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A Web-scale discovery service (discovery service, for short) is a new service that may realize the discovery and delivery of high-quality information in the library. A discovery service is composed of a unified index and a discovery layer. The unified index pre-harvests and pre-indexes a variety of information resources, including the MARC records created by the library, the metadata of the institutional repository or digital content management system of the library, the metadata and full-text (for indexing) of the databases and electronic journals subscribed by the library, and the metadata and full-text (for indexing) of open-access systems. A user can then search the contents in the unified index through the discovery layer. The discovery layer incorporates functionality such as relevance ranking, facet navigation, personalized service and social networking service. This article aims at explicating the features of a discovery service, and draw the functionality indicators that may be adopted and(or) amended by any library which wants to purchase a discovery service.

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  • 1. Exploring Functionality Indicators for Web-Scale Discovery Service 資源探索服務之功能評估指標 柯皓仁 Hao-Ren Ke 國立臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學研究所 Graduate Institute of Library and Information Studies, National Taiwan Normal University 1
  • 2. OutlineIntroductionCentral IndexDiscovery LayerWSD Evaluation CriteriaConclusion 2
  • 4. IntroductionElectronic resources and materialsexpenditure soarsUsers choose search engines as their “portal”for information One stop service Simple search interface Enormous and diverse information in one system The principle of least effort  Quality vs. availability 4
  • 5. ARL圖書資料總經費與電子資源經費 平均成長幅度 5
  • 6. Electronic Resources and Materials Expenditures in ARL University Libraries, 1992-2010 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10a. Computer File Expenditures (monographic/onetime)Total $48,793,981 $59,808,658 $73,102,024 69,148,203 78,775,329Average $478,372 $558,959 $676,574 628,620 709,688Median $336,338 $352,802 $410,202 363,746 511,334N 102 107 108 110 111b. Electronic Serial ExpendituresTotal $383,127,163 $476,225,086 $554,637,844 637,458,376 714,622,502Average $3,547,474 $4,290,316 $5,042,162 5,691,593 6,268,618Median $3,349,709 $4,240,530 $4,899,366 5,337,237 6,044,532N 108 111 110 112 114c. Total Electronic Resources (Total a+b)Total $431,921,144 $536,033,744 $627,707,869 706,606,579 793,397,831Average $3,962,579 $4,786,016 $5,655,026 6,253,156 6,959,630Median $3,792,873 $4,661,123 $5,410,421 5,854,147 6,689,378N 109 112 111 113 114Total Library Materials Expenditures** 1,315,122,261Total 1,109,340,878 1,213,082,871 1,279,690,962 1,335,309,871 11,638,250Average 10,177,439 10,831,097 11,528,747 11,713,244 10,364,778Median 9,156,974 9,597,677 10,416,077 10,529,327N 109 112 111 113 114Electronic Resources Expenditures as a Percent of TotalMaterials ExpendituresAverage 40.93 46.55 51.46 56.33 62.24Median 43.14 47.68 53.06 57.03 62.70N 109 112 111 113 114Expenditures for Bibliographic Utilities, Networks, etc. (External)Total $15,930,476 $18,931,797 $21,079,241 21,695,047 22,546,140Average $318,610 $225,379 $242,290 235,816 230,063Median $143,649 $33,247 $54,750 44,745 19,326N 50 84 87 92 98 6
  • 7. Discovery and DeliveryDiscovery – let me find relevant information Bibliographic information, citation metadata, subject descriptor, (author) keywords, (author) abstract, full-text indexing OPAC, A&I databases, citation databasesDelivery – let me GET the information I find Physical information – Book shelves, ILL Electronic information – E-journal systems, Aggregator databases, ILLONE-STOP SERVICE? 7
  • 8. Discovery and Delivery ToolsWebOPAC + 856A-Z database / e-journal listFeberated search systemOpenURL Link ResolverONE-STOP SERVICE? 8
  • 9. Federated Search Metasearch, parallel search, federated search, broadcast search, cross-database search, search portal Allows search and retrieval to cross multiple databases, sources, platforms, protocols, and vendors at once Unified UI Broker/Agent/Value-added ServiceElectronic Resource 1 Electronic Resource 2 Electronic Resource 3 9
  • 10. Complaint about Federated SearchComplicated interface Which databases can be crossly searched? Max. number of databases to be crossly searchedSlow response time (or connection timeout) –distributed search on-the flyPoor relevant rankingPoor de-duplication 10
