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Week 6 classic greece


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  • 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 5 Gods, Heroes, and Athletes: The Art of Ancient Greece 1
  • 2. The Greek World 2
  • 3. Classical Greek •! Final victory over the Persians with the cooperation of the Greek city-states ends the Archaic period and starts the Classical. •! So many pieces destroyed during the war, like knowing Shakespeare’s works by critics alone. •! Universally considered to be the apogee of Greek civilization: era of Pericles, Socrates. •! Style becomes more natural, but idealized. 3
  • 4. Figure 5-29 Temple of Hera II, Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE. •!Based on earlier Temple of Zeus. ! •!Survives from earthquake: buried in sand, preserved sculptures. ! •!Filled with art on both pediments as well as metopes. ! •!Pediment 52 feet above ground. ! 4
  • 5. Drawing and reconstruction of the Temple of Zeus, cult statue by Phidias •!At Olympia, home of Olympic games.! •!Cult statue by Phidias (later also Athena at Parthenon). ! •!Today in ruins.! 5
  • 6. Figure 5-30 East pediment from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, approx. 87’ wide. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. •!Chariot race between Pelops and King Oinomaos for daughter Hippodameia. Any suitor who won chariot race versus father would win her hand in marriage. If you lost, you were killed. ! •!Pelops bribes Myrtilos (kings groom) to rig royal chariot, removing lynch pin, and the king is killed. Instead of paying his debt, Pelops drowns Myrtilos. ! •!Had curse brought upon self and descendants: led to murder of his son and later Greek tragedies. ! •!Everyone faces towards Zeus in center and start of race, couples and chariots to either side. ! 6
  • 7. •!Seer reacts: only one who knows the outcome.! •!Rare depiction of old age: sagging body, horrified expression without precedent in Greek sculpture. ! Figure 5-31 Seer, from the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470– 456 BCE. Marble, approx. 4’ 6” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. 7
  • 8. •!East pediment detail! •!West pediment detail: ! •!Apollo quells the fighting by raising his arm (son of Zeus) in middle of fight between lapiths and centaurs (as metaphor for Greeks over barbarians).! 8
  • 9. •!Metopes show the 12 labors of Herakles.! •!Here holding up the sky with help from Athena (and cushion) in place of Atlas; on his quest to get the golden apples. ! Figure 5-32 Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with the apples of the Hesperides, metope from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. 9
  • 10. •!Finally breaks from old pose!!! •!First to actually stand (not pause mid-step of walking)! •!Thought carved by sculptor Kritios.! •!Slight dip in right hip, head turns to right (breaks frontality) and discovers contrapposto (will *Figure 5-33 Kritios Boy, from the re-appear after Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 absence in middle BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. ages in the Renaissance due to renewed interest in 10 classical art). !
  • 11. •!One of pair of works found in the sea off the coast of Italy, probably traveling to Rome where they often bought Greek copies (much admired). Slipped from deck of ship in rough seas or jettisoned.! •!Found with clay from lost wax casting still inside, made in sections and assembled, added to deterioration.! •!Shows natural motion in space. ! •!Missing shield, spear, wreath. ! Figure 5-34 Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx. 6’ 6” high. Archaeological Museum, Reggio Calabria. 11
  • 12. •!Domed head and stylized hair; early Classical.! •!Eyes inlaid, made of bone and colored glass.! •!Used multiple metals to add color and variety; silver teeth and eyelashes, copper lips and nipples. ! Detail of face: Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. 12
  • 13. •!Votive offering as gift to Oracle at Delphi. Buried under rockfall and found in 1896. ! •!Cast from hollow molds in sections and joined. Originally with chariot, 4 horses, and groom.! •!Dedicated to tyrant of Gela: owner, not driver. Charioteer his subject or servant. ! •!Races for divine favor: not sport. ! •!Shows slight twist at waist, folds emphasize verticality and calm. ! •!Tunic belted at shoulders and waist to keep from billowing. ! *Figure 5-35 Charioteer, from a group dedicated by Polyzalos of Gela in the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece, ca. 470 BCE. Bronze, approx. 5’ 11” high. Archaeological Museum, Delphi. 13
