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CONTENT MODELLING: THE ART OFDESIGNING STRUCTURED CONTENTRachel Lovinger @rlovinger & Cleve Gibbon @clevegSample slides fr...
2©2013 All rights reserved.INTRODUCTIONSPhotobyRohannaMertensCleve GibbonCTOCognifideRachel LovingerExperience DirectorRaz...
3©2013 All rights reserved.• ‘70s – the child of database programmer andan editor• ‘80s – student, photographer, writer, a...
4©2013 All rights reserved.• ‘70s – hyperactive child to nightshift nurses• ‘80s – designer, come gamer, and consolehacker...
5©2013 All rights reserved.• The content strategist uses the content model to:• Validate experience concepts & designs• Ex...
6©2013 All rights reserved.• Part One: Background• Let’s talk about structured content• Content Modelling Overview*• Benef...
PART ONE:BACKGROUND
CONTENT MODELLINGOVERVIEW
9©2013 All rights reserved.Chart SongAlbumPageArtistProfileHOW DO WE GET TO STRUCTURED CONTENT?Manage content separatefrom...
- Mark Boultonhttp://www.markboulton.co.uk/journal/structure-first-content-alwaysYou can create good experienceswithout kn...
11©2013 All rights reserved.CONTENT MODELLING IS……structured content design.It’s both an art and a science.• The art is “d...
12©2013 All rights reserved.HOW IS IT DONE?• It’s data modelling for content (and we’ve been doing it for a long,long time...
13©2013 All rights reserved.WHAT IS A CONTENT MODEL?A content model is a formal representation of structured contentas a c...
14©2013 All rights reserved.HIGH LEVEL CONTENT MODEL: DIAGRAMLandscape ofcontent typesChart SongAlbum PageArtist Profile
15©2013 All rights reserved.CONTENT MODEL: DIAGRAMIdentify and expresskey contentrelationships
16©2013 All rights reserved.More info about the underlying data storage & specsDETAILED CONTENT MODEL: SPREADSHEET
17©2013 All rights reserved.DETAILED CONTENT MODEL: DOCUMENTCreate documents usingWord,Wikis, PowerPoint
18©2013 All rights reserved.• A content model helps clarify requirements and encouragescollaboration between designers, de...
19©2013 All rights reserved.MODEL THINKINGBusiness Creative/UX TechContent (Production, Management, Delivery) StrategyComp...
20©2013 All rights reserved.• Validate designs andplanned content• Identify constraintsand capabilities• Influence CMSsele...
21©2013 All rights reserved.• Content models are formal representations of structured content.• Content models should be s...
PART TWO:CREATING CONTENTMODELS
23©2013 All rights reserved.• Which Content? – Determine which content in a design needsto be modelled• ContentTypes – Ide...
24©2013 All rights reserved.Use the designs and determine which content* will be:WHICH CONTENT SHOULD BE MODELLED?CMSDispl...
25©2013 All rights reserved.• Which types of content are different enough that they mightwarrant a unique structure?• Ex:A...
26©2013 All rights reserved.• Figure out the separate elements, or attributes, of each one. Thinkabout how each segment of...
PART THREE:REFINING CONTENTMODELS
28©2013 All rights reserved.• Attributes vs. relationships – Determine which parts of acontent type are core attributes of...
PART FOUR:PUTTING IT TO WORK
30©2013 All rights reserved.• Responsive Design• Content APIs• Meaningful Structure• CMS Architectures• Content Architectu...
31©2013 All rights reserved.• More content through increased interactions.• Increased complexity through more experiments....
- D. Keith Robinson, Think Vitaminhttp://blog.teamtreehouse.com/redefining-content-management/There are four importantpiec...
33©2013 All rights reserved.Sustainable content requires us to understand:• how best to apply technology (CM Ecosystem)• t...
35©2013 All rights reserved.CONTENT ARCHITECTUREContentStrategyContentManagementWhyContentArchitectureWhat HowActionablePl...
WRAPPING UP
37©2013 All rights reserved.• Structuring content is an interdisciplinary task• Content modelling is the art & science of ...
