1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,
Gods, Heroes, and Athletes:
The Art of Ancient Greece
2. The Greek World
3. Classical Greek
•! Final victory over the Persians with the cooperation of the
Greek city-states ends the Archaic period and starts the
•! So many pieces destroyed during the war, like knowing
Shakespeare’s works by critics alone.
•! Universally considered to be the apogee of Greek
civilization: era of Pericles, Socrates.
•! Style becomes more natural, but idealized.
4. Figure 5-29 Temple
of Hera II, Paestum,
Italy, ca. 460 BCE.
•!Based on earlier Temple of Zeus. !
•!Survives from earthquake: buried in sand, preserved sculptures. !
•!Filled with art on both pediments as well as metopes. !
•!Pediment 52 feet above ground. !
5. Drawing and reconstruction of the Temple of Zeus, cult
statue by Phidias
•!At Olympia, home of Olympic
•!Cult statue by Phidias (later also
Athena at Parthenon). !
•!Today in ruins.!
6. Figure 5-30 East pediment from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, approx. 87’ wide.
Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
•!Chariot race between Pelops and King Oinomaos for daughter
Hippodameia. Any suitor who won chariot race versus father would
win her hand in marriage. If you lost, you were killed. !
•!Pelops bribes Myrtilos (kings groom) to rig royal chariot, removing
lynch pin, and the king is killed. Instead of paying his debt, Pelops
drowns Myrtilos. !
•!Had curse brought upon self and descendants: led to murder of his
son and later Greek tragedies. !
•!Everyone faces towards Zeus in center and start of race, couples
and chariots to either side. ! 6
7. •!Seer reacts: only one who
knows the outcome.!
•!Rare depiction of old
age: sagging body,
without precedent in
Greek sculpture. !
Figure 5-31 Seer, from the east pediment of
the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–
456 BCE. Marble, approx. 4’ 6” high.
Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
8. •!East pediment detail!
•!West pediment detail:
•!Apollo quells the ﬁghting
by raising his arm (son of
Zeus) in middle of ﬁght
between lapiths and
centaurs (as metaphor for
Greeks over barbarians).!
9. •!Metopes show the 12
labors of Herakles.!
•!Here holding up the sky
with help from Athena
(and cushion) in place of
Atlas; on his quest to get
the golden apples. !
Figure 5-32 Athena, Herakles, and Atlas
with the apples of the Hesperides, metope
from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece,
ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high.
Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
10. •!Finally breaks from
•!First to actually
stand (not pause
mid-step of walking)!
•!Thought carved by
•!Slight dip in right
hip, head turns to
*Figure 5-33 Kritios Boy, from the
re-appear after Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480
absence in middle BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 10” high.
Acropolis Museum, Athens.
ages in the
Renaissance due to
renewed interest in 10
classical art). !
11. •!One of pair of works
found in the sea off the
coast of Italy, probably
traveling to Rome where
they often bought Greek
copies (much admired).
Slipped from deck of ship
in rough seas or jettisoned.!
•!Found with clay from lost
wax casting still inside,
made in sections and
assembled, added to
•!Shows natural motion in
•!Missing shield, spear,
Figure 5-34 Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx.
6’ 6” high. Archaeological Museum, Reggio Calabria.
12. •!Domed head and stylized
hair; early Classical.!
•!Eyes inlaid, made of bone and
•!Used multiple metals to add
color and variety; silver teeth
and eyelashes, copper lips and
Detail of face: Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca.
13. •!Votive offering as gift to Oracle at Delphi.
Buried under rockfall and found in 1896. !
•!Cast from hollow molds in sections and
joined. Originally with chariot, 4 horses,
•!Dedicated to tyrant of Gela: owner, not
driver. Charioteer his subject or servant. !
•!Races for divine favor: not sport. !
•!Shows slight twist at waist, folds emphasize
verticality and calm. !
•!Tunic belted at shoulders and waist to keep
from billowing. !
*Figure 5-35 Charioteer,
from a group dedicated by
Polyzalos of Gela in the
Sanctuary of Apollo,
Delphi, Greece, ca. 470
BCE. Bronze, approx. 5’
11” high. Archaeological
14. •!Eyes glass paste with bronze lashes. !