  • 14. •!Eyes glass paste with bronze lashes. ! •!Closely observed toes, swollen veins over instep, seems cast from living. ! •!Band with silver around head to confine hair.! 14
  • 15. •!Either Zeus (with lightning bolt) or Poseidon (trident). ! •!Found in shipwreck.! •!Shows mid-motion of throw, foot lifting, arms extended. ! •!Tense body about to shift weight, concentration and thrust extending into space. ! Figure 5-36 Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx. 6’ 10” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 15
  • 16. •!Demand so far exceeded supply of Greek statues, began making copies in less costly marble: trunk added to support weight which bronze doesn’t need/stronger.! •!Vigorous action, profile limbs, nearly frontal chest. Tension of coiled spring. Not reflected in face. ! •!Composition of two intersecting arcs of tension.! •!Head away from spectator: not performing, but focusing. ! Figure 5-37 MYRON, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower). Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5’ 1” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. 16
  • 17. •!Humiliated mother of Apollo and Artemis by boasting of her 7 sons and 7 daughters, so the two gods killed all of her children. ! •!Shot in the back with an arrow, movement of the arms trying to grab, and released clothing for drama. ! •!Earliest known large-scale female nude in Greek art. ! Dying Niobid, 450-440 bce. Marble. 17
  • 18. •!One of the most frequently copied works, so famous only inscribed with copyists name: didn’t need label.! •!Wrote treatise “Canon of Principles”, stating proportions that relate parts of body to one another. Total height: 7 head lengths. ! •!Contrapposto more pronounced, arms balance opposite legs, Figure 5-38 head right; hips left. ! POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). •!Appears natural: Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze actually very complex, original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale, subtle organization. ! Naples. 18
  • 19. The Acropolis •! Athens under the leadership of Pericles, from powerful Athenian family, politician and leader of democratic party. •! After expulsion of Persians, Greeks formed alliance called the Delian League for mutual protection, Athens “first among equals” and commander of the allied naval fleet. Tribute was paid for upkeep: surplus expropriated to pay for embellishing Acropolis. Political enemies angered, but he said Athens deserved money for their protection. Not built by fruits of democracy, but tyranny and abuse of power. •! Rebuilding after Persian sack in 480 (at time Pericles in teens), originally Athenians vowed to keep in ruin as memorial. Pericles convinces to rebuild: honor Athena for her help in defeat. •! 22,000 tons of marble transported to workshops. Whole structures fitted without mortar: if necessary used metal dowels or clamps. •! Probably both paid and slave laborers. Said “future generations will marvel at us, as the present age marvels at us now.” 19
  • 20. *Figure 5-40 Aerial view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece. •!The Acropolis is said to have the greatest concentration of human creative genius than any other place and time in Western Civilization.! 20
  • 21. Aerial view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece. 21
  • 22. From below; Acropolis, Athens, Greece. 22
  • 23. Figure 5-41 Model of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 1. Parthenon 2. Propylaia 3. Erechtheion 4. Temple of Athena Nike. 23
  • 24. *Figure 5-42 IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Parthenos (view from the northwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE. •!Finest white marble throughout, even on roof (not terracotta tiles as was common to use at time). ! •!First temple to Athena, in Christian times dedicated to the Virgin Mary, then in 1687 besieged by the Venetians when in Turkish hands and a rocket made a direct hit on ammunition depot stored inside, blew out the center of the building. Most of the colonnade still standing, undergoing rebuilding currently. ! 24
  • 25. The Parthenon •! Earl of Elgin received permission to remove sculpture from the Acropolis and Parthenon, sent by boat to England. •! The first ship sank somewhere in 1801. •! Marbles were sent back to decorate lavish mansion for himself and his wife, now go by the name “The Elgin Marbles”. •! Finally sold to the British Museum at low price in 1816. •! Greek government has tried unsuccessfully to have them returned, has opened museum with space specifically for marbles. •! Often accused of stealing, but would almost certainly be ruined otherwise due to pollution etc. 25
