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Generalities for your
To keep in mind!
A reflective practitioner considers the immediate
and long-term consequences of all educational
decisions with the goal of constant refinement of
the teaching/learning process.
A reflective practitioner uses reflection in, on and
In: during practice, what is working and why
On: after practice, what worked and why
For: before practice, what should work and
WHAT TO REFLECT ABOUT?
There are three main pieces:
• elements of the learning environment
• essential dilemmas of education
decision making process
Educational Problems & Dilemmas
Problems - clear, if difficult, solutions
Dilemmas - values and needs in conflict with
no single best answer
Grouping dilemma issues (examples)
•What is important to know?
•Who controls time in class?
• Should schools transmit culture or
•Is it more important to know or to
•Who sets standards in class?
•Personally meaningful or publically
•For what are schools (vs the
parents vs the community)
•How should resources be
•Should childhood be different than
What to ask
Moving steadily from practice to reflection and back to
improve both reflection and practice requires tools – the
conceptual framework is one such tool
Each piece (element, essential dilemmas, and decisionmaking process) is designed to foster reflection,
NOT to determine the answer!
classroom project will help you learn
about teaching, things are not going to be
a plan B
planning will make your project more
Feedback on proposed activities
1. Recycle language.
2. Teach your topic within a context. (avoid teaching isolated words)
4. Learn from others and from your own experience.
5. Integrate the skills in your lessons.
6. Have real anticipated problems and anticipated solutions.
7. Stages of the lesson: socioconstructivism approach: scaffolding,
modeling, exploring ideas.
8. Consider “Bloom's taxonomy”.
1. Supplement activities
with visuals, realia, and
As Scott and Ytreberg (1990)
describe, “Their own understanding
comes through hands and eyes and
ears. The physical world is dominant
at all times.”
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a method
developed by Dr. James J. Asher, a professor
emeritus of psychology at Sa José State
University, to aid learning second languages.
2. Involve students in
making visuals and
Students draw different characters for a
story or make puppets, masks, play-do
Collaborate with the art teacher to make the
visuals you need for you activities.
Students contribute their own toys for the
A thematic unit, a series of
lessons on the same topic or
subject, can create broader
contexts in which to teach
language, recycle language
from lesson to lesson.
Use stories and
All learners, from babies to grandmothers,
learn better with stories.
Stories are energizers.
Even hard truths can be taught through
Stories told and read at home and school
both entertain and educate young learners.
1. Structure your reflection: focus on one idea and
develop the idea. Consider the structure of an essay so
the message can be conveyed more easily.
2. Punctuation: Use capital letters, remember that
punctuation helps the reader read the text fluently.
3. Avoid ambiguity:
4. Don't write long sentences or long paragraphs:
5. Remember that reflections will be handed in to your
advisor, he/she will guide you in the writing of your final
report, so the final
6. Elaborate on citations: make the most out of citations
and authors you include in reflection.