•!Closely observed toes, swollen veins over instep, seems cast from
•!Band with silver around head to conﬁne hair.!
15. •!Either Zeus (with lightning bolt)
or Poseidon (trident). !
•!Found in shipwreck.!
•!Shows mid-motion of throw, foot
lifting, arms extended. !
•!Tense body about to shift weight,
concentration and thrust
extending into space. !
Figure 5-36 Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the sea off Cape
Artemision, Greece, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx. 6’
10” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
16. •!Demand so far exceeded supply of
Greek statues, began making
copies in less costly marble: trunk
added to support weight which
bronze doesn’t need/stronger.!
•!Vigorous action, proﬁle limbs,
nearly frontal chest. Tension of
coiled spring. Not reﬂected in
•!Composition of two intersecting
arcs of tension.!
•!Head away from spectator: not
performing, but focusing. !
Figure 5-37 MYRON, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower). Roman
marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5’ 1” high.
Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme.
17. •!Humiliated mother of Apollo and
Artemis by boasting of her 7 sons
and 7 daughters, so the two gods
killed all of her children. !
•!Shot in the back with an arrow,
movement of the arms trying to
grab, and released clothing for
•!Earliest known large-scale
female nude in Greek art. !
Dying Niobid, 450-440 bce. Marble.
18. •!One of the most
works, so famous only
inscribed with copyists
name: didn’t need label.!
•!Wrote treatise “Canon
of Principles”, stating
proportions that relate
parts of body to one
another. Total height:
7 head lengths. !
balance opposite legs, Figure 5-38
head right; hips left. ! POLYKLEITOS,
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer).
•!Appears natural: Roman marble copy from
Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze
actually very complex, original of ca. 450–440 BCE,
6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale,
subtle organization. ! Naples.
19. The Acropolis
•! Athens under the leadership of Pericles, from powerful Athenian
family, politician and leader of democratic party.
•! After expulsion of Persians, Greeks formed alliance called the Delian
League for mutual protection, Athens “first among equals” and
commander of the allied naval fleet. Tribute was paid for upkeep:
surplus expropriated to pay for embellishing Acropolis. Political
enemies angered, but he said Athens deserved money for their
protection. Not built by fruits of democracy, but tyranny and abuse of
•! Rebuilding after Persian sack in 480 (at time Pericles in teens), originally
Athenians vowed to keep in ruin as memorial. Pericles convinces to
rebuild: honor Athena for her help in defeat.
•! 22,000 tons of marble transported to workshops. Whole structures
fitted without mortar: if necessary used metal dowels or clamps.
•! Probably both paid and slave laborers. Said “future generations will
marvel at us, as the present age marvels at us now.”
20. *Figure 5-40 Aerial view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece.
•!The Acropolis is said to have the greatest concentration of human
creative genius than any other place and time in Western Civilization.!
21. Aerial view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece.
22. From below; Acropolis, Athens, Greece.
23. Figure 5-41 Model of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 1. Parthenon 2. Propylaia 3. Erechtheion 4. Temple of Athena Nike.
24. *Figure 5-42
Temple of Athena
Parthenos (view from
•!Finest white marble throughout, even on roof (not terracotta tiles as
was common to use at time). !
•!First temple to Athena, in Christian times dedicated to the Virgin
Mary, then in 1687 besieged by the Venetians when in Turkish
hands and a rocket made a direct hit on ammunition depot stored
inside, blew out the center of the building. Most of the colonnade
still standing, undergoing rebuilding currently. ! 24
25. The Parthenon
•! Earl of Elgin received permission to remove sculpture from
the Acropolis and Parthenon, sent by boat to England.
•! The first ship sank somewhere in 1801.
•! Marbles were sent back to decorate lavish mansion for himself
and his wife, now go by the name “The Elgin Marbles”.
•! Finally sold to the British Museum at low price in 1816.
•! Greek government has tried unsuccessfully to have them
returned, has opened museum with space specifically for
•! Often accused of stealing, but would almost certainly be ruined
otherwise due to pollution etc.
26. •!Reﬁnements to
compensate for optical
upward at center on
all four sides,
otherwise appear to
meet 1.5 miles
overhead) so roof Diagram of the Parthenon
doesn’t seem to
expand outward. !
