7visit: www.exploreHR.orgSome people thrive on stressful situations,while others are overwhelmed by them. Whatis it that differentiates people in terms of theirability to handle stress?At least four variables — perception, jobexperience, social support, and belief inlocus of control — have been found to berelevant moderators.
8visit: www.exploreHR.orgRelevant Moderators• Perception• Job experience• Social Support• Belief in Locus of Control
9visit: www.exploreHR.orgPerceptionThe stress potential in environmental,organizational, and individual factors doesntlie in their objective condition. Rather, it lies inan employees interpretation of those factors.
10visit: www.exploreHR.orgJob ExperienceExperience is said to be a great teacher. Itcan also be a great stress-reducer.
11visit: www.exploreHR.orgSocial SupportThere is increasing evidence that socialsupport — that is, collegial relationships withco-workers or supervisors — can buffer theimpact of stress.
12visit: www.exploreHR.orgBelief in Locus of ControlThose with an internal locus of control believethey control their own destiny. Those with anexternal locus believe their lives arecontrolled by outside forces. Evidenceindicates that internals perceive their jobs tobe less stressful than do externals.
13visit: www.exploreHR.orgExperienceExperienceStressStressPhysiological Symptoms• Headaches• High blood presure• Heart DiseasePsychological Symptoms• Anxiety• Depression• Decrease in job satisfactionBehavioral symptoms• Productivity• Absenteeism• Turnover
15visit: www.exploreHR.orgIndividual ApproachesTime ManagementPhysical ExerciseRelaxation TrainingSocial Support
16visit: www.exploreHR.orgTime ManagementAn understanding and utilization ofbasic time management principlescan help individuals better copewith job demands.
17visit: www.exploreHR.orgPhysical ExerciseNoncompetitive physical exercisesuch as aerobics, race walking,jogging, swimming, and riding abicycle have long beenrecommended by physicians as away to deal with excessive stresslevels.
18visit: www.exploreHR.orgRelaxation TrainingIndividuals can teach themselves to relaxthrough techniques such as meditation,hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objectiveis to reach a state of deep relaxation,where one feels physically relaxed,somewhat detached from the immediateenvironment, and detached from bodysensations.
19visit: www.exploreHR.orgSocial SupportHaving friends, family, or workcolleagues to talk to provides an outletwhen stress levels become excessive.Expanding your social support network,therefore, can be a means for tensionreduction.
20visit: www.exploreHR.orgOrganizationalApproachesSelection and PlacementGoal SettingJob RedesignParticipative Decision MakingOrganizational CommunicationWellness Program
21visit: www.exploreHR.orgSelection & PlacementIndividuals with little experienceor an external locus of controltend to be more stress-prone.Selection and placement decisionsshould take these facts intoconsideration.
22visit: www.exploreHR.orgGoal SettingThe use of goals can reduce stress as wellas provide motivation. Specific goals thatare perceived as attainable clarifyperformance expectations. Additionally,goal feedback reduces uncertainties as toactual job performance. The result is lessemployee frustration, role ambiguity,and stress.
23visit: www.exploreHR.orgJob RedesignRedesigning jobs to give employeesmore responsibility, more meaningfulwork, more autonomy, and increasedfeedback can reduce stress, becausethese factors give the employee greatercontrol over work activities and lessendependence on others.
24visit: www.exploreHR.orgParticipative Decision MakingBy giving these employees a voice indecisions that directly affect their jobperformances, management canincrease employee control and reducethis role stress.
25visit: www.exploreHR.orgOrganizational CommitmentGiven the importance that perceptionsplay in moderating the stress-responserelationship, management can also useeffective communications as a means toshape employee perceptions.
26visit: www.exploreHR.orgWellness ProgramThese programs focus on theemployees total physical and mentalcondition. For example, they typicallyprovide workshops to help people quitsmoking, control alcohol use, loseweight, eat better, and develop a regularexercise program.
27visit: www.exploreHR.orgSource of Reference:Stephen Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice HallInternational