Primary, Secondary & Tertiary• Primary – original materials • Diaries • Letters • Photographs• Secondary – accounts after the fact • Biographical works • Criticism • Journal articles• Tertiary – distillation and collection of primary and secondary • Almanacs • Chronologies • Encyclopedias
Periodicals• MAGAZINES • JOURNALS • Popular Info • Scholarly Info • Audience: • Audience: • General Public • Researcher • Casual Reader • Professional Who Needs to • Purpose: Stay Up-to-Date • Hobby • Purpose: • Pleasure • Goal-Driven • Curiosity • Research Paper • Certification, Tenure • Job Requirement
Timeframe for Info• Books • Once• Articles • Quarterly – Weekly• Newspapers • Daily – Multiple Ed.• Web Pages • Hourly – Anytime Books Newspapers Periodicals Years Old Databases Internet 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Refine the Information Need• Brainstorm ideas • Talk to friends; browse web; read newspaper• Identify main topic and related concepts • Use a thesaurus; break down by subtopic• Put it all together • Develop a search strategy
Identifying Keywords• Take your topic and make it a question…• Now in that question identify the significant terms in your question.• These terms are the keywords you will use to search for sources.
Search terms Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3Main idea Related idea Subtopic OR OR OR AND ANDSynonym Synonym Synonym OR OR ORSynonym Synonym Synonym • Use ― ― or ( ) to keep words together & in order • Connect different concepts with AND • Connect similar concepts with OR
Boolean Operators AND is• AND = narrow automatically used by Google and other search engines to combine• OR = expand terms Sometimes a• NOT = exclude program will use a + or – to substitute for AND or NOT
Tips and Tricks for better Searching • Don’t type in your • Truncation (*) question: • comput* finds computer • Use Boolean Operators or computing with keywords • Use keyword phrases with ―‖ or () • Proximity • N= near regardless of order • Wildcard (? or #) • tax N5 reform finds tax reform as well as reform • ne?t finds of income tax neat, nest, next • W= in the order they • colo#r finds color or were entered colour • tax W8 reform finds tax reform but not reform of income tax
Finding Articles• Use GALILEO to access databases• Use your SWAN credentials to log into Galileo from off campus
1. Type in Keywords in the boxes… Notice the operators2. Limiters a) Full text b) Scholarly c) Date
Citing Resources• After you have your sources… you need to cite them…
MLA Citations• The first author’s name is inverted and all other names are in normal order.• In titles of works, all words are capitalized except articles (a, an, the), prepositions (to, from, between, and so on), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet), and the to in infinitives — unless they are the first or last word of the title or subtitle.• Titles of periodical articles and other short works, such as brief documents from Web sites, are put in quotation marks; titles of books and other long works, such as entire Web sites, are italicized.• The city of publication is given without a state name.• Publishers’ names are shortened, usually to the first principal word (―Wiley‖ for ―John Wiley and Sons,‖ for instance), and ―University‖ and ―Press‖ are abbreviated ―U‖ and ―P‖ in the names of university publishers: UP of Florida.• The date of publication is the date on the title page or the most recent date on the copyright page.• All works cited entries must include the medium in which a work was published, produced, or delivered. The medium usually appears at the end of the entry, capitalized but neither italicized nor in quotation marks. Typical designations for the medium are ―Print,‖ ―Web,‖ ―Radio,‖ ―Television,‖ ―CD,‖ ―Audiocassette,‖ ―Film,‖ ―Videocassette,‖ ―DVD,‖ ―Pho-tograph,‖ ―Performance,‖ ―Lecture,‖ ―MP3 file,‖ and ―PDF file.‖ (See specific items throughout this section.)
Basic Book ExampleMLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Mod. Lang. Assn., 2009. Print.Last name, first name. Book title. City of publication: publisher, publication date. Medium.
Online Article ExampleSmall, Henry. ―Referencing Through History: How the Analysis of Landmark Scholarly Texts Can Inform Citation Theory.‖ Research Evaluation 19.3 (2010): 185-193. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Feb. 2011.Last name, first name. ―Article Title.‖ Journal Title Vol.Iss (Year): Pages. Database. Medium. Date of Access.