•!Corner columns thicker and closer to the next columns: since
surrounded by light would otherwise appear thinner/weak. !
27. Figure 5-43 Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of sculptural program (after A. Stewart), 447–432
•!Ideal solution of perfect proportions of Doric temple. Length of
stylobate to width 9:4 ratio, also proportion of length to width of
cella, distance between center of one column drum to another,
diameter of columns, etc. !
•!Exterior Doric metopes, interior Ionic frieze. Mix shows leader of all
Greeks, continues mix throughout Acropolis.! 27
28. •!More lavishly decorated than any previous temples, each of 92 metopes
with reliefs, every inch of 524 foot long Ionic frieze. Pediments with
dozens of over-life sized statuary. !
29. Figure 5-46 Helios and his
horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?),
from the east pediment of the
Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens,
Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE.
Marble, greatest height approx. 4’
3”. British Museum, London.
Figure 5-47 Three goddesses (Hestia,
Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east
pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis,
Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE.
Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 5”.
British Museum, London.
•!Birth of Athena, spectators to left and right witness on Mt. Olympus.
Central ﬁgure probably Zeus with just-born Athena on right. !
•!Far left Helios (Apollo’s horse) pulling the chariot of the sun across
the sky. Right goddesses. Understanding anatomy and mechanics of
muscle and bone making body move, folds reveal and conceal. ! 29
30. •!Metopes show the
battle of the Lapiths
and Centaurs (reason
over passion). !
•!Centaur on hind legs
over defeated Greek,
relief so high parts
broken off. Heads
stand off more than
feet and background
slants in for easier
viewing from below.!
•!Full set shows battle
was difﬁcult, with a
with losses as well South side metopes, Parthenon, Athens, Greece
as victories. !
31. Figure 5-48 Details of the Panathenaic Festival procession frieze,
from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE.
Marble, approx. 3’ 6” high. Horsemen of north frieze (top), British
Museum, London; Acropolis Museum, Athens; and elders and
maidens of east frieze (bottom), Louvre, Paris.
•!Aphrodite draws attention of son
Eros to Athenians: like famous
people. Deities do not take part. !
•!Procession took place every 4 years, ﬁrst time human event worthy of
inclusion on Greek temple: shows high opinion of worth. !
•!Acceleration and deceleration: gathering people to youths mounting
horses, momentum picks up as enter Acropolis with chariots, musicians,
and animals. ! 31
32. •!Had real metal details: bronze bridles and bits on horse heads, and
was originally painted. North and south ends pick up momentum
heading to Acropolis, eventually come almost to halt. !
33. •!Phidias oversaw all
sculptural decorations. !
•!Created this statue of gold
and ivory, which the Parthenon
was designed around. !
•!Cella wider than usual to ﬁt:
made width of façade 8 rather
than 6 columns. !
•!Has shield, spear, helmet,
Nike (winged victory) in hand.!
•!Multiple allusions to Persian
defeat: soles of sandal show
centauromachy, exterior of
shield with battle of Greeks
over Amazons, interior painted
Figure 5-44 PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos, in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the
lost statue, which was approx. 38’ tall. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
34. •!As soon as
*Figure 5-49 MNESIKLES, Propylaia (view from the northeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 437–432 BCE.
•!Consideration for paths of chariots and animals of festival, sides of
main ramp for pedestrians.!
•!In Roman times had pinakotheke, ﬁrst recorded structure for display of
art. ! 34
35. *Figure 5-50 Erechtheion (view from the southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE.
•!Honored Athena, but incorporated shrines of other gods.!
•!4 sides each in different character, partly due to being built on
different ground levels. !
36. Figure 5-50 Alternate
Overall view of W front
with olive tree of Athena
•!Frieze originally had blue limestone background to contrast the white
•!Site chosen where contest took place between Athena and Poseidon to
rule Athens. Poseidon staked claim by striking Acropolis rock with his
trident and producing salt water spring, Athena caused olive tree to
grow. Still reminder of victor. ! 36
37. •!4 rooms, one with statue
of Erechtheus (legendary
king of Athens). !
•!One room dedicated to
Athena, one to Poseidon.!
older tomb, pre-existing
shrines, trident mark and
tree into single complex
on irregular terrain. !