  • 11. Web-Scale Discovery ServiceSuperstar for one-stop service in the library ?Google can. WE can too. (Ah, who are “we”?)Web-scale discovery (WSD) service Google(-scholar)-like one-stop service, simple search (discovery) interface, excellent relevance ranking, effective information delivery Two important characteristics  Pre-harvested central index  Discovery layer 11
  • 12. WSD ProductsInnovative Interfaces Encore SynergyEBSCO Discovery ServicesEx Libris Primo CentralOCLC WorldCat LocalSerials Solution Summon 12
  • 13. Proclamation 13
  • 14. Sites Used for TestingEBSCO Discovery Services (EDS) 澳門科技大學圖書館 臺灣師範大學圖書館Ex Libris Primo Central (and Primo) 交通大學圖書館Serials Solution Summon 中央研究院 Due to user authentication, I may not discover all the functions in a system. 14
  • 15. CENTRAL INDEX 15
  • 16. Pre-harvested central IndexThe central index periodically pre-harvestsmetadata and full-texts from variousinformation sources, normalizes them into aunified schema, and uses the techniques ofinformation retrieval for indexing The contents harvested into the central index comprise the contents that can be discovered from a Web-scale discovery service Information sources  Local collection  Global resources 16
  • 17. Pre-harvested central Index Physical Holdings (ILS) Institutional A&I DB Citation DB Repository (IR) E-Journals E-Books DA IR Digital Archives (DA) Lib Collections … Various CMSs Local collection Global resources Pre-harvested central Index 17
  • 18. Information Sources of the central Index (CI)Library supplied data MARC records from ILS Metadata records from IRs, DAs, and CMSsOpen access data, e-Prints, Hindawi Publishing, DOAJPublisher metadata and full textWSD-licensed materialMutually licensed material Ask WSD vendors to give you an overlapping report (Hoeppner, 2012) 18
  • 19. Metadata and Full Text in CIMetadata types MARC, Dublin core, EAD Generic XMLLevels of metadata Citation metadata: identifier, contributor, title, date, edition, place published, publisher, URL, context Subject descriptors (Author-supplied) keywords and abstracts Full text  Full texts are used for (full-text) indexing/search 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. De-Duplication Strategy? 21
  • 22. Factors Affecting the Content Available to MY LibraryThe five types of content in CIHow many contents subscribed by MY libraryare covered by CIDoes MY library want users to DISCOVERany contents that are not subscribed Difficult to DELIVERY? Use OpenURL LinkResolver to connect to NDDS or Rapid ILL? (Hoeppner, 2012) 22
  • 23. Watch Out! Coverage!A WSD vendor may claim its contentscovering X% of the contents in Y database The WSD vendor may negotiate with a publisher directly to license the publisher’s contentsDo you appreciate the value-added processconducted by the vendor of Y? Levels of metadataSo… can MY library cancel Y? Some WSD service may recommend databases according to a user’s query 23
  • 24. Steps for Importing Library Supplied Data into CIData mapping: MARC  WSD schema Flexible MARC mapping mechanism Search and display fields CMARC, US-MARC , MARC21 to WSD schema? How to markup NEW, DELETE, UPDATE records?Data extraction (Daniels & Roth, 2012) OAI-PMH? FTP? Automated process? Frequency? De-duplication? Report? Metadata quality is essentialVerification Integrate the verification process into daily routine 24
  • 25. Data Mapping Worksheet (Daniels & Roth, 2012) 25
  • 26. Record Coding SystemRecord code Match on MARC ID ActionN or D YES Remove record from CIX or - YES Update record in CIN or D NO Don’t add record to CIX or - NO Add record to CI• N = suppressed from public view• D = record ready for delete• X = available for public view• - = available for public view (Daniels & Roth, 2012) 26
  • 28. Discovery LayerThe user interface and search system fordiscovering, displaying, and interacting withthe content in library systems, such as a WSDcentral indexFunctionality Google-like simple search and advanced search Query refinement and faceted browsing Relevance ranking Display and delivery Branding and customization Personalized and community service 28
  • 29. Google-like Simple Search and Advanced SearchQuery fieldsBoolean logic, relationlogic, truncation, wildcardsContain, equal to, start withPhrase, adjacent, stopwordsSpelling suggestion / do you mean?Integration with Federated Search SystemCan the search box be embedded into libraryweb sites, LCMSs, subject guides? 29
  • 30. Google-like Simple Search 30
  • 31. Advanced Search 31
  • 32. Visual Search 32
