Dentistry, Digestion, Nutrition


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Dentistry, Digestion, Nutrition

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Dentistry, Digestion, Nutrition

  1. 1. EQUINE MEDICINE Dentistry, Digestion and Nutrition
  2. 2. Function: Deliver food into body Process food Eliminate wastes
  3. 3. Dental Formula: Upper I C P M 3 1 3(4) 3 Lower I C P M 3 1 3(4) 3 *Adult formula/Multiply by 2
  4. 4. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Designed for grazing and roaming Ideally eat for 15-20 hours per day Known as Hindgut Fermenters Have small, simple “monogastric” stomach
  5. 5. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Efficient system if mainly forage is used Excess grains pass into the hindgut unprocessed Hindgut bacteria ferment feed releasing lactic acid Lactic acid lowers gut pH killing bacteria and releasing toxins Toxins cause colic, laminitis, muscle problems, and other diseases
  6. 6. Water Necessary for almost all of the processes in the body Horses MUST have access to fresh clean water at all times!!! Average Consumption is 10-12 gallons per day Amount increases when: Dry feed is fed Hot weather is present Intense workload is present Mares are pregnant or nursing
  7. 7. NUTRITION Energy Needed for: Body maintenance Performance Growth Reproduction Up to 80-90% of feed is converted to energy Often measured in “megacalories” (Mcal) or “kilocalories” (Kcal) Excess in the diet is stored as fat May be difficult to supply adequate amounts in hard working horses
  8. 8. NUTRITION Energy Carbohydrates: Nonstructural-Starches & Sugars Mostly grains Digested in the small intestine Structural-Cellulose & Hemicellulose Fermented in hindgut Fat: Large amount present in feeds Commonly underutilized in diets Protein: Needed for body tissue growth and repair Some are made by the horse, some are needed in the diet Absorbed in the small intestine Commonly overfed to horses
  9. 9. NUTRITION Fat Soluble A-All fresh green forage Excess Stored in liver Excess in diet –bone weakness D-Gained with sunlight access E-Helps decrease tissue damage Works closely with selenium K-Blood clotting Made in intestinal tract Water Soluble B-complex found in high quality forage Vitamin B₁₂ made in hindgut Biotin often used to improve hoof wall C-Made in the liver Vitamins
  10. 10. NUTRITION Major-Macrominerals Calcium-bone Phosphorus-bone Ca:P ratio is very important Potassium-sweat Sodium-sweat Choride-sweat Magnesium Sulfur Minor-Trace minerals Copper Iodine Iron Selenium Cobalt Manganese Fluorine Zinc Minerals
  11. 11. Forage Legumes have higher protein content than grass hay (in general) Grass hays contain more digestible fiber at the same plant stage Less mature plants have more available energy and protein Horses like soft, sweet smelling hay, and it has a good energy content Green hay has more vitaminA Coastal Bermuda hay tends to be fine and dry, causing impactions Many horses are calmer on a grass hay diet All hay diets should be supplemented with a balanced vitamin/mineral supplement All diets should be forage based Average 1000 lb horse needs at least 20 lbs of hay per day Feed your horse as an individual!
  12. 12. NUTRITION Fat Used to increase energy in the diet May be up to 10% of diet Good supplements are vegetable oils and rice bran Additions to the diet should be made slowly Rice bran should be stabilized Oils are better digested if included in feed vs. poured on Oils need to be stored in a cool place during hot months
  13. 13. NUTRITION Digestible Fiber Helps move feed through the system Diet should contain at least 12% fiber Soybean hulls and beet pulp are good sources of fiber and energy
  14. 14. NUTRITION No more than 6 lbs per day should be fed Cereal Grains Corn-70% starch Oats-50% starch, “grain-high” Barley-low energy Grain Mixes & Fortified Feeds Mixed Grains-no vit or min Fortified Feeds-vit & min added Sweet Feeds-very popular! Pellets-processing may increase digestibility Grains (High-Starch Feeds)
  15. 15. CONCLUSION Horses are individuals and need to be fed individually All diets should be forage based Fat is an excellent source of extra energy All diets should have at least 12% crude fiber All feed changes should be made slowly, to allow your horse to adjust to different feeds To decrease the risk of colic, feed no more that 6 lbs. of grain per day