Figure 5-51 Plan of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405
38. Figure 5-52
the south porch
BCE. Marble, 7’
7” high. British
•!Caryatids replace Ionic columns.!
•!Shows weight shift of living, but rigid to suggest
•!Each mirror image of other, capital over head
39. •!Amphiprostyle with
4 columns on east
and west ends. !
greeted all who
•!Gold statue of Nike
kept inside: other
gifts brought for her
placed inside too.!
•!Part of frieze shows
battle of Marathon
that turned the tide
*Figure 5-53 KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (view from the northeast),
human event, but Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE.
40. •!Sometimes shown with Persian
spoils or bringing sacriﬁcal bulls
to Athena. !
•!Here adjusting sandal: folds of
drapery, wings behind. !
•!Taking off sandal: holy ground
•!Made as Athens faced defeat in
Peloponnesian war. !
Figure 5-54 Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of
the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens,
Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, approx. 3’ 6” high. Acropolis
41. •!Dead either cremated or buried
and commemorated on a stele
(replaced Korai which had
replaced large pottery). !
•!Wealthy families show deceased
alive before architecture.!
•!Hegeso daughter of Proxenos,
name inscribed on cornice of
•!On elegant chair, footstool,
examining jewelry (once painted)
brought by servant who holds lid.!
•!Veil on womans’ head; shows
Figure 5-55 Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery,
Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5’ 2” high. National
Archaeological Museum, Athens.
42. Greek Painting
•! Paintings done on wooden panels (which have not survived) in
public buildings. The only way we can see artistic skill in painting now is
through ceramics work.
•! Leading painter of 1st half of the 5th century Polygnotos. Credit for
radically different style: so far all figures on common groundline, he uses
different levels suggested in tiers.
•! Extreme realism!! Fooled the eye: painting of horses which real horses
neighed at, painting of grapes by Zeuxis that birds flew into. Zeuxis
needed female model for Helen: used 5 different women: believed
perfection cannot exist in single object of all important parts.
•! Apelles: said to have surpassed all born before and after: would hide
while people viewed work, heard shoe maker remark on incorrect sandal
and fixed. He then remarked on the painting otherwise and was scolded
to stick to what he knew.
•! Judge viewing competing works: one grapes, the other a curtain which
he tried to pull back and reveal the work: was actually painted and won.42
•!In Greek graves as offering to deceased.!
•!Warrior leaving wife: interior of home
with scarf, mirror, jugs on wall. !
•!Going to war with helmet, shield, spear,
never to return.!
•!Eye on shield to ward off evil spirits and
frighten enemy like Medusa: rare attempt
to show in proﬁle, not frontal.!
•!Called white-ground technique, yellow
applied after ﬁring: unable to withstand
•!Impermanent: not for daily use. !
Figure 5-56 ACHILLES PAINTER, Warrior taking leave of his wife
(Attic white-ground lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. Approx.
1’ 5” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 43
44. •!Massacre of the Niobids
(boasted superior to Leto,
punished for arrogance…)!
•!In landscape on different
•!One boy’s face partially
hidden by rock, drawn in
" not attempted before. !
Figure 5-57 NIOBID PAINTER, Artemis and
Apollo slaying the children of Niobe (Attic red-figure
calyx krater), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE.
Approx. 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris. 44
45. Figure 5-59 Youth diving, painted ceiling of the Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 BCE. Approx. 3’ 4” high. Museo
Archeologico Nazionale, Paestum.
•!Mural painting: 4 walls of tomb decorated with banquet scenes.!
•!Ceiling block youth diving from stone platform into water: plunge
from this life into the next. !
46. Peloponnesian War, Alexander the Great
•! From 431-404, ended in complete defeat of Athens.
•! Middle of 4th century, Greek city-states to unite for defense, suffered
devastating loss; relinquish independence to Philip II of Macedon. Unified
Greek city states: assassinated two years later, succeeded by son Alexander.
•! Alexander 20 at succession, led Greek revenge on Persians, then conquered
Syria, Phonecia, occupied Egypt (recognized as the son of a god). Reached
Persepolis, and continued into India before troops refused to go further.
