowledge• Participants create own paths through course• Course is distributed in various places on the web(though often with a central hub of info)See, e.g.
    10. 10. From Dave Cormier’s video on MOOCs:
    11. 11. xMOOCs&cMOOCsOften cMOOCs involve:• Aggregating: Collecting/reading/viewing infoprovided in course & what you & others find outside• Remixing & repurposing: Blogging, discussingonline, creating new ideas & artifacts• Sharing: giving all of the above back to community& opening it to the public (if you want)Adapted from:
    12. 12.
    13. 13. ETMOOC(Jan-March 2013)
    14. 14. ETMOOC(Jan-March 2013)
    15. 15. (Jan-March 2013)
    16. 16. Ideas for future: cMOOCextensions of on-campus coursesBryan Jackson, Gleneagle Secondary School,Coquitlam, BC Couros, Univ. of Regina http://eci831.caThoughts about this on my blog:
    17. 17. Thank you!And contact infoChristina HendricksSr. Instructor, Philosophy & Arts One, UBCWebsite: @clhendricksbcSlides licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Canada license (CC-BY)