  • 26. •!Refinements to compensate for optical illusions: ! •!stylobate curves upward at center on all four sides, otherwise appear to sag. ! •!Columns lean slightly inward (would actually meet 1.5 miles overhead) so roof Diagram of the Parthenon doesn’t seem to expand outward. ! •!Corner columns thicker and closer to the next columns: since surrounded by light would otherwise appear thinner/weak. ! 26
  • 27. Figure 5-43 Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of sculptural program (after A. Stewart), 447–432 BCE. •!Ideal solution of perfect proportions of Doric temple. Length of stylobate to width 9:4 ratio, also proportion of length to width of cella, distance between center of one column drum to another, diameter of columns, etc. ! •!Exterior Doric metopes, interior Ionic frieze. Mix shows leader of all Greeks, continues mix throughout Acropolis.! 27
  • 28. •!More lavishly decorated than any previous temples, each of 92 metopes with reliefs, every inch of 524 foot long Ionic frieze. Pediments with dozens of over-life sized statuary. ! 28
  • 29. Figure 5-46 Helios and his horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 3”. British Museum, London. Figure 5-47 Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 5”. British Museum, London. •!Birth of Athena, spectators to left and right witness on Mt. Olympus. Central figure probably Zeus with just-born Athena on right. ! •!Far left Helios (Apollo’s horse) pulling the chariot of the sun across the sky. Right goddesses. Understanding anatomy and mechanics of muscle and bone making body move, folds reveal and conceal. ! 29
  • 30. •!Metopes show the battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs (reason over passion). ! •!Centaur on hind legs over defeated Greek, relief so high parts broken off. Heads stand off more than feet and background slants in for easier viewing from below.! •!Full set shows battle was difficult, with a dangerous enemy with losses as well South side metopes, Parthenon, Athens, Greece as victories. ! 30
  • 31. Figure 5-48 Details of the Panathenaic Festival procession frieze, from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE. Marble, approx. 3’ 6” high. Horsemen of north frieze (top), British Museum, London; Acropolis Museum, Athens; and elders and maidens of east frieze (bottom), Louvre, Paris. •!Aphrodite draws attention of son Eros to Athenians: like famous people. Deities do not take part. ! •!Procession took place every 4 years, first time human event worthy of inclusion on Greek temple: shows high opinion of worth. ! •!Acceleration and deceleration: gathering people to youths mounting horses, momentum picks up as enter Acropolis with chariots, musicians, and animals. ! 31
  • 32. •!Had real metal details: bronze bridles and bits on horse heads, and was originally painted. North and south ends pick up momentum heading to Acropolis, eventually come almost to halt. ! 32
  • 33. •!Phidias oversaw all sculptural decorations. ! •!Created this statue of gold and ivory, which the Parthenon was designed around. ! •!Cella wider than usual to fit: made width of façade 8 rather than 6 columns. ! •!Has shield, spear, helmet, Nike (winged victory) in hand.! •!Multiple allusions to Persian defeat: soles of sandal show centauromachy, exterior of shield with battle of Greeks over Amazons, interior painted gigantomachy. ! Figure 5-44 PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos, in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue, which was approx. 38’ tall. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 33
  • 34. •!As soon as temple completed, new gateway started: left unfinished at outbreak of Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta.! •!Doric exterior, Ionic interior. ! *Figure 5-49 MNESIKLES, Propylaia (view from the northeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 437–432 BCE. •!Consideration for paths of chariots and animals of festival, sides of main ramp for pedestrians.! •!In Roman times had pinakotheke, first recorded structure for display of art. ! 34
  • 35. *Figure 5-50 Erechtheion (view from the southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. •!Honored Athena, but incorporated shrines of other gods.! •!4 sides each in different character, partly due to being built on different ground levels. ! 35
  • 36. Figure 5-50 Alternate View Overall view of W front with olive tree of Athena •!Frieze originally had blue limestone background to contrast the white marble relief.! •!Site chosen where contest took place between Athena and Poseidon to rule Athens. Poseidon staked claim by striking Acropolis rock with his trident and producing salt water spring, Athena caused olive tree to grow. Still reminder of victor. ! 36