•! Died on the way home of Malaria at 33: followers spent 2 years making
funeral wagon, kept him in honey (preserves: keeps out oxygen) and began
procession to Macedonia 1500 miles west for burial.
•! General Ptolemy diverted to Alexandria: possession of corpse gave him
ruler status, founding Egypts’ Ptolemaic dynasty, continued until Cleopatra
•! Alexander most responsible for spread of Greek art in the ancient
world. 1st superstar: biography 200 years later “believe that there was… no
race of mankind, no city, no single individual to which the name of
Alexander had not reached.” 46
47. •!Praxiteles starts humanizing approach: loses
grandeur, takes on sensuousness. !
•!For city of Knidos: goddess heard of realism
and went, cried in shock “where did
Praxiteles see me naked!!”!
•!Visitors so overcome, lept to embrace,
Knidians so proud, placed in open shrine to
be viewed from any angle. !
•!Copies probably in hundreds, 50 survive.
Head Roman copy, body another. 17th and
18th century restorers added nose, neck, right
forearm and hand, most of left arm, feet, parts
of legs to make suitable for sale. Rarely done
•!More pronounced s-curve, emerging from
bath beside hydria, picking up clothes. !
*Figure 5-60 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of
•!Female canon introduced.! Knidos. Roman marble copy after an original
•!Not openly erotic: modestly shields pelvis.! of ca. 350–340 BCE. Approx. 6’ 8” high.
Vatican Museums, Rome. 47
48. •!Considered by Pliny “superior to all
the works, in the whole world”!
•!First work by well-known Greek
depicted nude (were usually
courtesans and slaves, not gods)!
Another copy of Aphrodite of Knidos!
49. •!Found in the temple of Hera, not
original (unﬁnished back, strut
•!Stopped to rest in forest along way,
leans on tree (here part of
composition, not marble afterthought)
in shallow S-curve.!
•!Dangles bunch of grapes (missing) to
tempt infant (who becomes Greek
god of wine)!
•!Compared to Doryphoros: hair not
symmetrical, change in attitude.!
Figure 5-62 PRAXITELES, Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from
the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Marble copy after an original
of ca. 340 BCE, approx. 7’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
50. •!Late Classical
humanizing gods and
heroes, intense emotion.!
•!Herakles with lion-skin
headdress, from battle
with Achilles. !
Figure 5-63 Head of Herakles or Telephos,
from the west pediment of the Temple of
Athena Alea, Tegea, Greece, ca. 340 BCE.
Marble, approx. 1’ 1/2” high. (Stolen from)
Archaeological Museum, Tegea.
51. •!More deeply carved, almost
•!Aged grieving father on right
(looks like Seer from
pediment), young man who
died on left. !
•!Distinction between living
and dead: dead looks out and
•!At bottom, hunting dog drops
ears, small boy sobbing
adding pathos. !
Figure 5-64 Grave stele of a young hunter, found near
the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE.
Marble, approx. 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological
Museum, Athens. 51
52. •!Lysippos introduces new canon: 1:8
ratio, bodies more slender, elongated
•!Athlete scraping oil off after exercise
with a strigil run along skin.!
•!Breaks frontality: encourages viewer
to look from all angles. Open legs,
outstretched arms !
•!Movement away from central
Figure 5-65 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman
marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, approx. 6’ 9”
high. Vatican Museums, Rome.
53. •!Most famous of
his marble copies. !
•!2 times life size,
Herakles placed to
coming to bath at
•!Weary: leans on
club for support.
Behind back holds
golden apples. !
•!Instead of joyful almost dejected, shows
pain and weariness: not reward of
Figure 5-66 LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles). Roman marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF
ATHENS, after a bronze original of ca. 320 BCE. Approx. 10 ‘ 5” high. Museo Nazionale, Naples. 53
54. •!Lysippos known for
monumental statue of Zeus,
became ofﬁcial court sculptor
to Alexander, most famous full
length nude bronze holding a
lance and looking skyward.!
•!One of several copies of
original head. !
•!Sharp turn of head, thick mane
of hair (Alexander known for),
deep set eyes and parted lips. !
•!On base inscribed: “I place the
earth under my sway; you, O
Zeus, keep Olympus.”!
