Reasons for Fitness Testing Identify the athlete’s capability to perform certain tasks Identify athlete’s strengths and weaknesses, which can be used to develop/evaluate a training program Tests should be re-tested every 8-12 weeks to give coach-athlete feedback (one-off testing is pointless) Testing can motivate athlete’s to strive for improvement in their fitness.Performance Evaluation Laboratory Tests; Assessment from expensive and sophisticated equipment in laboratories. Performed usually only at elite level (Sports institutes), but are very accurate (Eg. Maximal tests) Field Tests; Commonly carried out, as they are simple and results are instantaneous. Commonly carried out in individual and team sports to gauge ones fitness levels and can are specific to the fitness components required in particular sports.Maximal and Sub-maximal Testing
Direct and Indirect Testing There are two broad approaches to testing – direct, maximal testing and indirect sub-maximal testing. Each has its advantages and disadvantages Direct – lab equipment, HR monitor, etc Indirect predictive measures/ equations Direct testing tends to be confined to laboratories Indirect sub-maximal testing tends to be used most often because it is easy to administer, requires less expertise and requires minimal effort.
The Evaluation Process1. Select the fitness components to be tested (Via game analysis)2. Select a suitable fitness test*3. Collect the data scientifically4. Analyse the data to determine strengths and weaknesses5. Make decisions as to what to do with the test results6. Design a training program to work on an athletes weaknesses and maintain their strengths
Test Selection CriteriaEach fitness test should be: Relevant: Specific: Valid: Reliable:
Pre-testing proceduresThe following is a checklist of recommended procedures and precautions that should be followed before undertaking any form of fitness testing.• The individual should be fully informed and familiarised with the procedures and format of the test(s).• No food should be consumed immediately before the testing session. (approx 2hrs)• Appropriate clothing and footwear should be worn.• Heavy or intense exercise should be avoided on the day prior to testing.• The individual should give their consent andappropriate medical clearances should have been obtained.• Untrained individuals should work at maximum intensities for short periods only, and their responses should be closely monitored. This is to ensure that they do not injure themselves or run the risk of overtaxing themselves.
Standards and Norms Where available, an athlete may make use of ‘norms’ (standards that are ‘normal’ or typical for a group) but caution should be exercised in referring to these norms. Where norms are not available, the athlete should use personal bests (PB’s) as a guide.
Aerobic CapacityAerobic Capacity Copper’s 12 minute run Harvard Step Test Critical swim speed test 20m shuttle run test 1.6km jog test (1 mile)
Anaerobic CapacityThe two measures of anaerobic capacity includemeasurement of the capacity of the ATP–PC system and measurement of the capacity of the anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid) system. Tests to assess the capacity of the ATP–PC system need to include activities of short duration (0–10 seconds) and maximum intensity (100 per cent effort). Tests to measure the capacity of the anaerobic glycolysis system need to be performed at maximal or near-maxima intensity (95−100 per cent) and be sustained for a period of time between 30−90 seconds.
Anaerobic Capacity/Speed Phosphate recovery test Anaerobic sprint test (RAST) Repco peak power test Sprint standing starts 50m sprint test VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Muscular Endurance, Strength and PowerMuscular Endurance Muscular strength Sit ups Grip strength Push ups Core muscle strength Modified/pull ups Muscular Power Standing Long Jump Vertical Jump
FlexibilityFlexibility Sit and reach Shoulder & wrist elevation Trunk and neck extension Shoulder rotation Ankle extension / flexion Shoulder rotation VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
AgilityAgility Illinois agility test Semo agility test VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Body Composition BMI Skinfold test underwater weighing (hydrodensitometry), waist-to-hip ratio. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
FITNESS PROFILES ANDBATTERIESAssessment of Fitness
Fitness Profiles and Batteries Grouping of fitness tests targeted at particular groups eg. Schools. Battery tests provide a fitness profile for athletes Examples; ACHPER Australian Fitness Education Award, Sport Search Fitness Program Advantages; Reliable and valid, norm/criterion referenced standards (With percentiles and ratings), a final score is achieved. Disadvantages; Not sport specific.