Karen McGraneContent Strategy for MobileRahel Bailie & Noz UrbinaContent Strategy for Decision MakersSara Wachter-Boettche...
39©2013 All rights reserved.PEOPLE TO FOLLOWAt the intersection of Content Strategy, Responsive Design, StructuredContent,...
40©2013 All rights reserved.Cleve Gibbon@clevegcleve.gibbon@cognifide.comTHANK YOUPhotobyRohannaMertensRachel Lovinger@rlo...
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content modelling 2013 lite

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This is a preview version of the Content Modelling Workshop that I've co-written with Rachel Lovinger. So far we've given this workshop in Cape Town and Minneapolis. Coming soon to Helsinki, and hopefully elsewhere. This deck introduces the ideas and methodologies of content modelling. It's a subset of the slides for the workshop. The full workshop also includes more information on structured content, benefits of content modelling, many group exercises and discussions, and tips on how to putting these practices to work in real projects.

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  1. 1. CONTENT MODELLING: THE ART OFDESIGNING STRUCTURED CONTENTRachel Lovinger @rlovinger & Cleve Gibbon @clevegSample slides from the workshopPhoto by EricGjerde
  2. 2. 2©2013 All rights reserved.INTRODUCTIONSPhotobyRohannaMertensCleve GibbonCTOCognifideRachel LovingerExperience DirectorRazorfish
  3. 3. 3©2013 All rights reserved.• ‘70s – the child of database programmer andan editor• ‘80s – student, photographer, writer, andfilmmaker• ‘90s – making interactive training programs• Early ‘00s – web developer, working onpresentation templates that displayedcontent from a CMSToday, I do content strategy as part of a UserExperience department, collaborating withpeople from many disciplines.HOW I GOT HERE (CONTENT STRATEGIST)Rachel,Age 9
  4. 4. 4©2013 All rights reserved.• ‘70s – hyperactive child to nightshift nurses• ‘80s – designer, come gamer, and consolehacker• ‘90s – student, lecturer, modeler and UIdeveloper• Early ‘00s – platform developer / architectbuilding trading platformsToday, I work equally across with content andtechnology to create engaging platforms tobetter serve customersHOW I GOT HERE (CONTENT TECHNOLOGIST)Cleve,Age 6
  5. 5. 5©2013 All rights reserved.• The content strategist uses the content model to:• Validate experience concepts & designs• Explore the needs of the content creators• Drive the development of taxonomies• Communicate the content design details to those implementing the CMS• Instruct content producers• The content technologist, uses the content model to:• Get the business to pop the content bonnet from the get go.• Bring technologists upstream into content conversations.• Engage humans in the key elements of content architecture.• Provide a visual reference point for structured content.• Paint the incomplete content picture and highlight the obvious gaps.• Drive discussions around responsive design, mobile, targeting, translation, …CONTENT MODELLING
  6. 6. 6©2013 All rights reserved.• Part One: Background• Let’s talk about structured content• Content Modelling Overview*• Benefits of content modelling• PartTwo: Creating ContentModels• Which content should be modelled?• Content types• Content properties• PartThree: RefiningContent Models• Attributes vs. relationships• Chunking & assembling• Adaptability• Part Four: Putting it toWork• Responsive design• Content APIs• Meaningful structure• CMS architectures• Content architecture*WORKSHOP AGENDA* Section included
  7. 7. PART ONE:BACKGROUND
  8. 8. CONTENT MODELLINGOVERVIEW
  9. 9. 9©2013 All rights reserved.Chart SongAlbumPageArtistProfileHOW DO WE GET TO STRUCTURED CONTENT?Manage content separatefrom display (CMS)Content ModellingRich MetadataImage by Richard Cyganiak and Anja JentzschWeb Standards
  10. 10. - Mark Boultonhttp://www.markboulton.co.uk/journal/structure-first-content-alwaysYou can create good experienceswithout knowing the content.What you can’t do is create goodexperiences without knowing yourcontent structure.