  • 33. Why Federated Search System? Physical Holdings (ILS) Institutional A&I DB Citation DB Repository (IR) E-Journals E-Books DA IR Digital Archives (DA) Lib Collections … Various CMSs Local collection Global resources Pre-harvested central Index 33
  • 34. Integration with Federated Search System 34
  • 35. Result DisplayBrief / detail viewQuery-term highlightingMaterial-type-specific iconsCover imagesFull-text-available highlightingMaterial-type-specific metadataILS integrationFull-text downloading (directly or thoughOpenURL Link Resolver) 35
  • 36. ILS Integration 36
  • 37. Search History and Result ExportSearch history Result export Query strategies of Mark and save search current session results Query strategies Print, email, and combination search results Query strategy Export search results modification to bibliographic Save query strategies management software Create SDI from Support APA, MLA, query strategies Chicago 37
  • 38. Search History and Result Export 38
  • 39. Query Refinement and Faceted Browsing 39
  • 40. Relevance RankingTF*IDF Term frequency * Inverse Document FrequencyOccurrence of query terms in importantmetadata fieldsAdjacency of query terms in metadata/full textCurrency of informationType-specific parametersIncrease the ranking of library-supplied data 40
  • 41. Branding and CustomizationTemplateHeader/footer customization: naming, logo,hyperlinksColor schemeCustomize interfaces for different group ofusersProvide API/Web services for customizationWidgetValue-added contents (Google Books Preview,Amazon…) 41
  • 42. Branding and Customization (Cont.) 42
  • 43. Personalized ServicesIntegrate with library’s authenticationmechanism (EzProxy, LDAP, ILS…)Personalized page layoutSave querySelective Dissemination of Information (SDI)Integrate with the personalized service of ILS 43
  • 44. Community ServicesReview / commentTaggingShare with social networks (Facebook, Twitter)Share with social bookmarks (Delicious,Connotea) 44
  • 45. User Authentication and Result Display 45
  • 46. User Authentication and Result Display (Cont.) 46
  • 47. Integrate with the Personalized Service of ILS 47
  • 49. Central IndexScope and depth of content being indexed,including CHINESE contentFitness of content being indexed with therequirement of MY libraryLicense between WSD and publishers,database vendors, aggregatorsRichness and consistency of metadataincluded in CIFrequency of content updatesEase of incorporating local content 49
  • 50. Discovery LayerUsability of discovery layerSimple and ease-of-use query interfaceQuality of query results (like relevanceranking)Customization of query and relevance rankingQuery refinement and faceted navigationIntegration with the library’s existing systemsNew user environment support (like mobileWSD and community services) 50
  • 51. Fitness with the LibraryEase of implementationCompatibility with existing software andcontentResponse speed for user requirements andproblemsMid- and long-term development planOverall evaluation about the vendor 51
  • 52. Pricing and Implementation ModelPurchase or subscriptionLocal implementation or cloud service (SaaS)Pricing model (FTE, size of library supplieddata…)Maintenance or subscription fee 52
  • 53. CONCLUSION 53
  • 54. 54
  • 55. ReferenceARL (n.d.). Electronic Resources and Materials Expenditures in ARL University Libraries, 1992-2010. Retrieved from Citation of datasets and collections. Retrieved from, M. (2011). Automation marketplace 2011: The new frontier. Library Journal, 136(6). Retrieved rom, J. & Roth, P. (2012). Incorporating Millennium catalog records into Serials Solutions Summon. TechnicalServices Quarterly, 29, 193-199.Gross, J. & Sheridan, L. (2011). Web scale discovery: the user experience. New Library World, 12(5/6), 236-247.Hoeppner, A. (2012). The ins and outs of evaluating Web-scale discovery services. Computers in Libraries, 32(3), 6-10,38-40.Luther, J. & Kelly, M. C. (2011). The next generation of discovery. Library Journal, 136(5), 66-71. Retrieved from, C. D., Raghavan, P., and Schutze, H. (2008). Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge UniversityPress.Miller, P. (2006). Library 2.0: The challenge of disruptive innovation. Retrieved from (2005). Perceptions of library and information resources. Retrieved from, J. (2011). Web scale discovery services. Library Technology Reports, 47(1).柯皓仁(2011)。圖書館自動化與數位化—綜述。中華民國一百年圖書館年鑑。頁157-164。黃明居(2011)。圖書館自動化與數位化—次世代圖書館館藏整合查詢系統。中華民國一百年圖書館年鑑。頁164-166。黃鴻珠(2011)。大專校院圖書館—綜述。中華民國一百年圖書館年鑑。頁95-108。麥綺雯(2012)。如何挑選合適的探索工具—香港教育學院圖書館的經驗分享。2012年第十一屆海峽兩岸圖書資訊學學術研討會論文集A輯(頁295-306)。 55