  • 37. •!4 rooms, one with statue of Erechtheus (legendary king of Athens). ! •!One room dedicated to Athena, one to Poseidon.! •!Asymmetrical plan unique: incorporates older tomb, pre-existing shrines, trident mark and tree into single complex on irregular terrain. ! Figure 5-51 Plan of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. 37
  • 38. Figure 5-52 Caryatid from the south porch of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. Marble, 7’ 7” high. British Museum, London. •!Caryatids replace Ionic columns.! •!Shows weight shift of living, but rigid to suggest columns. ! •!Each mirror image of other, capital over head omitted. ! 38
  • 39. •!Amphiprostyle with 4 columns on east and west ends. ! •!Near Propylaia: greeted all who entered. ! •!Gold statue of Nike kept inside: other gifts brought for her placed inside too.! •!Part of frieze shows battle of Marathon that turned the tide for Athenian victory, depicted *Figure 5-53 KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (view from the northeast), human event, but Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE. specific occasion.! 39
  • 40. •!Sometimes shown with Persian spoils or bringing sacrifical bulls to Athena. ! •!Here adjusting sandal: folds of drapery, wings behind. ! •!Taking off sandal: holy ground of war.! •!Made as Athens faced defeat in Peloponnesian war. ! Figure 5-54 Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, approx. 3’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. 40
  • 41. •!Dead either cremated or buried and commemorated on a stele (replaced Korai which had replaced large pottery). ! •!Wealthy families show deceased alive before architecture.! •!Hegeso daughter of Proxenos, name inscribed on cornice of pediment.! •!On elegant chair, footstool, examining jewelry (once painted) brought by servant who holds lid.! •!Veil on womans’ head; shows depth. ! Figure 5-55 Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5’ 2” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 41
  • 42. Greek Painting •! Paintings done on wooden panels (which have not survived) in public buildings. The only way we can see artistic skill in painting now is through ceramics work. •! Leading painter of 1st half of the 5th century Polygnotos. Credit for radically different style: so far all figures on common groundline, he uses different levels suggested in tiers. •! Extreme realism!! Fooled the eye: painting of horses which real horses neighed at, painting of grapes by Zeuxis that birds flew into. Zeuxis needed female model for Helen: used 5 different women: believed perfection cannot exist in single object of all important parts. •! Apelles: said to have surpassed all born before and after: would hide while people viewed work, heard shoe maker remark on incorrect sandal and fixed. He then remarked on the painting otherwise and was scolded to stick to what he knew. •! Judge viewing competing works: one grapes, the other a curtain which he tried to pull back and reveal the work: was actually painted and won.42
  • 43. •!Lekythos.! •!In Greek graves as offering to deceased.! •!Warrior leaving wife: interior of home with scarf, mirror, jugs on wall. ! •!Going to war with helmet, shield, spear, never to return.! •!Eye on shield to ward off evil spirits and frighten enemy like Medusa: rare attempt to show in profile, not frontal.! •!Called white-ground technique, yellow applied after firing: unable to withstand heat. ! •!Impermanent: not for daily use. ! Figure 5-56 ACHILLES PAINTER, Warrior taking leave of his wife (Attic white-ground lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. Approx. 1’ 5” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 43
  • 44. •!Massacre of the Niobids (boasted superior to Leto, punished for arrogance…)! •!In landscape on different levels. ! •!One boy’s face partially hidden by rock, drawn in " not attempted before. ! Figure 5-57 NIOBID PAINTER, Artemis and Apollo slaying the children of Niobe (Attic red-figure calyx krater), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE. Approx. 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris. 44
  • 45. Figure 5-59 Youth diving, painted ceiling of the Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 BCE. Approx. 3’ 4” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Paestum. •!Mural painting: 4 walls of tomb decorated with banquet scenes.! •!Ceiling block youth diving from stone platform into water: plunge from this life into the next. ! 45