  11. 11. 11©2013 All rights reserved.CONTENT MODELLING IS……structured content design.It’s both an art and a science.• The art is “designing” something that is simple, clear and relevant.• The science is “engineering” elegant structures with integrity andconsistency to house sustainable content.
  12. 12. 12©2013 All rights reserved.HOW IS IT DONE?• It’s data modelling for content (and we’ve been doing it for a long,long time within the software industry…).• Content modelling mines, defines and refines structured content.• The tangible output from content modelling are content model(s).
  13. 13. 13©2013 All rights reserved.WHAT IS A CONTENT MODEL?A content model is a formal representation of structured contentas a collection of content types and their inter-relationships.• Defines and documents all the different types of content you willhave for a given project.• Provides detailed descriptions and specifications of each contenttype, their attributes and relationships with each one another.
  14. 14. 14©2013 All rights reserved.HIGH LEVEL CONTENT MODEL: DIAGRAMLandscape ofcontent typesChart SongAlbum PageArtist Profile
  15. 15. 15©2013 All rights reserved.CONTENT MODEL: DIAGRAMIdentify and expresskey contentrelationships
  16. 16. 16©2013 All rights reserved.More info about the underlying data storage & specsDETAILED CONTENT MODEL: SPREADSHEET
  17. 17. 17©2013 All rights reserved.DETAILED CONTENT MODEL: DOCUMENTCreate documents usingWord,Wikis, PowerPoint
  18. 18. 18©2013 All rights reserved.• A content model helps clarify requirements and encouragescollaboration between designers, developers setting up the CMS,and content creators.• Content modelling helps bring the content strategy to life whilealso making sure:• The designs are complete and accurate• The business user needs are taken into account• The content management solution (incl. CMS) supports the content needs• The content strategy is sustainableCONTENT MODELLING FOSTERS ALIGNMENT
  19. 19. 19©2013 All rights reserved.MODEL THINKINGBusiness Creative/UX TechContent (Production, Management, Delivery) StrategyCompsWiresSpecsPrototypesArchitectureAPIsGoalsAudiencePlan
  20. 20. 20©2013 All rights reserved.• Validate designs andplanned content• Identify constraintsand capabilities• Influence CMSselection• Design UIcustomizations• Ground designs in aninformation model• Discuss contentsources• Discuss contentworkflow• Pose requirementsquestions• Get aligned on labels• Discuss resourcesneeded• Create training andguidelinesMODELS SUPPORT DISCUSSION & DECISIONSBusiness Creative/UX Tech
  21. 21. 21©2013 All rights reserved.• Content models are formal representations of structured content.• Content models should be simple, clear and relevant.• Content modelling is both art and science.• Value modelling over the model.• Use the process and the model to drive discussion and developalignment on content across disciplines.SUMMARY
  22. 22. PART TWO:CREATING CONTENTMODELS
  23. 23. 23©2013 All rights reserved.• Which Content? – Determine which content in a design needsto be modelled• ContentTypes – Identify the various configurations of contentthat are distinct enough to be unique types in the system• Content Properties – Define each content type in detail• Attributes – Enumerate the content and metadata elements that make upeach type• Relationships – Express how content types relate to each otherCOMPONENTS OF A CONTENT MODEL
  24. 24. 24©2013 All rights reserved.Use the designs and determine which content* will be:WHICH CONTENT SHOULD BE MODELLED?CMSDisplayDynamicOther
  25. 25. 25©2013 All rights reserved.• Which types of content are different enough that they mightwarrant a unique structure?• Ex:Article, quiz, slideshow, recipe & event are fairly distinct.CONTENT TYPES© A List Apart, Jeff Baker and Alex Graham, Washington Post, Food Network, and Barnes & NobleArticle QuizSlideshowRecipeEvent
  26. 26. 26©2013 All rights reserved.• Figure out the separate elements, or attributes, of each one. Thinkabout how each segment of information will be used.• Related content items can be linked to or embedded.• Ex: Book & author eachhave their own page.CONTENT PROPERTIESEventEvent NameLocationDate & TimeEvent © Barnes & NobleBook Page (link)Author Page (link)Event Type
  27. 27. PART THREE:REFINING CONTENTMODELS
  28. 28. 28©2013 All rights reserved.• Attributes vs. relationships – Determine which parts of acontent type are core attributes of the type, and which arerelationships to other types• Chunking & assembling – Consider the decisions points aroundhow granularly the content will be chunked, and how those chunkswill be assembled• Adaptability – Further refine the model by creating additionalattributes that make it easier for the content to adapt to a widerange of contexts, platforms, devices, and channelsREFINING CONTENT MODELS
  29. 29. PART FOUR:PUTTING IT TO WORK
  30. 30. 30©2013 All rights reserved.• Responsive Design• Content APIs• Meaningful Structure• CMS Architectures• Content ArchitecturePUTTING IT TO WORK
  31. 31. 31©2013 All rights reserved.• More content through increased interactions.• Increased complexity through more experiments.• Fewer resources to manage more content.• We’re approaching the unmanaged content tipping point.• Technology not equipped to plug people/process gaps.• Mindset shift to getting content everywhere.• Immature multi-channel publishing for marketing.• No time to define and shine!
