NOUNS A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Clarita de Ho Grammar II Professor: Ramón Guerra Universidad Latina de Panamá
A PERSON Teacher Wizard Nurse Fireman Grandma
A PLACE School Restaurant Church Hospital Museum Park
A THING Flute Wallet Canoe AN ANIMAL Koala Penguin Dolphin
Common Nouns and Proper Nouns •A noun that names any person, place, or thing is a common noun. •A noun that names a particular person, place, or thing is a proper noun.
COMMON NOUNS Cake Plumber Trump Ocean Club, Panama , Republic of Panama Jaguar Money President Barak Obama Universidad Latina PROPER NOUNS
Noun Plurals Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding "-s" or "-es", as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences: When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished. Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident. As they walked through the silent house, they were startled by an unexpected echo. I like to shout into the quarry and listen to the echoes that return. He tripped over a box left carelessly in the hallway. Since we are moving, we will need many boxes.
Noun Plurals There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding "s". Some words ending in "f" form the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves," and words ending in "y" form the plural by deleting the "y" and adding "ies," as in the following pairs of sentences: The harbour at Marble Mountain has one wharf. There are several wharves in Halifax Harbour. Warsaw is their favourite city because it reminds them of their courtship. The vacation my grandparents won includes trips to twelve European cities. The children circled around the headmaster and shouted, "Are you a mouse or a man?" The audience was shocked when all five men admitted that they were afraid of mice.
The Collective Noun Recognize a collective noun when you see one. Nounsname people, places, and things. Collective nouns, a special class, name groups [things] composed of members [usually people]. Check out the chart below:
Use correct verbs and pronouns with collective nouns. 1. Every afternoon the baseball team follows its coach out to the hot field for practice. Team = singular; follows = a singular verb; its = a singular pronoun. All members of the team arrive at the same place at the same time. 2. Today, Dr. Ribley's class takes its first 100-item exam. Class = singular; takes = a singular verb; its = a singular pronoun. All members of the class are testing at the same time. 3. The jury agrees that the state prosecutors did not provide enough evidence, so its verdict is not guilty. Jury = singular; agrees = a singular verb; its = a singular pronoun. All members of the jury are thinking the same way.
Compound Noun A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns in English are formed by nouns modified by other nouns or adjectives. For example: The words tooth and paste are each nouns in their own right, but if you join them together they form a new word - toothpaste. The word black is an adjective and board is a noun, but if you join them together they form a new word - blackboard. In both these example the first word modifies or describes the second word, telling us what kind of object or person it is, or what its purpose is. And the second part identifies the object or person in question.
Compound nouns can also be formed using the following combinations of words:
The two parts may be written in a number of ways: Sometimes the two words are joined together.Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom 2. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen. Example: check-in 3. Sometimes they appear as two separate words. Example: full moon
Concrete Nouns A concrete noun is the name of something or someone that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste. Most nouns are concrete nouns. The opposite of a concrete noun is an abstract noun. For example: Cats, dogs, tables, chairs, buses, and teachers are all concrete nouns. Ice cream, for example, is a concrete noun. You can see the pink. You can taste the berry flavor. You can feel your tongue growing numb from the cold. Any noun that you can experience with at least one of your five senses is a concrete noun.
Abstract Nouns Don't confuse a concrete noun with an abstract noun. Not all nouns are concrete. A second class of nouns is abstract. You cannot experience abstract nouns with your senses. Read this example: Diane pushed Reliable off her lap to register her disapproval. Disapproval is an example of an abstract noun. What color is disapproval? You don't know because you cannot see it. What texture is disapproval? Who knows? You cannot touch it. What flavor is disapproval? No clue! You cannot taste it! Does it make a sound? Of course not! Does it smell? Not a bit! Look over this chart contrasting concrete and abstract nouns:
PossesiveNouns In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter "s.“ You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and "s," as in the following sentences: The red suitcase is Cassandra's. The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister's. The miner's face was covered in coal dust.
Possesive Nouns You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and a "s," as in the following examples: The children's mittens were scattered on the floor of the porch. The sheep's pen was mucked out every day. Since we have a complex appeal process, a jury's verdict is not always final. The men's hockey team will be playing as soon as the women's team is finished. The hunter followed the moose's trail all morning but lost it in the afternoon.
PossesiveNouns You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in "s" by adding an apostrophe: The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. The janitors' room is downstairs and to the left. My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels' nest. The archivist quickly finished repairing the diaries' bindings. Religion is usually the subject of the roommates' many late night debates.