  • 46. Peloponnesian War, Alexander the Great •! From 431-404, ended in complete defeat of Athens. •! Middle of 4th century, Greek city-states to unite for defense, suffered devastating loss; relinquish independence to Philip II of Macedon. Unified Greek city states: assassinated two years later, succeeded by son Alexander. •! Alexander 20 at succession, led Greek revenge on Persians, then conquered Syria, Phonecia, occupied Egypt (recognized as the son of a god). Reached Persepolis, and continued into India before troops refused to go further. •! Died on the way home of Malaria at 33: followers spent 2 years making funeral wagon, kept him in honey (preserves: keeps out oxygen) and began procession to Macedonia 1500 miles west for burial. •! General Ptolemy diverted to Alexandria: possession of corpse gave him ruler status, founding Egypts’ Ptolemaic dynasty, continued until Cleopatra killed herself. •! Alexander most responsible for spread of Greek art in the ancient world. 1st superstar: biography 200 years later “believe that there was… no race of mankind, no city, no single individual to which the name of Alexander had not reached.” 46
  • 47. •!Praxiteles starts humanizing approach: loses grandeur, takes on sensuousness. ! •!For city of Knidos: goddess heard of realism and went, cried in shock “where did Praxiteles see me naked!!”! •!Visitors so overcome, lept to embrace, Knidians so proud, placed in open shrine to be viewed from any angle. ! •!Copies probably in hundreds, 50 survive. Head Roman copy, body another. 17th and 18th century restorers added nose, neck, right forearm and hand, most of left arm, feet, parts of legs to make suitable for sale. Rarely done today.! •!More pronounced s-curve, emerging from bath beside hydria, picking up clothes. ! *Figure 5-60 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of •!Female canon introduced.! Knidos. Roman marble copy after an original •!Not openly erotic: modestly shields pelvis.! of ca. 350–340 BCE. Approx. 6’ 8” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. 47
  • 48. •!Considered by Pliny “superior to all the works, in the whole world”! •!First work by well-known Greek depicted nude (were usually courtesans and slaves, not gods)! Another copy of Aphrodite of Knidos! 48
  • 49. •!Found in the temple of Hera, not original (unfinished back, strut attached)! •!Stopped to rest in forest along way, leans on tree (here part of composition, not marble afterthought) in shallow S-curve.! •!Dangles bunch of grapes (missing) to tempt infant (who becomes Greek god of wine)! •!Compared to Doryphoros: hair not symmetrical, change in attitude.! Figure 5-62 PRAXITELES, Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Marble copy after an original of ca. 340 BCE, approx. 7’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. 49
  • 50. •!Late Classical humanizing gods and heroes, intense emotion.! •!Herakles with lion-skin headdress, from battle with Achilles. ! •!Dramatic: psychological tension.! Figure 5-63 Head of Herakles or Telephos, from the west pediment of the Temple of Athena Alea, Tegea, Greece, ca. 340 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ 1/2” high. (Stolen from) Archaeological Museum, Tegea. 50
  • 51. •!More deeply carved, almost freestanding. ! •!Aged grieving father on right (looks like Seer from pediment), young man who died on left. ! •!Distinction between living and dead: dead looks out and engages viewer.! •!At bottom, hunting dog drops ears, small boy sobbing adding pathos. ! Figure 5-64 Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 51
  • 52. •!Lysippos introduces new canon: 1:8 ratio, bodies more slender, elongated limbs.! •!Athlete scraping oil off after exercise with a strigil run along skin.! •!Breaks frontality: encourages viewer to look from all angles. Open legs, outstretched arms ! •!Movement away from central composition. ! Figure 5-65 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, approx. 6’ 9” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. 52
  • 53. •!Most famous of his marble copies. ! •!2 times life size, Herakles placed to inspire Romans coming to bath at Caracalla to exercise. ! •!Weary: leans on club for support. Behind back holds golden apples. ! •!Instead of joyful almost dejected, shows pain and weariness: not reward of immortality. ! Figure 5-66 LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles). Roman marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF ATHENS, after a bronze original of ca. 320 BCE. Approx. 10 ‘ 5” high. Museo Nazionale, Naples. 53
  • 54. •!Lysippos known for monumental statue of Zeus, became official court sculptor to Alexander, most famous full length nude bronze holding a lance and looking skyward.! •!One of several copies of original head. ! •!Sharp turn of head, thick mane of hair (Alexander known for), deep set eyes and parted lips. ! •!On base inscribed: “I place the earth under my sway; you, O Zeus, keep Olympus.”! Figure 5-67 Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, ca. 200–150 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella. 54