Figure 5-67 Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella,
Greece, ca. 200–150 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ high.
Archaeological Museum, Pella.
55. •!From his time on, portraits of rulers on coins. !
•!Horn of Egyptian ram-god Amun.!
Two coins with head of Alexander the Great
56. •!Mosaics at Pella in homes of
the wealthy: at ﬁrst utilitarian
(inexpensive and durable
ﬂooring), patterns simple
geometric shapes, black and
white stones. Eventually
more complex scenes and
colors, tessare cut to shape.!
•!Signed “Gnosis made it”,
earliest mosaicist’s signature.!
•!Natural pebbles from
beaches and riverbanks set
into cement. !
•!Contour lines and some
details in thin strips of lead Figure 5-68 GNOSIS, Stag hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE.
Pebble mosaic, figural panel 10’ 2” high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
or terracotta. !
•!Modeled with shading: rare
on pottery. !
57. *Figure 5-69 PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of
the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8’ 10” X 16’ 9”. Museo Nazionale,
•!One of Alexander’s ﬁrst victories over the Persians versus Darius.!
•!Over 1.5 million tessare, on Pompeiian ﬂoor. !
•!Now has light!! Objects cast shadows, landscape with trees and sky. !57
58. •!Darius has called retreat, reaching
out as horses whip around. !
•!Fallen horse and soldier in front:
watching his death on his shield,
trying to block trampling. !
•!Radical foreshortening including
horse from rear, modeling of
shading on horses rump: very
effective, especially in mosaic! !
59. Detail: Alexander the
Great, Battle of Issus,
ca. 310 BCE. Roman
copy from the House
of the Faun, Pompeii,
Italy, late second or
early first century BCE.
•!Alexander on left with wavy hair, leading army into battle without
helmet. ! 59
•! Death of Alexander the Great brings the Hellenistic age: known
for being more realistic and emotional.
•! Range from 323 bce to 31 bce when Mark Antony and Cleopatra
are defeated in the battle of Actium and the kingdom is left to
•! Centers of culture were the court cities of Greek kings: Antioch
in Syria, Alexandria in Egypt, and Pergamon in Asia Minor.
61. Figure 5-75 Model
of the city of Priene,
century BCE and
•!Also razed Miletos: reconstructed by Hippodamos, father of grid city
planning (all streets meet at right angles). !
•!Separate quarters for public, private, and religious. !
•!Here Priene: less than 5,000 inhabitants, on sloping ground. North
/south nearly stairs in elevation. !
•!Center 6 blocks for Temple of Athena and theater. Bordered by stoas
housing shops and civic ofﬁces. ! 61
62. •!Also rationalized
with grid plan.
light and air,
drinking, cooking, Figure 5-76 Plan of House XXXII, Priene, Turkey, fourth century BCE.
•!Dining room with couches so men of house and male guests could
recline while eating. !
•!Exterior windows rare: most houses shared walls. !
63. •!Made by Attalids to embellish capital Pergamon.!
•!20 foot high podium: approached from the back and entered up stairs to
•!Altar framed by Ionic colonnade with projecting wings. !
•!Relief shows battle of gods led by Zeus against the giants (again, shows
victory over barbarians: alludes to 3rd century King Attalos I turning
back the Gauls). !
•!Most extensive representation attempted by Greeks, 400 feet long, 100
over life-size ﬁgures. Giants so big, only see torsos, reach out onto
Figure 5-78 Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 63
64. •!Zeus lunges with
aegis on left arm,
thunderbolt in right
•!Upper right: Artemis
in huntress tunic
walking on dead
giant, dog bites
snake tailed giant,
retaliates by gouging
out eye. !
mane mixes with
Detail of Altar of Zeus
65. Figure 5-79 Athena
detail of the
from the Altar of Zeus,
Marble, approx. 7’ 6”
high. Staatliche Museen,
•!Athena grabbing hair as Nike ﬂies in to crown and lend aid: earth
goddess Ge rises from ground on right in fear pleading for sons life to
•!Swirling drapery, wounded ﬁgures writhe in pain: faces reveal anguish.!
•!From Pergamon acropolis. !
•!Carefully studied Gauls: long bushy
hair, mustaches, torque neck ring
(Celtic battle dress) and trumpet. !