  32. 32. - D. Keith Robinson, Think Vitaminhttp://blog.teamtreehouse.com/redefining-content-management/There are four importantpieces to the contentmanagement puzzle:content, people, process andtechnology.
  33. 33. 33©2013 All rights reserved.Sustainable content requires us to understand:• how best to apply technology (CM Ecosystem)• to support the processes (Workflow)• that people use to produce (Author Experience)• and consume (Customer/Service Experience)• structured content (Content Modelling).⇒ Content Architecture is the Design PhaseCONTENT ARCHITECTURE
  34. 34. 35©2013 All rights reserved.CONTENT ARCHITECTUREContentStrategyContentManagementWhyContentArchitectureWhat HowActionablePlanOperationalmodeltechnicalsolutionhttp://www.clevegibbon.com/content-architecture/sustainablecontent
  35. 35. WRAPPING UP
  36. 36. 37©2013 All rights reserved.• Structuring content is an interdisciplinary task• Content modelling is the art & science of designing structuredcontent• Content modelling enables responsive design, enhanced authoringinterfaces, and smart components• Content models define and express content types, contentattributes & content relationships• Creating and refining content models is an iterative process thatinforms and is informed by design, business needs, and technology• When we put content models to work we arrive at responsibleresponsive design, content APIs, meaningful structures, andeffective use of CMS architectures• Sustainable content requires a well-design content architectureWHAT WE’VE LEARNED
  37. 37. Karen McGraneContent Strategy for MobileRahel Bailie & Noz UrbinaContent Strategy for Decision MakersSara Wachter-BoettcherContent EverywhereBob BoikoContent Management BibleAnn Rockley & Charles CooperManaging Enterprise ContentHeather HeddenThe AccidentalTaxonomist
  38. 38. 39©2013 All rights reserved.PEOPLE TO FOLLOWAt the intersection of Content Strategy, Responsive Design, StructuredContent, and the Future-Friendly Web.• Karen McGrane (@karenmcgrane : slideshare : blog)• Rahel Anne Bailie (@rahelab : slideshare : blog)• Sara Wachter-Boettcher (@sara_ann_marie : slideshare : blog)• Noz Urbina (@nozurbina : slideshare : blog)• Cennydd Bowles (@Cennydd : blog)• LukeWroblewski (@lukew : slideshare : blog)• Ethan Marcotte (@beep : blog)• Brad Frost (@brad_frost : slideshare : blog)• Mike Atherton (@mikeatherton : slideshare : blog )And of course…• Rachel (@rlovinger : slideshare : blog)• Cleve (@cleveg : slideshare : blog)• Kerry-Anne Gilowey (@kerry_anne : slideshare)
  39. 39. 40©2013 All rights reserved.Cleve Gibbon@clevegcleve.gibbon@cognifide.comTHANK YOUPhotobyRohannaMertensRachel Lovinger@rlovingerrachel.lovinger@razorfish.com
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