  • 55. •!From his time on, portraits of rulers on coins. ! •!Horn of Egyptian ram-god Amun.! •!Typical hair.! Two coins with head of Alexander the Great 55
  • 56. •!Mosaics at Pella in homes of the wealthy: at first utilitarian (inexpensive and durable flooring), patterns simple geometric shapes, black and white stones. Eventually more complex scenes and colors, tessare cut to shape.! •!Signed “Gnosis made it”, earliest mosaicist’s signature.! •!Natural pebbles from beaches and riverbanks set into cement. ! •!Contour lines and some details in thin strips of lead Figure 5-68 GNOSIS, Stag hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE. Pebble mosaic, figural panel 10’ 2” high. Archaeological Museum, Pella. or terracotta. ! •!Modeled with shading: rare on pottery. ! 56
  • 57. *Figure 5-69 PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8’ 10” X 16’ 9”. Museo Nazionale, Naples. •!One of Alexander’s first victories over the Persians versus Darius.! •!Over 1.5 million tessare, on Pompeiian floor. ! •!Now has light!! Objects cast shadows, landscape with trees and sky. !57
  • 58. •!Darius has called retreat, reaching out as horses whip around. ! •!Fallen horse and soldier in front: watching his death on his shield, trying to block trampling. ! •!Radical foreshortening including horse from rear, modeling of shading on horses rump: very effective, especially in mosaic! ! 58
  • 59. Detail: Alexander the Great, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Museo Nazionale, Naples. •!Alexander on left with wavy hair, leading army into battle without helmet. ! 59
  • 60. Hellenistic •! Death of Alexander the Great brings the Hellenistic age: known for being more realistic and emotional. •! Range from 323 bce to 31 bce when Mark Antony and Cleopatra are defeated in the battle of Actium and the kingdom is left to the Romans. •! Centers of culture were the court cities of Greek kings: Antioch in Syria, Alexandria in Egypt, and Pergamon in Asia Minor. 60
  • 61. Figure 5-75 Model of the city of Priene, Turkey, fourth century BCE and later. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. •!Also razed Miletos: reconstructed by Hippodamos, father of grid city planning (all streets meet at right angles). ! •!Separate quarters for public, private, and religious. ! •!Here Priene: less than 5,000 inhabitants, on sloping ground. North /south nearly stairs in elevation. ! •!Center 6 blocks for Temple of Athena and theater. Bordered by stoas housing shops and civic offices. ! 61
  • 62. •!Also rationalized with grid plan. Central court surrounded by roofed units. Courtyard gave light and air, collected rainwater stored in underground cisterns for drinking, cooking, Figure 5-76 Plan of House XXXII, Priene, Turkey, fourth century BCE. washing. ! •!Dining room with couches so men of house and male guests could recline while eating. ! •!Exterior windows rare: most houses shared walls. ! 62
  • 63. •!Made by Attalids to embellish capital Pergamon.! •!20 foot high podium: approached from the back and entered up stairs to altar room.! •!Altar framed by Ionic colonnade with projecting wings. ! •!Relief shows battle of gods led by Zeus against the giants (again, shows victory over barbarians: alludes to 3rd century King Attalos I turning back the Gauls). ! •!Most extensive representation attempted by Greeks, 400 feet long, 100 over life-size figures. Giants so big, only see torsos, reach out onto stairs. ! Figure 5-78 Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 63
  • 64. •!Zeus lunges with aegis on left arm, thunderbolt in right hand. ! •!Upper right: Artemis in huntress tunic walking on dead giant, dog bites snake tailed giant, retaliates by gouging out eye. ! •!Muzzle elongated, mane mixes with hair. ! Detail of Altar of Zeus 64
  • 65. Figure 5-79 Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey. Marble, approx. 7’ 6” high. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. •!Athena grabbing hair as Nike flies in to crown and lend aid: earth goddess Ge rises from ground on right in fear pleading for sons life to Athena. ! •!Swirling drapery, wounded figures writhe in pain: faces reveal anguish.! 65
  • 66. •!Originally bronze grouping atop podium.! •!Roman copy (also fought Gauls). ! •!From Pergamon acropolis. ! •!Carefully studied Gauls: long bushy hair, mustaches, torque neck ring (Celtic battle dress) and trumpet. ! •! Driving sword into chest after having killed wife: prefer suicide to surrender. If wife captured, sold into slavery. ! Figure 5-80 EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome. 66
