Fertility Rates

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Fertility Rates

  1. 1. Fertility Rates *Global fertility rate patterns? *what factors influence fertility?
  2. 2. Russia's population goes into free fall <ul><li>Plummeting birth rate (10/1000) & high death rate (15/1000). Life expectancy 59yrs men, 72yrs women. </li></ul><ul><li>Crumbling pre-natal health care system. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1 in 10 pregnancies results in a normal birth & less than a third recorded pregnancies results in a live birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia, heart problems, malnutrition and excessive consumption of cigarettes /alcohol are behind the rising death rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain drain and emigration from Russia to Western Europe and other parts of the world is high as native Russians seek to better their economic situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Abortions are common - In 2003, the BBC reported that Russia had, &quot;13 terminations for every 10 live births.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Total fertility rate is low at 1.3 births per woman. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Russia’s solution <ul><li>Give Birth to a Patriot on Russia Day - Women who gave birth on June 12 would be guaranteed one of a variety of prizes—refrigerators, TV sets, washing machines, even cash, and one lucky family would be picked to win the grand prize: a brand-new Russian-made jeep called the UAZ-Patriot. </li></ul><ul><li>To make it easier for couples to participate, Morozov set aside Sept. 12 as a special regional holiday dedicated to family communication, and he urged employers to give their workers a day off so they'd have a better chance at conceiving—and winning!—come Russia Day nine months later. </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Putin recently declared that women choosing to have a second child would receive 250,000 rubles, nearly $11,000. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Birth rates Help Keep Filipinos in Poverty <ul><li>Public alarm in the Philippines over the soaring price of rice has focused attention on the fast-growing population and its dependence on rice imports </li></ul><ul><li>Many reasons why the country is poor – feudal patterns of land ownership, corrupt government. Compelling link between family size & poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Birth and poverty rates here are among the highest in Asia. And the Philippines, where four out of five of the country's 91 million people are Roman Catholic, also stands out in Asia for its government's rejection of modern contraception as part of family planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceding to Catholic doctrine, the government for the past five years has supported only what it calls &quot;natural&quot; family planning. No national government funds can be used to buy contraceptives for the poor, although anyone who can afford them is permitted to buy them. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic bishops in the southern Philippines announced that they would refuse Communion to government health workers who distributed birth control devices. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effects <ul><li>The policy has hit poorest people the hardest, they say, forcing people to choose between a packet of pills or food for their families. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy also exposed women to violence from husbands who did not want to abstain from sex, the rights groups found in an earlier report, and meant more women were resorting to illegal and unsafe abortions. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty of Manila's poorest residents have filed a legal challenge against what they say is a ban on contraception. </li></ul><ul><li>There are still no plans to start providing free contraceptives again - not even condoms for sex workers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. India <ul><li>India, with a population of over 1 billion, is the second most populous country in the world. With an average fertility rate of 3.4, its population continues to rise rapidly at a rate of 1.9 per cent per annum. But its fertility rate hides significant regional and cultural variations . </li></ul><ul><li>It includes regional variations in autonomy of women, the value placed on traditional practices (such as child marriage) in some parts of India, and regional variations in investment in the education system. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Regional variations <ul><li>Child marriage is an ancient custom in rural parts of northern India. Although child marriage is illegal, a recent survey found that 90 % of girls in the states of Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh were married by the age of 15. Women who marry and begin a sexual relationship at an early age are less likely to complete their education. They are, therefore, more likely to have a low income and be more in need of a large family for financial support. A child bride has less control over her own fertility than a more mature woman. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gender inequality in India <ul><li>India's male-dominated sex ratio indicates that life expectancy for girls in many parts of Indian society is lower than that for boys (mainly in the north). Poor diet, inadequate education and health care are killing millions of girls unnecessarily. </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal sex ratios are due to the low perceived value of women in society. Poor parents, who regard children as an economic asset favor boys, who are thought to work harder, will inherit the family land and will not marry out of the family. By contrast, girls leave the family to join their husband, often while in their mid-teens - not only is this a loss of labor, it also requires </li></ul><ul><li>Payment of a dowry to the husband's family. Dowry payment, like child marriage, is now illegal, but common in traditional northern states. Young girls, therefore, are sometimes neglected. They may be breastfed for a shorter period than boys. Poor parents who cannot afford full education and medical care for their children may choose to favor sons rather than daughters. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kerala, India <ul><li>Women have been treated differently in Kerala for over a century. Keralese women are regarded as an asset rather than a drain on a family's finances. Instead of paying out a dowry when daughters marry, parents in Kerala receive money from the bridegroom's family. </li></ul><ul><li>85% of women in Kerala are literate. Women with qualifications are more likely to work, and marry later, which again reduces the likelihood of having a large family. </li></ul><ul><li>With better education, women are more likely to know how to keep their children healthy + there are mobile health clinics which provide vaccinations for children & advice on planning & sterilisation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1.7 3.2 1.8 Total Fertility Rate 72 48 64 % Use of Contraceptives by married women (all methods) 99 57 85 Female Literacy Rate (%) 6 70 14 Infant Mortality 80 61 75 Life Expectancy (women) in years UK India as a whole Kerala
  11. 13. Japan <ul><li>Birth rate 1.26nationally, but 1.15 in Tokyo & Osaka </li></ul><ul><li>Population will fall 20% by 2050 + 40% elderly in 2050. </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles to child-rearing - money worries, the problems of working and having a family, and a lack of support for mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Finance is also a problem – younger people are paid poorly. Child allowances are low, while housing and education costs are high. </li></ul><ul><li>Some workplaces are unwilling to keep jobs open for mothers-to-be, who can come under both direct and indirect pressure to leave – 70% end up quitting. </li></ul><ul><li>Child bearing is also a solo experience, as Japanese men spend on average 30mins a day on household task or with their children. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Solutions <ul><li>Officials there have worked hard to introduce family-friendly policies. There are now more day care places available for children of working mothers and the facilities are staying open longer each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary schools are running after-school programmes for children whose parents both work, while stay-at-home mothers can now use a pay-per-hour baby-sitting service when they need some time to themselves. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Europe - A dying breed <ul><li>2.1 replacement level. </li></ul><ul><li>1st time S. & E. Europe dropped below 1.3. </li></ul><ul><li>Some country’s pop will be cut by half in 45yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Triple whammy of demands on the welfare state & health care systems, as people live longer, yet it estimated a possible loss of 30mn Europeans of working age by 2050. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Italy <ul><li>Smaller & older. 1.33 & 1 in 5 +65yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>14mn fewer by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – 20% women worked full time, now 47%. </li></ul><ul><li>Child care not well subsidised & expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Children live with parents longer in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Italian fathers participate less at home. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Italian Village <ul><li>Italian villages struggle to cope – In Laviano housing for 3,000 but only 1,600 live there. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor of Laviano worried when only 4 babies were in born in 2002 & only 5 children enrolled at the school. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003 he introduced the ‘baby bonus’ 10,000 Euros (1,500 given in each year from birth & 2,500 when enroll at school). </li></ul><ul><li>Success or not? 17 enrolled last year at the school, but were they women who were just ready to give birth? </li></ul><ul><li>With 50 eligible soon. How long can he keep it going? </li></ul>
  16. 18. France <ul><li>‘ Government eyes a baby boom’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility rate 1.9 </li></ul><ul><li>62mn today, estimate 75mn by 2050. </li></ul><ul><li>180 Euros a month for 3 children. </li></ul><ul><li>Carte Famille Nombreuse – 30% reduction on SNCF, half price metro, 150 Euros a year for extra curricular activities, reductions at museums & leisure facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax deduction for home help (maid) </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector workers/people who work in large companies – Comite d’enterprise – xmas presents, money for rentrée, subsidise holiday camps. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra money given to take time off for third child – up to 3 years. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Norway <ul><li>Welfare model helps BR. </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers or fathers can take 12 months off with 80% pay or 10 months with 100% pay. Males must take at least 4 weeks, which could allow women to return earlier.. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent sponsored day care facilities. </li></ul>

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