•! Driving sword into chest after having
killed wife: prefer suicide to surrender.
If wife captured, sold into slavery. !
Figure 5-80 EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from
Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome. 66
67. Figure 5-81 EPIGONOS(?), Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220
BCE, approx. 3’ 1/2” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
•!From same unit, trumpeter collapsed onto oval shield as blood pours
out side, staring at the ground. !
•!Taut chest, bulging veins shows how strong Attalids to be victorious.!
68. •!Masterpiece of
Hellenistic style. !
•!From sanctuary of
gods on island of
inhabitants set up to
•!Just landed on prow
of Greek warship:
balanced by wings. !
•!Once raised arm to crown victor. !
•!Placed in upper basin of fountain with large
boulders and ﬂowing water for allusion of
rushing waves against ship. Statue interacts
with environment. !
*Figure 5-82 Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace,
Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure approx. 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris. 68
69. •!Found on Melos,
inscribed base signed. !
•!More overtly sexual,
left hand held apple
when judged most
beautiful goddess. !
•!Right hand may have
held drapery to keep
from slipping off. !
Figure 5-83 ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER,
Aphrodite (Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble,
approx. 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris. 69
70. •!Aphrodite resisting advances by semi
-human/goat Pan (greek god of the
•!Defends with slipper while son Eros
ﬂies in to grab him by the horn and
protect his mother. !
•!Original owner paid to have the statue
erected in a businessmen’s clubhouse. !
Figure 5-84 Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan, from Delos, Greece, ca. 100
BCE. Marble, 4’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
71. •!Hellenistic ﬁrst to show
ﬁgures asleep, aged,
varied classes and social
•!In restless drunken sleep,
follower of Dionysis who
consumed too much wine. !
•!Asleep on panther skin
over rock. !
•!Men shown naked before,
not exuded sexuality: here
spread legs focus attention.!
•! Homosexuality common
in Greece: not surprising
contains sexual imagery in
men and women.!
Figure 5-85 Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from
Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, approx. 7’
1” high. Glyptothek, Munich.
72. •!Heavily battered and defeated,
punches from hands wrapped
in leather straps (caused serious
injury to opponent), has made
•!Smashed cauliﬂower ears cut
•!Ribs show age.!
•!Evokes compassion for hulk of
once mighty ﬁghter. !
Figure 5-86 Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100–50 BCE.
Bronze, approx. 4’ 2 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
73. •!Nose and teeth broken,
cheeks and forehead scarred,
copper blood drips from
forehead, nose, and cheeks.!
74. •!Bringing chicken and a basket of fruit to
sell in the market.!
•!Carries and works because she must:
interest in social realism. !
Figure 5-87 Old market woman, ca. 150–100 BCE. Marble, approx. 4’ 1/2”
high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
75. •!Was an opponent of Philip and Alexander,
inscription on base: “if your strength had
equaled your resolution, the Macedonian war
god would never had ruled the Greeks!”!
•!Political enemies had exiled, in end clear
would be captured by Macedonians: took own
life by drinking poison.!
•!Original bronze in Athenian agora 42 years
after his death. !
•!Frail man, enormous courage and moral
conviction. Stooped body, hands clasped,
looking down. Face lined and hair receding. !
•!Was a speech writer, had speech impediment
when younger: overcome by speaking with
marbles in his mouth and became great public
Figure 5-88 POLYEUKTOS, Demosthenes. Roman marble copy after a bronze
original of ca. 280 BCE. 6’ 7 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
76. •!In palace remains of
emperor Titus, found in
among other future
•!Made for Romans, not
•!Chosen by Trojans to
make offerings to
•!Strangling of Trojan
priest and two sons as
sacriﬁcing a bull at the
altar of Athena. !
•!Had offended Apollo by
marrying and fathering *Figure 5-89 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF
children and profaning RHODES,10 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. early first century CE Marble,
Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy,
image of god.!
77. •!Saw wooden horse on the beach
and denounced as a trick, hurled a
spear at its side and urged Trojans
not to allow into city walls. !
•!Trojans hesitant: Apollo sent 2 sea
serpents to punish for earlier
offense, crushed to death.!
•!Trojans thought sign of divine gift
and allowed in horse; were