  • 67. Figure 5-81 EPIGONOS(?), Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 3’ 1/2” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome. •!From same unit, trumpeter collapsed onto oval shield as blood pours out side, staring at the ground. ! •!Taut chest, bulging veins shows how strong Attalids to be victorious.! 67
  • 68. •!Masterpiece of Hellenistic style. ! •!From sanctuary of gods on island of Samothrace: inhabitants set up to commemorate naval victory.! •!Just landed on prow of Greek warship: forward momentum balanced by wings. ! •!Once raised arm to crown victor. ! •!Placed in upper basin of fountain with large boulders and flowing water for allusion of rushing waves against ship. Statue interacts with environment. ! *Figure 5-82 Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure approx. 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris. 68
  • 69. •!Found on Melos, inscribed base signed. ! •!More overtly sexual, left hand held apple when judged most beautiful goddess. ! •!Right hand may have held drapery to keep from slipping off. ! Figure 5-83 ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite (Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris. 69
  • 70. •!Aphrodite resisting advances by semi -human/goat Pan (greek god of the woods). ! •!Defends with slipper while son Eros flies in to grab him by the horn and protect his mother. ! •!Original owner paid to have the statue erected in a businessmen’s clubhouse. ! Figure 5-84 Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan, from Delos, Greece, ca. 100 BCE. Marble, 4’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 70
  • 71. •!Hellenistic first to show figures asleep, aged, varied classes and social orders. ! •!In restless drunken sleep, follower of Dionysis who consumed too much wine. ! •!Asleep on panther skin over rock. ! •!Men shown naked before, not exuded sexuality: here spread legs focus attention.! •! Homosexuality common in Greece: not surprising contains sexual imagery in men and women.! Figure 5-85 Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, approx. 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich. 71
  • 72. •!Heavily battered and defeated, punches from hands wrapped in leather straps (caused serious injury to opponent), has made face distorted.! •!Smashed cauliflower ears cut and swollen.! •!Ribs show age.! •!Evokes compassion for hulk of once mighty fighter. ! Figure 5-86 Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100–50 BCE. 72 Bronze, approx. 4’ 2 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
  • 73. •!Nose and teeth broken, cheeks and forehead scarred, copper blood drips from forehead, nose, and cheeks.! 73
  • 74. •!Bringing chicken and a basket of fruit to sell in the market.! •!Carries and works because she must: interest in social realism. ! Figure 5-87 Old market woman, ca. 150–100 BCE. Marble, approx. 4’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 74
  • 75. •!Was an opponent of Philip and Alexander, inscription on base: “if your strength had equaled your resolution, the Macedonian war god would never had ruled the Greeks!”! •!Political enemies had exiled, in end clear would be captured by Macedonians: took own life by drinking poison.! •!Original bronze in Athenian agora 42 years after his death. ! •!Frail man, enormous courage and moral conviction. Stooped body, hands clasped, looking down. Face lined and hair receding. ! •!Was a speech writer, had speech impediment when younger: overcome by speaking with marbles in his mouth and became great public speaker.! Figure 5-88 POLYEUKTOS, Demosthenes. Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 280 BCE. 6’ 7 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. 75
  • 76. •!In palace remains of emperor Titus, found in 1506. ! •!Impressed Michelangelo among other future artists.! •!Made for Romans, not Greeks. ! •!Chosen by Trojans to make offerings to Poseidon.! •!Strangling of Trojan priest and two sons as sacrificing a bull at the altar of Athena. ! •!Had offended Apollo by marrying and fathering *Figure 5-89 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF children and profaning RHODES,10 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. early first century CE Marble, approx. 7’ Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, 76 image of god.!
  • 77. •!Saw wooden horse on the beach and denounced as a trick, hurled a spear at its side and urged Trojans not to allow into city walls. ! •!Trojans hesitant: Apollo sent 2 sea serpents to punish for earlier offense, crushed to death.! •!Trojans thought sign of divine gift and allowed in horse; were slaughtered. ! 77