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The Cytoskeleton
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The Cytoskeleton

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overview of cellular cytoskeleton

overview of cellular cytoskeleton

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The Cytoskeleton Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cellular Structural Support
  • 2.
    • a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
    Cytoskeleton
  • 3.
    • a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
    Cytoskeleton microtubules
  • 4.
    • a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
    Cytoskeleton microtubules intermediate filaments
  • 5.
    • a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
    Cytoskeleton microtubules intermediate filaments microfilaments
  • 6.
    • maintains shape of the cell.
    Some functions:
  • 7.
    • maintains shape of the cell.
    • provides anchorage for organelles and cytosolic enzymes
    Some functions:
  • 8.
    • maintains shape of the cell.
    • provides anchorage for organelles and cytosolic enzymes
    • provides tracks for movement of organelles
    Some functions:
  • 9. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 10.
    • cilia & flagella
    • centrioles
    Microtubules
  • 11. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 7.22 In animal cells, the centrosome has a pair of centrioles , consisting of microtubules arranged in a ring. During cell division the centrioles replicate.
  • 12.
    • Microtubules are the central structural supports in cilia and flagella .
    Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 7.2
  • 13.
    • A flagellum has an undulatory movement
    Fig. 7.23a
  • 14.
    • Cilia move more like oars
  • 15.
    • In spite of their differences, both cilia and flagella have the same ultrastructure.
      • Both have a core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane.
  • 16.
    • The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by the arms of a motor protein, dynein .
      • Addition to dynein of a phosphate group from ATP and its removal causes conformation changes in the protein.
      • Dynein arms alternately grab, move, and release the outer microtubules.
      • Protein cross-links limit sliding and the force is expressed as bending.
    Fig. 7.25
  • 17.
    • solid rods of protein called actin used in:
    Microfilaments Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 18.
    • solid rods of protein called actin used in:
    Microfilaments Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings muscle cell contraction
  • 19.
    • solid rods of protein called actin used in:
    Microfilaments Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings muscle cell contraction extension of pseudopodia
  • 20.
    • solid rods of protein called actin used in:
    Microfilaments Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings muscle cell contraction extension of pseudopodia cytoplasmic streaming
  • 21.
      • Myosin molecules walk along the actin filament, pulling stacks of actin fibers together and shortening the cell.
  • 22.
    • In other cells, these actin-myosin aggregates are less organized but still cause localized contraction.
      • A contracting belt of microfilaments divides the cytoplasm of animal cells during cell division.
      • Localized contraction also drives amoeboid movement.
        • Pseudopodia , cellular extensions, extend and contract through the reversible assembly and contraction of actin subunits into microfilaments.
    Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 7.21b
  • 23.
    • In plant cells actin-myosin interactions drive cytoplasmic streaming .
      • This creates a circular flow of cytoplasm in the cell.
      • This speeds the distribution of materials within the cell.